Part 3 - The Evidence
Robust external evidence in support of this Equality Impact Assessment (for example via published data or research) - focusing on people with intersectional/protected characteristics- is very limited. However there is also other wider data and lessons and learning which showcases the opportunity related to Scotland's Year of Stories and is relevant for the purposes of this Equality Impact Assessment. Details are set out below:
2009-2018 Themed Years and Homecoming 2014
Equality related learning and lessons from 2009-2018 Themed Years and Homecoming 2014 is:
- the availability of strong supporting data around tourism and events remains patchy; particularly related to ethnicity and faith. However what is available is a strong tradition of excellent partnership working and evidence from partner engagement and also representative groups can augment the information available from sources like the Scottish Household Survey, Census and other datasets;
- that overall- and across all groups- the welcome is crucial to both visitors and local communities;
- placing communities at the very centre of actions in support of equality has been central to the success of the multi-cultural celebrations. People are asked to celebrate in their own way, reflecting their own cultures and traditions and what Scotland means for them as their home; and
- given the broad reach of tourism and events the greatest value can be gained by supporting interventions which create a legacy for the future- for example the various toolkits and actions in support of VisitScotland's Inclusive Tourism Project.
- Evidence from engagement with representative groups highlights that one of the most effective ways to welcome all of the protected groups is through focused marketing and PR activity to underline the welcome and also to ensure that people see their communities reflected in media, for example in promotional images.
- Organisations such as BEMIS Scotland have confirmed that there is significant demand to join the celebration of Scotland's Year of Stories within the communities they represent, many of which are intersectional.
- Robust external evidence- focusing on people with intersectional/protected characteristics - in support of the Scotland's Year of Stories opportunity- is very limited. However there is available data showcasing the opportunity related to the wider population which will also be relevant for the purposes of this Equality Impact Assessment; including:
- literature plays an important part role in social cohesion – 81% agree that literature helps people understand other points of view (Literature in Britain Today, Royal Society of Literature, 2017);
- the vast majority of adults living in Scotland agree that Scotland is a creative nation (84%) (Creative Scotland Public survey on creativity, 56 Degree Insight 2020);
- 98% of the Scottish population have engaged in cultural activity from home during Covid-19 Lockdown (Creative Scotland, Covid-19 Population Survey 2020 (Wave 2));
- Scotland is a nation of readers with 71% of Scots citing reading for pleasure as their number one cultural activity in the past year. 85% of adults who read books did so at least once a week (2020 Scottish Household Survey, Telephone Survey 2020);
- according to "Reading in Scotland: reading over lockdown research by the Scottish Book Trust" (March- August 2020) during the pandemic:
- 65% said they were reading more than they used to during the pandemic;
- 60% enjoyed reading things they would not normally have read;
- 49% discovered a new favourite book, author or series;
- Daily fiction reading rose from 55% to 72%; and
- Daily non-fiction consumption more than doubled from 9% to 23%;
- over three-quarters (84%) of adults felt a very or fairly strong sense of belonging to their neighbourhood in 2020. This differed by tenure. 84% of adults who were owner occupiers reported that they felt a very or strong sense of belonging. The equivalent figures were 77% for those in the social rented sector and 61% in the private rented sector (Scottish Household Survey 2020, Telephone Survey 2020); and
- two-thirds of the population (65%) agreed that people in their local area would lose something of value if the area lost its arts and cultural activities (Creative Scotland Public survey on creativity, 56 Degree Insight 2020).
Age: (Children and Young People)
- The Scottish Household Survey 2020 figures show levels of cultural attendance, in 2020, were generally higher among the younger age groups, although there were differences in the cultural activities attended by younger and older age groups.
- 55% of adults aged 16 to 24 attended a cultural event or place of culture (including the cinema) compared to 23% of those aged 75 and over (Scottish Household Survey 2020, Telephone Survey 2020).
