Publication - Research and analysis

The Experiences of Mothers Aged Under 20: Analysis of Data From the Growing up in Scotland Study

Published: 20 Feb 2014
ISBN:
9781784122676

Analysis of Growing Up in Scotland data on the circumstances of first-time mothers in Scotland who were aged under 20 at the time of the child’s birth. Data collected up to the child’s sixth birthday were used to compare these circumstances with those of mothers who were aged 20 to 24 and aged 25 or older at the time of their child’s birth.

The Experiences of Mothers Aged Under 20: Analysis of Data From the Growing up in Scotland Study
Appendix - Tables Of Results

Appendix - Tables Of Results

Table 2.1 Education level when child was aged 10 months

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Higher Grade or above 17 50 80 65
Below Higher Grade or none 83 50 20 35
Unweighted bases 319 608 1986 2921

Table 2.2 Education level when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Higher Grade or above 24 62 76 69
Below Higher Grade or none 76 37 24 32
Age 4
Higher Grade or above 30 60 77 67
Below Higher Grade or none 70 39 22 32
Age 6
Higher or above 37 62 77 68
Below Higher Grade or none 63 39 22 31
Unweighted bases
Age 2 132 267 1276 1681
Age 4 132 267 1275 1680
Age 6 132 267 1276 1681

Table 2.3 Employment status when child aged 10 months

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
In full-time paid employment 3 12 39 28
In part-time paid employment 18 43 44 40
Not working 78 45 17 31
Unweighted bases 316 609 1987 2917

Table 2.4 Economic activity when child aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
In full-time paid employment 7 16 25 22
In part-time paid employment 20 41 48 44
Maternity / parental leave 1 2 6 5
Looking after home or family 74 61 56 59
Waiting to take up paid work - 1 0 0
Out of work looking for a job 5 3 1 2
Out of work, sickness or disability 2 1 1 1
In full or part-time education 8 7 3 4
Other 4 1 1 1
Age 4
In full-time paid employment 9 21 24 21
In part-time paid emp/self-emp 24 37 45 41
Maternity / parental leave 5 6 10 8
Looking after home or family 73 57 55 58
Waiting to take up paid work - - 0 0
Out of work looking for a job 6 3 1 2
Out of work, sickness or disability - 0 1 1
In full or part-time education 8 4 2 3
Other - - 0 0
Age 6
In full-time paid employment 9 21 28 24
In part-time paid emp/self-emp 28 36 45 41
Maternity / parental leave 6 4 4 4
Looking after home or family 70 67 62 64
Waiting to take up paid work 1 0 0 0
Out of work looking for a job 8 4 1 3
Out of work, sickness or disability 1 1 1 1
In full or part-time education 9 6 3 4
Other 1 - - 0
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 2.5 Equivalised annual household income (quintiles) when child aged 10 months

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Bottom Quintile (<£10,833) 72 40 12 25
2nd Quintile (>=£10,833 <£17,009) 15 22 10 14
3rd Quintile (>=£17,009 < £26,000) 9 14 11 11
4th Quintile (>=£26,000 < £40,625) 3 21 38 30
Top Quintile (>=£40,625) 1 3 29 20
Unweighted bases 268 530 1791 2597

Table 2.6 Equivalised annual household income (quintiles) when child aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Bottom Quintile (<£9,644) 64 33 7 18
2nd Quintile (>=£9644< £16,433) 17 31 12 16
3rd Quintile (>=£16,433< £25,000) 14 20 20 20
4th Quintile (>=£25,000< £34,167) 2 9 19 16
Top Quintile (>=£34,167) 2 7 41 31
Age 4
Bottom Quintile (<£11,875) 59 35 9 20
2nd Quintile (>=£11,875<£19,444) 24 26 14 18
3rd Quintile (>=£19,444< £25,625) 13 24 22 21
4th Quintile (>=£25,625< £37,500) 2 12 22 18
Top Quintile (>=£37,500) 1 4 33 23
Age 6
Bottom Quintile (<£11,944) 58 37 10 22
2nd Quintile (>=£11,944 <£19,643) 28 33 16 21
3rd Quintile (>=£19,643 < £29,166) 12 18 21 19
4th Quintile (>=£29,166 < £37,500) 1 7 22 16
Top Quintile (>=£37,500) 0 5 31 22
Unweighted bases
Age 2 126 255 1223 1610
Age 4 127 251 1217 1601
Age 6 126 249 1214 1595

