Human trafficking and exploitation: guidance for health workers

Advice how to recognise and help victims of human trafficking and exploitation.


1. Scottish Government. Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy. 2017.

2. Scottish Government. Inter-Agency Guidance for Child Trafficking: Child Trafficking Assessment National Referral Mechanism. 2013.

3. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Guidance Note on 'abuse of a position of vulnerability' as a means of trafficking in persons in Article 3 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. 2012.

4. International Labour Organization. Global estimates of modern slavery: Forced labour and forced marriage. 2017.

5. Home Office. Report of the inter-departmental ministerial group on modern slavery 2016.

6. National Crime Agency: Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking

7. National Crime Agency. Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking: National Referral Mechanism Statistics End of Year Summary 2018

8. Raghavan C, Doychak K. Trauma-coerced bonding and victims of sex trafficking: where do we go from here. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience 2015;17(2):583-587.

9. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2018

10. Zimmerman C, Borland R. Caring for trafficked persons: guidance for health providers. International Organization for Migration 2009.

11. ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics (ICD-11 MMS) 2018 version. Complex post traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD)

12. Hopper EK, Gonzalez LD. A comparison of psychological symptoms in survivors of sex and labor trafficking. Behavioural Medicine; Washington Vol 44, Iss 3 Jul/Sep 2018: 177-188

13. Oram S, Abas M, Bick D, Boyle A, French R, et al. Human trafficking and health: a survey of male and female survivors in England. American Journal of Public Health; Washington Vol 106, Iss 6, Jun 2016: 1073-1078

14. Abas M, Ostrovschi NV, Prince M, Gorceag VI, Trigub C, Oram S. Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study. BMC Psychiatry 2013;13(1):204.

15. Oram S, Khondoker M, Abas M, Broadbent M, Howard LM. Characteristics of trafficked adults and children with severe mental illness: a historical cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry 2015;2(12):1084-1091.

16. Zimmerman C, Hossain M, Yun K, Gajdadziev V, Guzun N, Tchomarova M, et al. The health of trafficked women: a survey of women entering posttrafficking services in Europe. Am J Public Health 2008;98(1):55-59.

17. Ottisova L, Hemmings S, Howard L, Zimmerman C, Oram S. Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: an updated systematic review. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences 2016;25(4):317-341.

18. Brotherton V. Time to Deliver: Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK's response to human trafficking. 2016.

19. Home Office. National Referral Mechanism guidance for Scotland; Available at:

20. Smith G. Human trafficking and exploitation (Scotland) act 2015: March 2018 circular. The Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015 (Support For Victims) Regulations 2018. 2018.

21. Home Office. Review of the National Referral Mechanism for victims of human trafficking. 2014.

22. Scottish Government. Chief Executive's Letter _09 (2010). Overseas Visitors' Liability to Pay Charges for NHS Care and Services. 2010.

23. Zimmerman C, Hossain M, Watts C. Human trafficking and health: A conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research. Soc Sci Med 2011;73(2):327-335.

24. Hemmings S, Jakobowitz S, Abas M, Bick D, Howard LM, Stanley N, et al. Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: a systematic review. BMC health services research 2016;16(1):320.

25. Department of Health. Identifying and supporting victims of modern slavery: guidance for health staff. 2015.

26. Scottish Government. Chief Executive's Letter _13 (2008). Information Sharing between NHSScotland and the Police. 2008.



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