Publication - Research and analysis

Healthy Attendance? The Impact of Cultural Engagement and Sports Participation on Health and Satisfaction with Life in Scotland

Published: 19 Aug 2013
ISBN:
9781782567905

Data from the Scottish Household Survey 2011 has been used to statistically explore the relationship between taking part in cultural and sporting activities, attending cultural places and key quality of life measures in Scotland. This report presents the findings of the analysis of this relationship.

Healthy Attendance? The Impact of Cultural Engagement and Sports Participation on Health and Satisfaction with Life in Scotland
6. Technical Annex

6. Technical Annex

A) Description of outcome and control variables in the models

A1) Existing SHS variables used in the models

Outcome variables
Shs variable name Description Response
Genhlth Self-rated health (1) very good
(2) good
(3) fair
(4) bad
(5) very bad
Lifesat Life satisfaction (1) extremely unsatisfied
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10) extremely satisfied
Control variables
Ha5 Age (1) 15-19
(2) 20-24
(3) 25-29
(4) 30-34
(5) 35-39
(6) 40-44
(7) 45-49
(8) 50-54
(9) 55-59
(10) 60-64
(11) 65-69
(12) 70-74
(13) 75-79
(14) 80+
Md09quin Area deprivation quintile (1) 1st (most deprived)
(2) 2nd
(3) 3rd
(4) 4th
(5) 5th (least deprived)
Hedqual8 Highest education qualification (1) o' level, standard grade or equivalent
(2) higher, a level or equivalent
(3) hnc/hnd or equivalent
(4) degree, professional qualification
(5) other qualification
(6) no qualification
(7) qualification not known
Hihecon Household economic status (1) self-employed
(2) employed full time
(3) employed part time
(4) looking after the home or family
(5) permanently retired from work
(6) unemployed and seeking work
(7) at school
(8) in further/higher education
(9) government work/ training scheme
(10) permanently sick or disabled
(11) unable to work due to short-term illness or injury
(12) pre-school/not yet at school
(13) other (specify)
Ragrband Banded annual gross income (1) £5,200 and up to £10,399
(20 £10,400 and up to £15,599
(3) £15,600 and up to £20,799
(4) £20,800 and up to £25,999
(5) £26,000 and up to £31,199
(6) £31,200 and up to £36,399
(7) £36,400 and up to £51,999
(8) £52,000 and above
Rg5 Disability or long standing illness (1) long standing illness
(2) disability
(3) both
(4) none
Rg19 Smoke (1) yes
(2) no

A2) Derived SHS variables used in the model

Derived variable Derived variable name Original variable New response categories
Hlthcat Good health Genhlth
Fair/bad/very bad (0) no
Good/ very good (1) yes
Lifecat Satisfied with life Lifesat
≤ 6 (0) no
>6 (1) yes
Rg5cat No disability or illness Rg5
Illness/ disability/ both (0) no
None (1) yes
Ha5cat Banded age recoded Ha5 (1) 16-24
(2) 25-34
(3) 35-44
(4) 45-54
(5) 55-64
(6) 65-74
(70 75+

B) Description of cultural and physical activities variables in the models

B1)List of cultural and physical activities variables

Cultural participation
CULT1AA Dance
CULT1AB Played instrument/written music
CULT1AC Performance with audience
CULT1AD Art/sculpture
CULT1AE Photography
CULT1AF Film/video
CULT1AG Computer artworks/animation
CULT1AH Crafts
CULT1AI Read for pleasure
CULT1AJ Creative writing
CULT1AK Other culture
CULT1AL None participated in
Cultural attendance
CULT2AA Cinema
CULT2AB Exhibition/ collection of art
CULT2AC Craft exhibition
CULT2AD Books or writing event
CULT2AE Street arts
CULT2AF Culturally specific festival
CULT2AG Play/ theatrical performance
CULT2AH Opera/ classical music performance
CULT2AI Live music event
CULT2AJ Ballet/ dance
CULT2AK Library
CULT2AL Archive/ records office
CULT2AM Museum
CULT2AN Gallery
CULT2AO Historical/ archaeological place
CULT2AP Visited none
Sport participation
SPR3A Walking (at least 30 minutes for recreational purposes)
SPR3B Swimming
SPR3C Football
SPR3D Cycling (at least 30 minutes for recreational, health, training or competition purposes)
SPR3E Keep fit /aerobics
SPR3F Multigym use / weight training
SPR3G Golf
SPR3H Running / jogging
SPR3I Snooker / billiards / pool
SPR3J Dancing
SPR3K Bowls
SPR3L Other - please specify (eg angling, badminton, judo, horse-riding, skiing, sailing, yoga)
SPR3M None of these