Table 2.7 Mothers in receipt of selected benefits when child aged 10 months

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Working Tax Credit 19 33 15 20
Child Tax Credit 89 77 41 56
Income Support 57 23 5 16
Job Seekers Allowance 10 6 1 4
Housing Benefit 51 25 6 16
Council Tax Benefit 43 23 6 15
Incapacity Benefit 19 33 15 20
Disability Living Allowance 89 77 41 56
Unweighted bases 319 609 1983 2919

Table 2.8 Mothers in receipt of selected benefits when child aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mothers age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Working Tax Credit 30 44 21 26
Child Tax Credit 93 86 69 74
Income Support 52 20 3 11
Job Seekers Allowance 4 2 0 1
Housing Benefit 42 21 4 11
Council Tax Benefit 41 22 4 11
Age 4
Working Tax Credit 37 38 18 24
C'care element of WTC 10 13 6 8
Child Tax Credit 85 83 64 70
Income Support 40 16 3 10
Job Seekers Allowance 2 2 1 1
Housing Benefit 40 22 3 11
Council Tax Benefit 40 22 4 12
Age 6
Working Tax Credit 41 35 17 24
C'care element of WTC 4 6 3 4
Child Tax Credit 93 86 60 70
Income Support 32 18 4 11
Job Seekers Allowance 6 4 1 2
Housing Benefit 46 25 4 14
Council Tax Benefit 44 25 5 14
Unweighted bases
Age 2 130 260 1239 1635
Age 4 133 266 1276 1681
Age 6 133 267 1274 1680

Table 2.9 Housing tenure when child aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Owner occupied 11 28 74 56
Social rented 59 40 9 23
Private rented 25 28 13 18
Other 4 5 3 3
Unweighted bases 358 696 1888 2950

Table 2.10 Housing tenure when child aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Owner occupied 14 40 83 69
Social rented 65 43 9 21
Private rented 13 9 5 6
Other 8 8 2 4
Age 4
Owner occupied 11 39 84 66
Social rented 68 43 10 24
Private rented 15 11 4 7
Other 6 7 2 3
Age 6
Owner occupied 10 35 84 64
Social rented 72 48 10 26
Private rented 14 14 4 7
Other 5 3 1 2
Unweighted bases
Age 2 132 267 1278 1683
Age 4 133 267 1278 1684
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 2.11 Area deprivation (quintiles) when child aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Least deprived 6 6 23 17
2nd quintile 8 13 21 18
3rd quintile 13 20 23 21
4th quintile 30 26 18 21
Most deprived 42 35 15 23
Unweighted bases 358 700 1890 2956

Table 2.12 Area deprivation (quintiles) when child aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Least deprived 3 7 27 21
2nd quintile 10 13 24 20
3rd quintile 14 18 20 19
4th quintile 23 23 15 17
Most deprived 50 41 15 23
Age 4
Least deprived 4 9 28 21
2nd quintile 10 11 24 20
3rd quintile 11 22 19 19
4th quintile 28 22 14 17
Most deprived 48 36 15 23
Age 6
Least deprived 1 9 28 21
2nd quintile 12 9 25 20
3rd quintile 18 16 19 18
4th quintile 24 27 16 19
Most deprived 46 39 12 22
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 264 1270 1673
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.1 Number of natural parents in the household when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
1 70 44 11 25
2 30 56 89 75
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.2 Whether natural father in household when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Natural father in household 32 59 92 80
Natural father not in household 68 41 8 20
Age 4
Natural father in household 34 55 91 77
Natural father not in household 66 45 9 23
Age 6
Natural father in household 38 56 88 75
Natural father not in household 62 44 12 25
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.3 Family type when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Lone Parent 67 39 10 24
Couple Family 33 61 90 76
Unweighted bases 319 611 1987 2925

