Publication - Independent report

Legal definition of sectarianism working group: final report

Published: 14 Nov 2018
Directorate:
Justice Directorate
Part of:
Law and order
ISBN:
9781787812987

Final report by an independent working group exploring the scope to define sectarianism in Scots law. The group was Chaired by Professor Duncan Morrow.

34 page PDF

503.2 kB

34 page PDF

503.2 kB

Contents
Legal definition of sectarianism working group: final report
Footnotes

34 page PDF

503.2 kB

Footnotes

1. (2015) Tackling Sectarianism and its Consequences in Scotland: Final Report of The Advisory Group on Tackling Sectarianism in Scotland, para 5. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/05/4296.

2. The 2012 Act referred to by the Committee, and subsequently repealed, was the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Act 2012.

3. (2018) Stage 1 Report on the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Repeal) (Scotland) Bill, Definition of Sectarianism, Pg. 57-59. Accessible in full here: https://sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/published/J/2018/1/18/Stage-1-report-on-the-Offensive-Behaviour-at-Football-and-Threatening-Communications--Repeal---Scotland--Bill/JS052018R2.pdf.

4. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/05/2988.

5. (2015) Tackling Sectarianism and its Consequences in Scotland: Final Report of The Advisory Group on Tackling Sectarianism in Scotland, para 5. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/05/4296.

6. (2018) Independent Review of Hate Crime Legislation in Scotland: Final Report, para 2.6. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/05/2988.

7. Accessible in full here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/46/contents.

8. Scotland Act 1998, section 29.

9. Scotland Act 1998, section 29(2).

10. Scotland Act 1998, section 29(3). Discussed by the UK Supreme Court in Martin and Miller v Lord Advocate [2010] UKSC 10.

11. European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, section 12.

12. Scotland Act 1998, section 54 ad 57.

13. Scotland Act 1998, section 33.

14. AXA General Insurance v Lord Advocate [2011] UKSC 46.

15. For examples of which, see: Christian Institute & Ors v Lord Advocate [2016] UKSC 51 and Recovery of Medical Costs for Asbestos Diseases (Wales) Bill - Reference by the Counsel General for Wales [2015] UKSC 3.

16. Scotland Act 1998, section 28(7).

17. The full Act is accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/42/contents.

18. Human Rights Act 1998, section 6.

19. A fact which, for example, allowed Holyrood to legislate to establish the Scottish Human Rights Commission under the Scottish Commission for Human Rights Act 2006. Accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/16/contents.

20. Scotland Act, Schedule 4, paragraph (1)(2)(f).

21. Equality Act 2010, section 9(1).

22. Scotland Act 1998, Schedule 5, L2.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. The relevant legal provisions are accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/section/210.

26. Scotland Act 1998, Schedule 5, H1.

27. As happened, for example, with the passage of the Scotland Act 2016.

28. Essentially, a form of subordinate legislation. A summary is available here: https://www.parliament.uk/site-information/glossary/orders-in-council/.

29. Accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/46/section/30.

30. The relevant sections of the legislation are accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/nia/2011/24/part/4.

31. Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 2011, section 37(3)(a) – (c).

32. Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 2011, section 37(4).

33. Further discussed by N Jarman (2012) Defining Sectarianism and Sectarian Hate Crime, accessible at http://conflictresearch.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/NIACRO-Report-02-Complete-Low-Res.pdf.

34. Smith v Donnelly 2002 JC 65, para 17.

35. Scottish Government (2018) Religiously Aggravated Offending in Scotland 2017/18, Table 7.

36. Scottish Government (2018) Religiously Aggravated Offending in Scotland 2017/18 accessible at https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/06/2695/0.

37. The details of the offence are accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2010/13/section/38.

38. Harris v HM Advocate 2010 SCCR 15.

39. Communications Act 2003, section 127. Accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2003/21/section/127.

40. Crime and Disorder Act 1998, section 96(6).

41. William Walls v Procurator Fiscal, Kilmarnock [2009] HCJAC 59, para 19. Accessible here: https://www.scotcourts.gov.uk/search-judgments/judgment?id=1c2e86a6-8980-69d2-b500-ff0000d74aa7.

42. Accessible here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1995/39/section/50A.

43. Criminal Law (Consolidation)(Scotland) Act 1995, s.50A(1)(a).

44. Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995, s.50A(1)(b).

45. Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995, s.50A(6).

46. Applying these provisions, the courts have held, for example, that the use of the phrase “bastard Geordie” in the course of threatening and abusive behaviour amounted to racially-aggravated harassment, as the concept of “Geordie” referred to the victim’s English national origins. Moscrop v McLintock 2011 SCCR 621.

47. Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Act 2012, section 1.

48. The repealed text of section 6 is available here: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2012/1/section/6/enacted.

49. Crime and Disorder Act 1998, section 33.

50. Crime and Disorder Act 1998, section 96(6).

51. Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003, section 74.

52. Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003, section 74(2)(b).

53. Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003, section 74(7).

54. (2018) Independent Review of Hate Crime Legislation in Scotland: Final Report. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/05/2988.

55. For example, in William Walls v Procurator Fiscal, Kilmarnock, the accused was convicted of common law breach of the peace charges, aggravated by both religious and racial prejudice, having been witnesses expressing a combination of the following sentiments "the famine is over", "fenian bastard" and "f*** the Pope" during a match at Rugby Park.

56. (2018) Independent Review of Hate Crime Legislation in Scotland: Final Report. Recommendation 14. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/05/2988.

57. Scottish Government (2015) An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland: 2015 Update accessible at https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/05/5191.

58. A Ashworth and J Horder (2013) Principles of Criminal Law 7th edn (Oxford, Oxford University Press), 77 – 78. The concept is discussed further in P R Ferguson and C McDiarmid (2014) Scots Criminal Law: A Critical Analysis (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press), para 4.6 and J Chalmers and F Leverick (2008) “Fair labelling in criminal law” 71 Modern Law Review 217.

59. Full text accessible here: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1989/act/19/enacted/en/html.

60. Prohibition of Incitement to Hatred Act 1989, Section 1(1).

61. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/oireachtas/travellers-formally-recognised-as-an-ethnic-minority-1.2994309. In the United Kingdom, the courts have recognised that travellers are protected ethnic characteristics under the 2010 Equality Act.

62. Full text, accessible here: https://www.parliament.gov.za/storage/app/media/Docs/bill/9febb155-8582-4a15-bf12-5961db2828c2.pdf.

63. Ibid. Section 3

64. (2018) Independent Review of Hate Crime Legislation in Scotland: Final Report. Recommendation 19. Accessible in full here: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/05/2988.

65. William Walls v Procurator Fiscal, Kilmarnock [2009] HCJAC 59, para 19. Accessible here: https://www.scotcourts.gov.uk/search-judgments/judgment?id=1c2e86a6-8980-69d2-b500-ff0000d74aa7.

66. BBC Scotland (2018) “Canon Tom White describes attack during Orange walk” https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-44762725.


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