C) Description of the analysis

We have used SAS to analyse the SHS 2011 data. For all of our models the analysis involved a number of stages:

1) Creating the derived variables
2) Checking the frequencies for the derived variables
3) Excluding the 'missing' and 'don't know' responses from the analysis
4) Running crosstab to make sure the associations between variables of interest are significant
5) Selecting the significantly associated variables for further analysis
6) Checking collinearity between selected variables
7)Running binary logistic regression using the selected variables
8) Analysing the findings

D) Output from the models

D1) Model 1 - the relationship between participating in sports in the last four weeks and reporting good health

Outcome variable: Good Health unweighted sample size: 4578 Weighted
Odds Ratio 95% Wald Confidence Limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 0.867 0.6 1.251
35-44 0.556 0.389 0.795
45-54 0.486 0.339 0.695
55-64 0.474 0.324 0.694
65-74 0.569 0.352 0.92
75 + 0.504 0.301 0.843
Deprivation (ref = most deprived)
2nd 1.166 0.899 1.513
3rd 1.104 0.848 1.439
4th 1.295 0.976 1.719
5th Least deprived quintile 1.406 1.042 1.897
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, A level or equivalent 1.515 1.131 2.03
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.972 0.697 1.357
Degree, Professional Qualification 1.246 0.944 1.645
Other qualification 1.369 0.904 2.072
No qualifications 1.077 0.817 1.419
Qualifications not known 1.236 0.369 4.141
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.965 0.676 1.377
In further/higher education 0.367 0.198 0.68
Looking after the home or family 0.639 0.396 1.029
Other 1.441 0.217 9.589
Permanently retired from work 0.821 0.581 1.16
Permanently sick or disabled 0.295 0.183 0.478
Self employed 1.005 0.686 1.472
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.631 0.219 1.821
Unemployed and seeking work 0.666 0.431 1.03
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 0.991 0.753 1.303
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.36 1.014 1.824
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.311 0.942 1.825
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.421 0.958 2.109
£26,000 and up to £31,199 1.87 1.12 3.122
£31,200 and up to £36,399 3.199 1.733 5.906
£36,400 and up to £51,999 1.429 0.869 2.352
£52,000 and above 1.622 0.901 2.92
satisfied with life 2.263 1.764 2.903
Non smoker 1.182 0.968 1.443
No disabilities or illness's 7.634 6.321 9.22
Participates in sport 1.987 1.634 2.416

D2) Model 2 - the relationship between participating in a cultural activity in the last 12 months and reporting good health

Outcome variable: Good Health unweighted sample size: 4578 Weighted
Odds Ratio 95% Wald Confidence Limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 0.835 0.578 1.205
35-44 0.539 0.377 0.77
45-54 0.447 0.312 0.639
55-64 0.414 0.283 0.606
65-74 0.489 0.304 0.787
75 + 0.393 0.237 0.651
Deprivation (ref = most deprived)
2nd 1.139 0.88 1.476
3rd 1.115 0.856 1.451
4th 1.339 1.01 1.774
5th Least deprived quintile 1.405 1.043 1.893
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, A level or equivalent 1.493 1.116 1.998
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.965 0.691 1.346
Degree, Professional Qualification 1.209 0.915 1.598
Other qualification 1.334 0.888 2.005
No qualifications 1.045 0.794 1.374
Qualifications not known 1.021 0.3 3.478
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.989 0.693 1.41
In further/higher education 0.356 0.191 0.661
Looking after the home or family 0.662 0.411 1.067
Other 1.343 0.214 8.439
Permanently retired from work 0.801 0.57 1.127
Permanently sick or disabled 0.269 0.167 0.433
Self employed 0.988 0.675 1.446
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.705 0.244 2.04
Unemployed and seeking work 0.682 0.441 1.054
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 1.021 0.777 1.343
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.332 0.995 1.784
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.349 0.97 1.877
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.394 0.94 2.065
£26,000 and up to £31,199 1.975 1.188 3.283
£31,200 and up to £36,399 3.269 1.778 6.008
£36,400 and up to £51,999 1.486 0.902 2.448
£52,000 and above 1.65 0.917 2.968
satisfied with life 2.349 1.835 3.007
Non smoker 1.235 1.012 1.506
No disabilities or illness's 8.12 6.735 9.789
Participates in cultural activity 1.378 1.133 1.676