Table 3.4 Family type when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Lone Parent 64 38 7 19
Couple Family 36 62 93 81
Age 4
Lone Parent 52 37 8 19
Couple Family 48 63 92 81
Age 6
Lone Parent 45 32 10 19
Couple Family 55 68 90 81
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.5 Mothers reporting a new partner living in household in last year when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
New parent/partner 9 5 1 2
Age 4
New parent/partner 11 5 1 3
Age 6
New parent/partner 6 3 1 2
Unweighted bases
Age 2 151 303 1333 1793
Age 4 151 303 1333 1793
Age 5 151 303 1332 1792

Table 3.6 Number of people living in the household when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
2 38 28 8 15
3 34 53 84 72
4 13 9 6 8
5 or more 15 10 2 5
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.7 Total number of children living in the household when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
1 87 95 94 94
2 9 5 5 6
3 4 0 0 1
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.8 Total number of children in household when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
1 83 87 84 84
2 14 12 16 15
3 3 1 0 1
4 - 1 0 0
Age 4
1 55 57 45 49
2 35 38 52 47
3 10 4 3 4
4 - 1 0 0
Age 6
1 39 39 33 35
2 41 51 57 53
3 19 9 10 11
4 1 1 1 1
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.9 Number of children living in the household, including the cohort child, who are the mother's offspring (number of mother's subsequent live births[25]) when child is aged 2, 4 and 6

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
1 (0) 89 90 85 86
2 (1) 11 10 14 13
3 (2) 0 0 0 0
4 or more (3 or more) 0 0 0 0
Age 4
1 (0) 57 57 46 50
2 (1) 36 40 51 47
3 (2) 6 3 3 3
4 or more (3 or more) 0 0 0 0
Age 6
1 (0) 41 39 33 35
2 (1) 41 53 57 53
3 (2) 17 7 9 11
4 or more (3 or more) 1 1 0 1
Unweighted bases
Age 2 132 263 1251 1647
Age 4 128 258 1234 1621
Age 6 128 258 1250 1642

Table 3.10 Number of adults living in the household when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
1 39 28 8 16
2 37 55 88 75
3 15 9 2 5
4 or more 8 8 2 3
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.11 Number of adults in household when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
1 42 28 6 14
2 37 61 91 80
3 11 7 2 4
4 or more 9 4 1 2
Age 4
1 44 30 7 16
2 45 63 90 79
3 4 3 3 3
4 or more 7 4 0 2
Age 6
1 37 28 9 17
2 57 67 88 80
3 3 2 2 2
4 or more 4 3 0 1
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.12 Whether grandparent living in the household when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
No 69 81 96 90
Yes 31 19 4 10
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.13 Whether grandparent living in the household when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
No 79 89 97 94
Yes 21 11 3 6
Age 4
No 87 91 98 95
Yes 13 9 2 5
Age 6
No 91 94 99 97
Yes 9 6 1 3
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.14 Mother's marital status when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Single, that is, never married 96 85 34 53
Married and living with husband or wife 3 13 61 44
Separated or Divorced 0 2 2 1
Widowed or other 1 0 3 2
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.15 Mother's marital status when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Single, that is, never married 95 70 25 40
Married or civil partner and living with husband or wife or partner 3 28 71 57
Separated or Divorced 1 1 4 3
Widowed or other 1 - 0 0
Age 4
Single, that is, never married 88 64 22 38
Married or civil partner and living with husband or wife or partner 7 32 74 57
Separated or Divorced 1 3 4 4
Widowed or other 3 - 0 1
Age 6
Single, that is, never married 82 60 20 37
Married or civil partner and living with husband or wife or partner 17 37 74 59
Separated or Divorced 1 3 5 4
Widowed or other 1 - 0 0
Unweighted bases
Age 2 133 267 1279 1685
Age 4 133 267 1279 1685
Age 6 133 267 1279 1685

Table 3.16 Conflict in relationship with partner when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Has respondent cursed or sworn at partner 92 81 71 74
Has partner cursed or sworn at respondent 91 76 63 67
Has respondent ordered partner around 59 57 59 59
Has partner ordered respondent around 51 42 43 43
Has respondent insulted/shamed partner in front of others 15 11 5 7
Has partner insulted/shamed respondent in front of others 18 11 6 7
Unweighted bases 102 282 1778 2253

Table 3.17 Conflict in relationship with partner - score when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Low 8 17 24 22
Medium 36 39 40 40
High 56 44 36 39
Unweighted bases 102 282 1778 2253