Age: Older People
- There is a clear relationship between the age of a visitor to the UK and the likelihood of them reporting a health condition or disability. 65% of those visiting with an impairment were over 55 in age compared to 21% of all inbound visitors to the UK (VisitBritain).
- "IPSOS – Tracking the Coronavirus Report, Scotland" has found that older people (over 55) are more anxious about returning to events than younger people (under 35). Those who are most worried about the health impact of the virus are most cautious about returning to venues and events. This includes older age groups who are generally most concerned.
- Older people continue to be at far higher risk of death from COVID-19. Older people may also at greater risk of social isolation (an objective lack of social relationships or meeting socially) due to COVID-19 since they are more likely to have been shielding and less likely to use online communication The impact of COVID-19 on equality in Scotland.
- Age UK highlights the following benefits of storytelling to well-being: "helps you feel less alone, boosts your mood, helps you remember the past, allows us to express our emotions and enables you to connect with other loved ones" (Benefits of storytelling for our well-being- Age UK Mobility).
Race/Multi-cultural and faith communities
- Feedback from BEMIS Scotland (who lead the multi-cultural celebration of Scotland's Winter Festivals 2021/22 season) is that there is significant demand amongst multi-cultural communities to join the celebration of Scotland's Year of Stories and to be a central component of its event programme. This boosts cultural diversity and provides communities with the opportunity to showcase their own stories, traditions and unique cultural heritage and also what Scotland means for them as their home.
- Previous Scottish Household Survey figures show the percentage of adults who attended a cultural event/place in the last 12 months varied by ethnicity of respondents (Scottish Household Survey 2020, Telephone Survey 2020).
- In 2019 Cultural attendance was highest for people from the 'White other' and 'Other ethnic' ethnic group (87% and 84%), and lowest for people from the 'White Scottish' ethnic group (79%) (Scottish Household Survey 2019).
- The latest available Scottish Household Survey 2019 figures shows the percentage of adults who attended a cultural event/place in the last 12 months varied between religious categories in 2019.
- Cultural attendance was highest for those who said their religion was 'None' (83%), and lowest for those who said 'Church of Scotland' (76%). For those who said 'Another religion', 'Other Christian' and 'Roman Catholic', the attendance rate was 82%, 81% and 79% respectively (Scottish Household Survey 2019).
- Early data showed that the COVID-19 virus was more deadly for people with underlying health conditions. Prevalence of some of these health conditions is known to be higher in certain minority ethnic groups, for example, Type 2 diabetes is 6 times more likely in people of South Asian descent and 3 times more likely in African and Afro-Caribbean people.
- Deaths among people from the South Asian ethnic group were almost twice as likely to involve COVID-19 than deaths in the Scottish / British White ethnic group The impact of COVID-19 on equality in Scotland.
- Storytelling has particular relevance for Scotland's refugees. As part of Refugee Week Scotland 2022, Edinburgh's Scottish Storytelling Centre hosted Immigration in Song and Story, an event for all focusing on the themes of leaving and moving, an issue which affects all refugees and asylum seekers:
- "By sharing the natural beauty and culture of their home countries through words and pictures refugee speakers have enabled listeners to relate to their own culture, allowing them to overcome misconceptions". Scottish Refugee Council Refugee Speakers - Transforming prejudice through dialogue and storytelling - Scottish Refugee Council.
- The Scottish Household Survey figures shows adults with disabilities or long-term health conditions (lasting or expected to last 12 months or more) reported lower levels of attendance at cultural events or places in 2020.
- Cultural attendance was lowest among adults with a physical or mental health condition that caused long term major reduced daily capacity. In 2020 only 32% of adults with a disability had attended a cultural event or place of culture, compared to 48% of non-disabled adults (Scottish Household Survey 2020, Telephone Survey 2020).
- Where figures are not held for 2020, the latest figures from the 2019 Scottish Household Survey are retained, showing that in 2019 for those whose condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 76%, and for those whose condition caused no reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 85% (Scottish Household Survey 2019).