D3) Model 3 - the relationship between attending a cultural place or event in the last 12 months and reporting good health

Outcome variable: Good Health unweighted sample size: 4578 Weighted
Odds Ratio 95% Wald Confidence Limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 0.839 0.581 1.21
35-44 0.552 0.387 0.788
45-54 0.473 0.331 0.677
55-64 0.452 0.309 0.662
65-74 0.522 0.324 0.842
75 + 0.441 0.265 0.734
Deprivation (ref = most deprived)
2nd 1.142 0.881 1.479
3rd 1.121 0.86 1.46
4th 1.312 0.99 1.741
5th Least deprived quintile 1.391 1.032 1.875
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, A level or equivalent 1.506 1.125 2.015
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.953 0.683 1.329
Degree, Professional Qualification 1.192 0.902 1.575
Other qualification 1.38 0.916 2.077
No qualifications 1.101 0.835 1.453
Qualifications not known 1.119 0.321 3.897
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.993 0.696 1.415
In further/higher education 0.365 0.196 0.679
Looking after the home or family 0.66 0.409 1.064
Other 1.335 0.231 7.725
Permanently retired from work 0.819 0.581 1.155
Permanently sick or disabled 0.271 0.168 0.436
Self employed 1.008 0.688 1.478
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.761 0.267 2.173
Unemployed and seeking work 0.702 0.455 1.083
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 1.021 0.777 1.343
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.354 1.011 1.814
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.354 0.974 1.884
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.383 0.934 2.048
£26,000 and up to £31,199 1.978 1.189 3.292
£31,200 and up to £36,399 3.264 1.774 6.003
£36,400 and up to £51,999 1.492 0.908 2.451
£52,000 and above 1.67 0.927 3.008
satisfied with life 2.306 1.8 2.956
Non smoker 1.205 0.987 1.471
No disabilities or illness's 7.992 6.627 9.638
Attends cultural place or event 1.592 1.299 1.951

D4) Model 4 - the relationship between participating in sport in the last 4 weeks and reporting high life satisfaction

Outcome variable: Satisfaction with life unweighted sample size: 4578 Weighted
Odds Ratio 95% Wald Confidence Limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 1.077 0.707 1.641
35-44 0.585 0.392 0.872
45-54 0.669 0.443 1.009
55-64 0.817 0.52 1.282
65-74 0.752 0.416 1.36
75 + 1.003 0.52 1.935
Deprivation (ref= 1st most deprived)
2nd 0.925 0.696 1.23
3rd 1.42 1.032 1.952
4th 1.219 0.866 1.717
5th Least deprived quintile 1.167 0.808 1.686
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, A level or equivalent 1.242 0.877 1.758
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.841 0.569 1.244
Degree, Professional Qualification 1.198 0.836 1.716
Other qualification 0.983 0.6 1.612
No qualifications 0.987 0.717 1.361
Qualifications not known 1.467 0.298 7.222
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.654 0.444 0.963
In further/higher education 0.397 0.202 0.781
Looking after the home or family 0.658 0.39 1.112
Other 0.376 0.075 1.873
Permanently retired from work 1.268 0.804 2
Permanently sick or disabled 0.451 0.294 0.692
Self employed 1.651 0.933 2.922
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.351 0.13 0.949
Unemployed and seeking work 0.408 0.263 0.634
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 0.906 0.668 1.23
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.093 0.781 1.528
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.278 0.847 1.927
£20,800 and up to £25,999 2.038 1.168 3.556
£26,000 and up to £31,199 2.871 1.279 6.447
£31,200 and up to £36,399 1.673 0.806 3.474
£36,400 and up to £51,999 2.297 1.074 4.912
£52,000 and above 1.321 0.628 2.781
Good health 2.333 1.813 3
Non smoker 1.991 1.597 2.483
No disabilities or illness's 1.656 1.258 2.179
Participates in sport 1.517 1.194 1.926

D5) Model 5 - the relationship between participating in a cultural activity in the last 12 months and reporting high life satisfaction