Table 3.18 Whether child has current contact with non-resident father when aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes 72 74 72 72
No 28 26 27 27
Unweighted bases 220 212 192 651

Table 3.19 How often child sees non-resident father when aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Every day 39 34 30 35
5-6 times a week 7 15 10 11
3-4 times a week 20 19 20 20
Once or twice a week 23 22 22 23
Less often but at least once a month 7 5 11 7
Less often than once a month 3 5 5 4
Never 1 - 2 1
Unweighted bases 160 156 137 468

Table 3.20 Number of close friends when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
None 4 4 2 2
1 or 2 29 22 11 16
Between 3 and 5 50 49 47 48
Between 6 and 10 13 19 30 25
More than 10 4 7 10 9
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

Table 3.21 Respondent's friends take notice of opinion when child was aged 2 and four

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Agree 78 81 86 84
Neither agree nor disagree 18 16 13 14
Disagree 2 2 1 1
I don't have any friends 2 1 0 1
Age 4
Agree 80 82 88 86
Neither agree nor disagree 16 15 10 12
Disagree 1 2 1 1
I don't have any friends 1 0 1 1
Unweighted bases
Age 2 171 338 1386 1901
Age 4 173 340 1388 1906

Table 3.22 Number of close relationships when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
I have close relationships with lots of people 43 40 32 35
I have close relationships with some people 39 38 48 45
I have close relationships with one or two people 15 21 18 18
I don't have any close relationships 3 1 2 2
Age 4
I have close relationships with lots of people 38 42 31 34
I have close relationships with some people 46 36 50 46
I have close relationships with one or two people 14 20 18 18
I don't have any close relationships 2 2 2 2
Unweighted bases
Age 2 171 338 1386 1901
Age 4 175 346 1410 1936

Table 3.23 Respondent close to most of family when child was aged 2 and 4

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Agree 82 85 86 85
Neither agree nor disagree 8 8 7 8
Disagree 10 6 6 6
I don't have any family 0 0 0 0
Age 4
Agree strongly 84 83 86 85
Neither agree nor disagree 10 8 7 8
Disagree 6 7 7 7
I don't have any family - 1 0 0
Unweighted bases
Age 2 171 338 1386 1901
Age 4 173 340 1388 1906

Table 3.24 Perception of level of support from family and friends

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
I get enough help 82 78 80 80
I don't get enough help 11 13 13 13
I don't get any help 2 5 5 5
I don't need any help 6 4 2 3
Age 4
I get enough help 83 80 77 78
I don't get enough help 11 13 16 14
I don't get any help 3 5 5 4
I don't need any help 3 3 3 3
Unweighted bases
Age 2 171 338 1385 1900
Age 4 173 340 1388 1906

Table 4.1 Mother's general health when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Excellent 19 21 26 24
Very Good 40 35 42 41
Good 27 28 23 25
Fair 12 12 7 9
Poor 3 2 1 2
Unweighted bases 317 491 1967 2889

Table 4.2 Mother's general health when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Excellent/ Very Good 51 53 64 61
Good 30 32 25 27
Fair 16 14 8 10
Poor 2 1 2 2
Can't say - - 0 0
Age 4
Excellent/ Very Good 46 43 58 54
Good 31 40 30 32
Fair 18 15 10 12
Poor 5 2 2 2
Can't say 1 1 0 0
Age 6
Excellent/ Very Good 43 41 56 52
Good 31 38 31 32
Fair 19 16 10 12
Poor 8 5 3 4
Can't say - - 0 0
Unweighted bases
Age 2 131 265 1273 1675
Age 4 133 267 1276 1681
Age 6 132 267 1275 1680

Table 4.3 Mother had health problem or disability when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes 12 12 12 12
No 88 88 88 88
Unweighted bases 317 597 1967 2889

Table 4.4 Mother had health problem or disability when child was aged 2, 4 and 6 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Yes 15 15 16 16
No 85 85 84 84
Age 4
Yes 20 16 19 18
No 80 84 81 82
Age 6
Yes 25 17 19 20
No 75 83 81 80
Unweighted bases
Age 2 131 265 1272 1674
Age 4 133 267 1276 1681
Age 6 132 267 1275 1680

Table 4.5 SF-12 physical wellbeing when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Poor physical wellbeing 10 15 8 10
Average or good physical wellbeing 90 85 92 90
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

*Poor physical wellbeing defined as 1 SD below mean

Table 4.6 SF-12 mental wellbeing when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Poor mental wellbeing 19 18 12 14
Average or good mental wellbeing 81 82 88 86
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2925

*Poor mental health defined as 1 SD below the mean

Table 4.7 DASS score above standard deviation (indicating poorer mental health*) when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
No 79 74 87 83
Yes-above SD 21 26 13 17
Age 4
No 79 84 92 88
Yes-above SD 21 16 8 12
Unweighted bases
Age 2 171 338 1385 1899
Age 4 173 340 1387 1905

* above 1 SD indicates high depression/stress

Table 4.8 Whether mother smoked when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes 47 40 13 23
No 53 60 87 77
Unweighted bases 317 491 1967 2889

Table 4.9 How often mother drank alcohol when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Never 19 22 17 18
Monthly or less 53 54 37 42
2-4 times per month 26 21 30 28
2-3 times per week 2 2 14 10
4+ times per week - 0 2 2
Unweighted bases 317 491 1967 2889

Table 4.10 Units of alcohol on a typical day when drinking when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
1-2 25 31 46 40
3-4 22 23 29 27
5-6 18 18 14 15
7-9 15 18 9 11
10+ 20 11 2 6
Unweighted bases 250 380 1646 2364

Table 4.11 Whether mother had ever taken drugs by time child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Cannabis 23 22 25 24
Amphetamines 3 4 5 5
Cocaine 7 7 5 5
Crack - 0 0 0
Ecstasy 6 6 6 6
Heroin - 0 1 1
Methadone - - 1 1
LSD 1 - 3 2
Another illegal drug 1 1 0 1
Never taken any of these drugs 76 76 73 74
Unweighted bases 317 491 1966 2888

Table 4.12 Whether mother had taken drugs in the past 12 months when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Cannabis 17 17 7 10
Amphetamines - 1 0 0
Cocaine 1 3 1 1
Ecstasy - 1 1 1
Heroin - - 0 0
Methadone - - 3 2
LSD - - 0 0
Another illegal drug 1 1 - 0
None 82 82 90 87
Unweighted bases 75 115 525 739

Table 5.1 Self-reported health during pregnancy

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Very well 45 48 57 53
Fairly well 39 32 29 31
Not very well 11 13 10 11
Not at all well 4 8 4 5
Unweighted bases 312 493 1939 2853

Table 5.2 Any illnesses and problems during pregnancy

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes 36 37 40 39
No 64 63 60 61
Unweighted bases 312 494 1940 2855

Table 5.3 Use of folic acid

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Took Folic acid before pregnant 13 25 62 48
Took Folic acid 1st 3 months pregnant 81 86 96 92
Did not take any folic acid 18 13 3 8
Unweighted bases 312 494 1940 2855

Note: Respondents could report taking folic acid both before conceiving and during the first trimester.

Table 5.4 Use of vitamin D

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Taken prior to becoming pregnant 3 5 23 16
Taken during the first 3 months 18 22 43 36
During the second 3 months 16 18 36 30
During the last 3 months 14 16 33 27
No Vitamin D supplement 77 72 49 57
Unweighted bases 312 493 1931 2845

Table 5.5 Whether pregnancy was planned or unplanned

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
It was planned by me and my partner / child's father (we both hoped it would happen) 13 33 76 58
It was planned by me, but not really by my partner / child's father (I hoped it would happen) 1 1 1 1
It wasn't planned, but I / we didn't do anything to prevent it happening (didn't mind) 28 26 13 18
It wasn't planned at all 58 39 10 23
Unweighted bases 312 493 1931 2845

Table 5.6 Frequency of alcohol consumption during pregnancy

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Every day - 0 0 0
1-2 times a week 1 1 1 1
2-3 times a month 1 0 4 3
Less than once a month 8 9 18 15
Never 90 90 77 81
Unweighted bases 308 482 1919 2814

Table 5.7 Smoking behaviour during pregnancy (base = all)