Outcome variable: Satisfaction with life unweighted sample size: 4578 Weighted
Odds Ratio 95% Wald Confidence Limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 1.06 0.696 1.614
35-44 0.576 0.386 0.858
45-54 0.645 0.427 0.973
55-64 0.749 0.479 1.173
65-74 0.69 0.382 1.244
75 + 0.867 0.453 1.662
Deprivation (ref = 1st most deprived)
2nd 0.906 0.682 1.205
3rd 1.418 1.031 1.951
4th 1.246 0.886 1.753
5th Least deprived quintile 1.147 0.794 1.658
Higest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, A level or equivalent 1.231 0.869 1.744
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.824 0.557 1.219
Degree, Professional Qualification 1.164 0.811 1.671
Other qualification 0.965 0.59 1.576
No qualifications 0.995 0.721 1.371
Qualifications not known 1.325 0.27 6.495
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.667 0.453 0.983
In further/higher education 0.39 0.198 0.767
Looking after the home or family 0.677 0.401 1.145
Other 0.366 0.075 1.795
Permanently retired from work 1.231 0.78 1.943
Permanently sick or disabled 0.424 0.277 0.648
Self employed 1.641 0.927 2.903
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.376 0.141 1.006
Unemployed and seeking work 0.411 0.264 0.638
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 0.92 0.678 1.248
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.063 0.76 1.485
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.29 0.855 1.945
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.993 1.143 3.475
£26,000 and up to £31,199 2.909 1.297 6.523
£31,200 and up to £36,399 1.678 0.809 3.483
£36,400 and up to £51,999 2.362 1.104 5.053
£52,000 and above 1.327 0.63 2.795
Good health 2.416 1.883 3.101
Non smoker 2.045 1.641 2.549
No disabilities or illness's 1.723 1.313 2.263
Participates in cultural activity 1.304 1.04 1.636

D6) Model 6 - the relationship between attending a cultural place or event in the last 12 months and reporting high life satisfaction

Outcome variable: Satisfaction with life unweighted sample size: 4578 Weighted
Odds Ratio 95% Wald Confidence Limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 1.064 0.698 1.621
35-44 0.585 0.392 0.873
45-54 0.678 0.448 1.024
55-64 0.799 0.51 1.254
65-74 0.722 0.399 1.304
75 + 0.954 0.496 1.836
Deprivation (ref = 1st most deprived)
2nd 0.909 0.684 1.209
3rd 1.438 1.045 1.979
4th 1.226 0.871 1.725
5th Least deprived quintile 1.148 0.794 1.659
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, A level or equivalent 1.223 0.864 1.732
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.812 0.549 1.201
Degree, Professional Qualification 1.144 0.797 1.642
Other qualification 1.009 0.616 1.653
No qualifications 1.043 0.755 1.441
Qualifications not known 1.473 0.297 7.295
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.672 0.456 0.991
In further/higher education 0.4 0.202 0.789
Looking after the home or family 0.68 0.402 1.152
Other 0.368 0.077 1.747
Permanently retired from work 1.263 0.799 1.997
Permanently sick or disabled 0.428 0.28 0.656
Self employed 1.651 0.933 2.923
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.391 0.147 1.037
Unemployed and seeking work 0.422 0.272 0.656
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 0.92 0.678 1.25
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.084 0.775 1.516
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.296 0.859 1.954
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.99 1.141 3.47
£26,000 and up to £31,199 2.895 1.291 6.492
£31,200 and up to £36,399 1.669 0.805 3.462
£36,400 and up to £51,999 2.371 1.109 5.071
£52,000 and above 1.336 0.634 2.815
Good health 2.356 1.833 3.027
Non smoker 1.996 1.6 2.49
No disabilities or illness's 1.706 1.299 2.241
Attends cultural place or event 1.523 1.2 1.932

D7) Model 7 - the relationship between individual culture activities participated in during the last 12 months and reporting good health (significant at 5%)