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes, I continued smoking as before I was pregnant 8 5 1 3
Yes, I tried to stop but didn't manage to 6 8 2 4
Yes, but I reduced the amount I smoked 20 14 5 9
Yes, but I stopped (when I found out I was pregnant) 20 15 8 11
No, I didn't smoke at all when I was pregnant 46 57 84 73
Unweighted bases 308 482 1919 2814

Table 5.8 Smoking behaviour during pregnancy (base = only those who smoked at all during pregnancy)

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
I continued smoking as before I was pregnant 15 12 8 11
I tried to stop but didn't manage to 12 20 10 14
I reduced the amount I smoked 36 33 33 33
I stopped (when I found out I was pregnant) 37 36 50 42
Unweighted bases 169 210 292 706

Table 5.9 Drug use during pregnancy (base = those who had ever taken drugs)

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes, I continued taking drugs as before I was pregnant 1 1 1 1
Yes, I tried to stop but didn't manage - - 0 0
Yes, but I reduced the amount - 2 3 2
Yes, but I stopped (when I found out I was pregnant) 2 3 1 2
No, I stopped whilst trying to get pregnant 2 1 1 1
No, I had stopped a long time before becoming pregnant 18 27 37 33
No, I didn't take any drugs while I was pregnant 77 66 58 61
Unweighted bases 73 113 506 715

Table 5.10 Type of delivery

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Normal delivery 72 57 44 50
Forceps 9 12 18 16
Ventouse Suction 3 4 4 4
Forceps and Ventouse 1 2 1 1
Caesarean Section … before labour began 3 6 11 9
Caesarean Section … after labour began 11 18 22 20
Other 0 1 0 0
Unweighted bases 312 494 1940 2855

Table 5.11 Mother's perceived experience and expectations of child's birth

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
It was much worse than I had expected 9 12 12 12
It was worse than I had expected 13 14 18 16
It was much as I had expected 14 14 23 20
It was better than I had expected 31 29 24 26
It was much better than I had expected 21 16 11 13
I didn't know what to expect 11 15 12 13
Unweighted bases 312 493 1937 2851

Table 5.12 Who was present at child's birth

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
No one else 3 1 2 2
Baby's father 71 83 93 89
Friend 3 2 2 2
Mother (in law) 57 41 11 23
Someone else 14 11 4 6
Unweighted bases 312 494 1940 2855

Table 5.13 Birth weight

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Low Birth weight 5 6 8 8
Birth weight not low 95 94 92 92
Unweighted bases 318 499 1985 2915

Table 5.14 Gestation at delivery

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Early 35 36 39 37
Late 57 53 48 50
On time 8 11 13 12
Unweighted bases 319 501 1987 2920

Table 6.1 Attendance at ante-natal classes prior to child's birth

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Yes and went to all or most of the classes 22 28 67 53
Yes, but only went to some of the classes 16 21 15 16
No, did not attend any 62 51 18 31
Unweighted bases 316 500 1986 2918

Table 6.2 Parenting programmes ever attended by time child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Did not take part in parenting programme 79 76 49 59
Took part in Triple P-Positive Parenting Programme 1 1 1 1
Took part in baby massage 16 17 42 33
Took part in Incredible Years Programme 0 0 0 0
Took part in Bricks & Mortar Parenting Programme 0 0 0 0
Took part in Mellow Parenting 1 0 0 0
Took part in baby yoga 0 0 2 1
Took part in swimming classes 0 0 3 2
Took part in baby sensory 0 1 4 3
Took part in tuneful tots (music/rhymes) 1 1 5 3
Took part in PEEP parent education 0 0 2 1
Took part in Book Bug/libraries 0 0 2 1
Took part in other programme 6 5 11 9
Respondent can't remember programme name 2 1 1 1
Unweighted bases 316 500 1987 2919

Table 6.3 Contact with health visitor in first three months after child's birth

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
More than once a week 8 6 5 5
About once a week 29 33 29 30
Two or three times a month 25 24 23 23
About once a month 16 18 24 22
Less often than once a month 17 16 15 15
Never 5 3 4 4
Unweighted bases 311 493 1934 2846

Table 6.4 Sources of information and advice used when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Childcare Link website / phoneline 1 2 2 2
ParentLine Scotland email / phoneline 0 0 0 0
ChildSmile website / dental services 22 28 27 27
Play, Talk, Read website 6 9 11 10
play@home booklets 9 14 19 16
None of these 68 60 55 58
Unweighted bases 316 500 1987 2919

Table 6.5 Preferred method of parenting information and advice when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
In person, on a one-to-one basis from someone like a health 58 54 48 50
In person at a seminar or group 1 2 7 5
In person from family or friends 28 29 21 23
Books, magazines or leaflets 4 5 8 7
Internet websites 4 8 11 10
Internet forums (e.g. Mumsnet) 2 2 4 3
TV programmes or DVDs 1 1 0 1
Something else 1 0 1 1
Unweighted bases 316 499 1983 2914

Table 6.6 Sources used for information of child's health when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Books/leaflets 7 12 21 18
Internet 3 12 21 17
Family doctor/GP 62 71 79 76
Respondents own parents 47 50 46 47
Partner's parents 9 17 20 18
Other parents 2 3 7 6
Respondents grandparents 5 6 1 3
Partner's grandparents 1 1 1 1
Other families 10 21 32 28
Practice nurse 6 5 5 5
Health visitor 36 38 37 37
NHS 24 28 31 39 36
Pre-school staff 1 2 4 3
Other carers 1 1 2 2
Other professional 6 4 7 6
None of sources 24 15 10 13
Age 4
Books/leaflets 3 7 11 9
Internet 9 12 23 19
Family doctor/GP 54 66 63 62
Respondents own parents 40 39 33 35
Partner's parents 6 13 12 12
Other parents 2 3 5 4
Respondents grandparents 6 2 1 2
Partner's grandparents 1 0 1 1
Other families 10 14 23 19
Practice nurse 21 21 16 18
Health visitor 6 8 8 7
Psychologist 2 1 1 1
NHS 24 25 30 28 28
Pre-school staff 9 7 8 8
Other carers 1 1 1 1
LA staff 1 1 1 1
Social workers 1 0 1 1
Other professional 6 4 7 6
None of sources 32 23 23 24
Unweighted bases
Age 2 167 325 1365 1863
Age 3 167 325 1365 1863
Age 4 167 325 1365 1863

Table 6.7 Sources used for information on child's behaviour when child was aged 2 and 3 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Books/leaflets 4 7 13 11
Internet 2 4 9 7
Family doctor/GP 9 9 4 6
Respondents own parents 25 32 25 26
Partner's parents 3 9 10 9
Other parents 3 4 8 6
Respondents grandparents 2 2 0 1
Other families 8 17 24 20
Practice nurse 18 20 14 16
NHS 24 4 2 2 2
Pre-school staff 5 4 5 5
Other carers 1 2 2 2
Social workers 2 0 0 1
Other professional 1 2 1 1
None 60 52 53 53
Age 3
Books/leaflets 5 7 12 10
Internet 2 6 12 9
Family doctor/GP 7 12 8 8
Respondents own parents 27 32 28 29
Partner's parents 3 10 12 10
Other parents 2 4 6 5
Respondents grandparents 3 4 1 2
Other families 11 19 29 24
Practice nurse 18 18 13 15
Health visitor 0 - 1 1
Psychologist - 1 1 1
NHS 24 2 3 2 2
Pre-school staff 7 10 10 10
Other carers 1 1 3 2
Social workers 3 1 0 1
Other professional 2 2 1 1
Other 1 1 1 1
None 58 49 49 50
Unweighted bases
Age 2 199 356 1432 1993
Age 3 199 356 1433 1994

Table 6.8 Services / individuals who saw child in last year when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Local doctor/GP 86 91 90 89
Health visitor 69 62 62 62
Practice nurse 10 17 19 17
Social worker 7 2 1 2
Child psychologist - - 1 1
Other professional 30 42 54 49
Other support service 2 - 1 1
No-one 3 1 1 1
Age 4
Local doctor/GP 81 81 79 79
Health visitor 41 33 32 34
Practice nurse 11 13 16 15
Social worker 8 3 1 3
Child psychologist 2 3 2 2
Other professional 45 50 57 54
Other support service 4 2 2 2
No-one 7 5 5 5
Unweighted bases
Age 2 173 340 1392 1911
Age 4 174 340 1392 1912