Outcome variable: good health Dance Read for pleasure
Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 0.844 0.584 1.219 0.815 0.564 1.176
35-44 0.564 0.395 0.807 0.519 0.363 0.742
45-54 0.468 0.327 0.67 0.43 0.3 0.616
55-64 0.436 0.298 0.638 0.399 0.272 0.583
65-74 0.513 0.319 0.827 0.459 0.285 0.74
75 + 0.417 0.252 0.693 0.369 0.223 0.612
Deprivation (ref = 1st most deprived)
2nd 1.166 0.899 1.51 1.137 0.878 1.473
3rd 1.11 0.852 1.446 1.115 0.856 1.451
4th 1.366 1.03 1.813 1.329 1.002 1.761
5th least deprived quintile 1.448 1.075 1.952 1.404 1.042 1.891
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, a level or equivalent 1.519 1.135 2.033 1.475 1.102 1.974
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.976 0.7 1.361 0.96 0.688 1.34
Degree, professional qual 1.238 0.938 1.633 1.191 0.9 1.576
Other qualification 1.348 0.897 2.025 1.306 0.87 1.962
No qualifications 1.025 0.78 1.347 1.033 0.786 1.357
Qualifications not known 0.988 0.289 3.376 1.013 0.3 3.42
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.971 0.68 1.387 0.983 0.69 1.402
In further/higher education 0.361 0.195 0.671 0.351 0.189 0.651
Looking after the home or family 0.655 0.406 1.057 0.645 0.4 1.038
Other 1.408 0.223 8.909 1.352 0.217 8.41
Permanently retired from work 0.823 0.585 1.159 0.815 0.58 1.146
Permanently sick or disabled 0.278 0.172 0.448 0.271 0.169 0.435
Self employed 1.002 0.684 1.467 0.991 0.677 1.451
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.737 0.254 2.142 0.691 0.238 2.006
Unemployed and seeking work 0.697 0.451 1.077 0.683 0.442 1.055
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 1.002 0.762 1.317 1.023 0.778 1.345
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.324 0.989 1.773 1.34 1.001 1.794
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.341 0.964 1.865 1.353 0.973 1.882
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.405 0.947 2.083 1.407 0.949 2.086
£26,000 and up to £31,199 1.961 1.18 3.261 1.981 1.192 3.293
£31,200 and up to £36,399 3.347 1.818 6.161 3.317 1.802 6.104
£36,400 and up to £51,999 1.5 0.911 2.471 1.489 0.905 2.452
£52,000 and above 1.657 0.92 2.983 1.666 0.925 3.001
Satisfied with life 2.349 1.834 3.007 2.36 1.845 3.021
Non smoker 1.235 1.013 1.507 1.241 1.018 1.513
No disabilities or illness's 8.037 6.666 9.689 8.082 6.705 9.741
Cultural activity/place 1.621 1.268 2.071 1.328 1.109 1.59

D8) Model 8 - the relationship between individual culture activities attended during the last 12 months and reporting good health (significant at 5%)