Table 6.9 Attitudes to receiving advice and support on parenting when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
If you ask for help or advice doctors/social workers try to take over 24 14 6 10
Professionals do not offer enough support/advice about parenting 20 18 14 16
Others would probably think that you were bad parent if get advice/support about parenting 30 17 9 13
Difficult to ask people for help/advice unless you know them very well 42 31 19 25
Hard to know who to ask for advice about being a parent 27 20 17 19
Unweighted bases 313 496 1973 2897

Table 6.10 Attitudes to receiving advice and support on parenting when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
If you ask for help or advice doctors/social workers try to take over 21 11 4 8
Professionals do not offer enough support/advice about parenting 22 21 15 17
Others would probably think that you were bad parent if get advice/support about parenting 29 25 17 20
Age 4
If you ask for help or advice doctors/social workers try to take over 21 13 4 8
Professionals do not offer enough support/advice about parenting 20 20 13 16
Others would probably think that you were bad parent if get advice/support about parenting 38 28 19 24
Unweighted bases
Age 2 166 327 1352 1851
Age 4 168 327 1355 1856

Table 6.11 How easy or difficult to find someone to look after child at short notice when child was aged 10 months

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Very easy 47 53 39 43
Fairly easy 38 29 35 34
Neither easy nor difficult 4 6 5 5
Fairly difficult 6 7 12 10
Very difficult 5 4 8 7
Would not do this - 1 0 0
Unweighted bases 316 500 1985 2917

Table 6.12 How easy or difficult is it to leave child with someone for a couple of hours during the day when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Very/ fairly easy 83 77 75 77
Neither easy nor difficult 3 5 6 6
Fairly/ Very difficult 13 18 19 18
Would not do this - - 0 0
Age 4
Very/ fairly easy 82 79 79 79
Neither easy nor difficult 5 6 6 6
Fairly/ Very difficult 13 14 15 14
Would not do this - - 0 0
Unweighted bases
Age 2 167 325 1365 1863
Age 4 167 325 1365 1863

Table 6.13 How easy or difficult is it to leave child with someone for whole day when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Very/ fairly easy 68 65 63 64
Neither easy nor difficult 12 9 8 9
Fairly/ Very difficult 20 26 28 26
Would not do this 1 1 1 1
Age 4
Very/ fairly easy 70 69 66 67
Neither easy nor difficult 7 9 9 9
Fairly/ Very difficult 24 23 25 24
Would not do this - - 0 0
Unweighted bases
Age 2 167 325 1365 1863
Age 4 167 325 1365 1863

Table 6.14 How easy or difficult is it to leave child with someone overnight when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Very easy or fairly easy 68 65 62 64
Neither easy nor difficult 9 10 8 8
Fairly or very difficult 20 21 26 25
Would not do this 3 4 4 4
Age 4
Very easy or fairly easy 64 67 63 64
Neither easy nor difficult 13 10 10 10
Fairly or very difficult 23 23 26 24
Would not do this - 1 2 1
Unweighted bases
Age 2 167 325 1365 1863
Age 4 166 325 1364 1861

Table 6.15 Who would mother call on for help with looking after child at short notice when child was aged 2 and 4 years

Mother's age at child's birth
Under 20 years old 20-24 years old 25 years old and above All
% % % %
Age 2
Former spouse or partner 3 2 1 2
My mother/father 72 68 57 61
Mother-in-law/father-in-law 6 13 19 16
My grandmother/grandfather 5 2 1 2
Sister/brother 5 5 7 6
Aunt/uncle/cousin 2 2 2 2
Friend/ neighbour 4 7 9 8
Child minder - 2 2 2
Someone else 2 0 1 1
None of these/would not ask for help 1 - 0 0
Age 4
Former spouse or partner 5 3 1 2
My mother/father 70 65 58 61
Mother-in-law/father-in-law 7 13 17 15
My grandmother/grandfather 1 5 1 2
Sister/brother 5 5 6 6
Aunt/uncle/cousin 2 2 2 2
Friend/neighbour 5 4 9 8
Child minder 1 1 2 2
Someone else 1 0 2 1
None of these/would not ask for help - 1 1 1
Unweighted bases
Age 2 167 325 1364 1862
Age 4 167 325 1365 1863

Contact

Email: Liz Levy