Outcome variable: good health Cinema Exhibit/art collection Craft exhibit Play/theatrical perf
Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 0.843 0.584 1.218 0.841 0.583 1.214 0.835 0.579 1.205 0.826 0.573 1.193
35-44 0.558 0.39 0.798 0.54 0.378 0.771 0.537 0.376 0.767 0.534 0.374 0.762
45-54 0.481 0.335 0.692 0.448 0.314 0.641 0.447 0.312 0.639 0.443 0.31 0.634
55-64 0.463 0.314 0.683 0.413 0.283 0.603 0.413 0.283 0.604 0.416 0.284 0.608
65-74 0.539 0.332 0.873 0.481 0.299 0.773 0.486 0.302 0.781 0.477 0.297 0.768
75 + 0.442 0.264 0.74 0.387 0.234 0.641 0.389 0.235 0.644 0.381 0.23 0.631
Deprivation (ref = 1st most deprived)
2nd 1.156 0.893 1.497 1.151 0.889 1.49 1.146 0.885 1.484 1.155 0.892 1.496
3rd 1.122 0.862 1.461 1.118 0.859 1.455 1.101 0.845 1.433 1.124 0.864 1.463
4th 1.324 0.999 1.755 1.323 0.998 1.753 1.327 1.001 1.759 1.331 1.004 1.764
5th least deprived quintile 1.412 1.048 1.902 1.411 1.048 1.901 1.413 1.049 1.903 1.408 1.045 1.896
Highest Education Qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, a level or equivalent 1.506 1.126 2.015 1.496 1.118 2.002 1.526 1.141 2.041 1.499 1.12 2.007
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.974 0.698 1.359 0.964 0.691 1.345 0.98 0.704 1.366 0.975 0.7 1.359
Degree, professional qual 1.236 0.936 1.632 1.208 0.912 1.6 1.229 0.93 1.623 1.232 0.932 1.627
Other qualification 1.343 0.894 2.018 1.321 0.88 1.984 1.321 0.88 1.984 1.321 0.88 1.983
No qualifications 1.039 0.79 1.366 1.018 0.775 1.337 1.02 0.776 1.34 1.018 0.775 1.338
Qualifications not known 1.038 0.307 3.509 0.984 0.29 3.336 0.971 0.286 3.303 1.011 0.298 3.425
Economic Status (ref = Employed full time)
Employed part time 0.962 0.675 1.371 0.959 0.672 1.367 0.959 0.673 1.367 0.963 0.676 1.372
In further/higher education 0.363 0.195 0.677 0.338 0.181 0.63 0.353 0.19 0.656 0.362 0.195 0.674
Looking after the home or family 0.647 0.402 1.042 0.621 0.386 1 0.627 0.39 1.01 0.634 0.394 1.023
Other 1.415 0.223 8.982 1.346 0.211 8.578 1.346 0.211 8.593 1.33 0.214 8.284
Permanently retired from work 0.823 0.585 1.158 0.822 0.585 1.156 0.813 0.578 1.144 0.824 0.586 1.159
Permanently sick or disabled 0.272 0.169 0.437 0.271 0.169 0.435 0.27 0.168 0.433 0.27 0.168 0.434
Self employed 0.988 0.675 1.445 0.991 0.678 1.449 0.98 0.67 1.433 0.989 0.676 1.449
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.746 0.259 2.15 0.719 0.249 2.08 0.712 0.246 2.056 0.729 0.253 2.104
Unemployed and seeking work 0.697 0.452 1.077 0.665 0.43 1.027 0.675 0.438 1.042 0.687 0.445 1.06
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 1.012 0.77 1.33 1.009 0.768 1.326 1.01 0.768 1.327 1.012 0.77 1.329
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.331 0.994 1.782 1.33 0.993 1.78 1.33 0.994 1.781 1.335 0.997 1.788
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.352 0.972 1.88 1.344 0.966 1.87 1.335 0.96 1.857 1.35 0.97 1.877
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.387 0.936 2.054 1.387 0.936 2.055 1.403 0.947 2.079 1.404 0.948 2.079
£26,000 and up to £31,199 1.918 1.154 3.187 1.912 1.151 3.175 1.947 1.172 3.237 1.915 1.153 3.181
£31,200 and up to £36,399 3.307 1.796 6.088 3.27 1.776 6.019 3.303 1.794 6.081 3.287 1.785 6.052
£36,400 and up to £51,999 1.471 0.894 2.421 1.442 0.876 2.373 1.483 0.902 2.44 1.47 0.893 2.418
£52,000 and above 1.617 0.9 2.908 1.6 0.889 2.88 1.61 0.894 2.897 1.624 0.903 2.921
Satisfied with life 2.346 1.833 3.003 2.379 1.859 3.044 2.376 1.857 3.04 2.366 1.849 3.027
Non smoker 1.218 0.998 1.486 1.229 1.007 1.499 1.231 1.009 1.502 1.224 1.004 1.494
No disabilities or illness's 8.029 6.662 9.677 8.087 6.71 9.746 8.149 6.76 9.823 8.067 6.694 9.721
Cultural activity/place 1.259 1.036 1.529 1.305 1.006 1.693 1.343 1.006 1.792 1.238 1.011 1.516

D9) Model 9 - the relationship between individual culture activities attended during the last 12 months and reporting high life satisfaction (significant at 5%)

Outcome variable: satisfaction with life Cinema Ballet/dance Museum Historical place
Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits Odds ratio 95% wald Confidence limits
Age: (ref = 16-24)
25-34 1.081 0.709 1.648 1.043 0.685 1.589 1.038 0.681 1.582 1.029 0.676 1.568
35-44 0.606 0.405 0.905 0.57 0.383 0.85 0.566 0.38 0.843 0.552 0.37 0.823
45-54 0.719 0.473 1.092 0.645 0.428 0.974 0.637 0.422 0.961 0.624 0.413 0.942
55-64 0.869 0.55 1.375 0.747 0.477 1.17 0.737 0.471 1.154 0.724 0.462 1.134
65-74 0.788 0.433 1.432 0.672 0.373 1.212 0.667 0.37 1.203 0.652 0.362 1.177
75 + 1.017 0.525 1.969 0.849 0.444 1.624 0.845 0.442 1.618 0.839 0.439 1.605
Deprivation (ref = 1st most deprived)
2nd 0.918 0.69 1.22 0.913 0.687 1.213 0.92 0.692 1.223 0.91 0.685 1.209
3rd 1.425 1.036 1.961 1.432 1.042 1.97 1.445 1.05 1.988 1.414 1.028 1.945
4th 1.224 0.869 1.723 1.237 0.879 1.741 1.243 0.884 1.748 1.216 0.864 1.711
5th least deprived quintile 1.141 0.79 1.649 1.154 0.799 1.667 1.171 0.81 1.692 1.139 0.788 1.646
Highest education qualification (ref = O level/standard grade or equivalent)
Higher, a level or equivalent 1.219 0.86 1.726 1.228 0.867 1.738 1.219 0.861 1.727 1.224 0.864 1.733
HNC/HND or equivalent 0.819 0.553 1.212 0.841 0.569 1.242 0.823 0.556 1.217 0.822 0.555 1.217
Degree, professional qualification 1.154 0.805 1.656 1.167 0.815 1.673 1.129 0.784 1.625 1.123 0.781 1.615
Other qualification 0.994 0.608 1.626 0.954 0.584 1.559 0.973 0.595 1.59 0.972 0.595 1.588
No qualifications 1.01 0.733 1.391 0.963 0.7 1.325 0.972 0.706 1.338 0.983 0.714 1.353
Qualifications not known 1.431 0.293 7 1.222 0.249 6.003 1.295 0.265 6.343 1.33 0.273 6.49
Economic status (ref = employed full time)
Employed part time 0.652 0.443 0.961 0.663 0.45 0.976 0.662 0.449 0.976 0.661 0.448 0.974
In further/higher education 0.399 0.202 0.789 0.382 0.193 0.757 0.384 0.195 0.759 0.39 0.198 0.77
Looking after the home or family 0.68 0.402 1.151 0.656 0.388 1.108 0.658 0.389 1.112 0.644 0.381 1.087
Other 0.4 0.081 1.97 0.367 0.074 1.808 0.379 0.077 1.867 0.375 0.076 1.842
Permanently retired from work 1.271 0.807 2.004 1.263 0.801 1.99 1.258 0.798 1.985 1.252 0.794 1.974
Permanently sick or disabled 0.434 0.283 0.664 0.426 0.279 0.651 0.425 0.278 0.65 0.425 0.278 0.649
Self employed 1.64 0.927 2.903 1.639 0.926 2.9 1.629 0.92 2.881 1.626 0.919 2.878
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0.404 0.152 1.076 0.378 0.141 1.014 0.365 0.136 0.981 0.383 0.144 1.022
Unemployed and seeking work 0.427 0.275 0.665 0.414 0.266 0.643 0.414 0.267 0.643 0.412 0.266 0.64
Annual gross income ( ref = < £5,200 )
£5,200 and up to £10,399 0.915 0.674 1.242 0.908 0.669 1.233 0.91 0.671 1.235 0.91 0.671 1.235
£10,400 and up to £15,599 1.075 0.769 1.504 1.062 0.76 1.485 1.068 0.764 1.492 1.065 0.762 1.488
£15,600 and up to £20,799 1.289 0.855 1.945 1.289 0.855 1.945 1.283 0.851 1.934 1.267 0.841 1.908
£20,800 and up to £25,999 1.965 1.126 3.426 2.004 1.149 3.494 1.997 1.145 3.483 2.001 1.147 3.49
£26,000 and up to £31,199 2.808 1.252 6.299 2.892 1.288 6.49 2.828 1.261 6.34 2.818 1.257 6.319
£31,200 and up to £36,399 1.697 0.817 3.522 1.7 0.819 3.53 1.633 0.787 3.389 1.586 0.764 3.291
£36,400 and up to £51,999 2.314 1.082 4.95 2.398 1.121 5.132 2.307 1.08 4.929 2.335 1.092 4.991
£52,000 and above 1.295 0.615 2.726 1.267 0.602 2.667 1.26 0.598 2.655 1.239 0.588 2.611
Good health 2.407 1.875 3.089 2.463 1.92 3.159 2.427 1.892 3.114 2.429 1.893 3.115
Non smoker 1.998 1.602 2.493 2.045 1.642 2.548 2.042 1.639 2.545 2.028 1.627 2.528
No disabilities or illness's 1.699 1.294 2.232 1.691 1.289 2.219 1.711 1.304 2.246 1.716 1.307 2.252
Cultural activity/place 1.435 1.125 1.831 2.249 1.087 4.651 1.373 1.052 1.791 1.516 1.09 2.107

Contact

Email: Dr Niamh O'Connor