- In 2019, which is the latest set of available figures, when cinema is excluded, cultural attendance for those with conditions with major reduced daily capacity was 46% and, for those with no condition, it was 80%. For those with minor reduced daily capacity, the cultural attendance rate was 71% and for those with no reduced capacity, the attendance rate was 78% (Scottish Household Survey 2019).
- Disabled people are experiencing higher death rates from COVID-19 according to data from England and Wales. Similar data is not currently available for Scotland The impact of COVID-19 on equality in Scotland.
Additional data from VisitBritain paper- inbound visitors to the UK with a health condition or impairment (October 2019)
- Visits: 711,000 trips or 1.9% of the total inbound overnight visits to the UK in 2018 were taken by those with a disability or those travelling within a group where a member had a disability.
- Spend: The total expenditure generated by those visits is estimated to be £483 million, or 2.1% of all inbound visitor spending in 2018.
- Individual impairments: health conditions or impairments most likely to be mentioned were those relating to mobility (but not requiring wheelchair use), mentioned by 29% of all visitors with an impairment. Deafness/partial hearing loss and having a long term illness were also prevalent impairments.
- Age: There is a clear relationship between the age of a visitor to the UK and the likelihood of them reporting a health condition or impairment. 65% of those visiting with an impairment were over 55 in age compared to 21% of all inbound visitors to the UK.
- Average spend and trip length: Those with a health condition and their travelling group are more likely to stay for longer and spend more than the UK inbound average (although spend per night is lower).
- Top source markets: USA is the biggest source market for this group of travellers; long haul markets Australia and Canada also feature highly. Spain is the top market for Europe.
- 8 year trend: Inbound visits from those with a health condition or impairment have grown by +7% in volume and +25% in value over the last 8 years. Visitors with mobility impairments that require a wheelchair have seen the most significant growth across this time, up +123% since 2010.
- Scotland consistently ranks in the top 3 countries for LGBTI equality in the ILGA Europe's Rainbow Index.
- LGBTI visitors do attach significant importance to the warm welcome they can expect from a destination and also how they will be treated in their accommodation and how safe they will be ("Wish you were here"- the Scottish LGBT Travel Report- Equality Network/VisitScotland research) Scottish-LGBT-Travel-Report.pdf (equality-network.org).
Where figures are not held for 2020, the latest figures from the 2019 Scottish Household Survey are retained, showing that in 2019 adults identified themselves as 'gay, lesbian or bisexual' were more likely to have experienced discrimination in the previous 12 months (22 per cent) compared to only (7 per cent of heterosexual or straight adults (Scottish Household Survey 2019).
Sexual orientation aggravated crime is the second most commonly reported type of hate crime, after race. With the exception of 2014-15, there have been year on year increases in charges reported since the legislation introducing this aggravation came into force in 2010 (Hate Crime in Scotland- 2021-22).
- In 2021-22 the number of charges reported with an aggravation of sexual orientation increased to 1,781, an increase of 10% more than in 2020-21 (Hate Crime in Scotland- 2021-22).
- "We shouldn't forget that many people in the past never found their own stories, and that many people today are still searching"- Quote from Stonewall article- Silence In The Library: finding LGBT stories in the library catalogue | Stonewall.
- The challenges of telling LGBT history are explored in this article for BBC History Magazine: LGBT History: What Are The Challenges In Telling LGBTQ Stories? - HistoryExtra.
Socio economic disadvantage
- Whilst 2020 figures are not directly comparable with previous years the Scottish Household Surveys in 2019 and 2020 show levels of cultural attendance increase as deprivation decrease as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). Adults living in the 20% least deprived areas were more likely to have attended historic places, museums and art galleries in the last year than those living in the 20% most deprived areas.
- The proportion of adults from the least and most deprived areas that had visited libraries was similar (Scottish Household Survey 2020 Telephone Survey 2020).
- In 2020 36% of adults living in the 20% most deprived areas had attended a cultural event or place of culture, including the cinema, compared to 53% of adults living in the 20% least deprived areas (Scottish Household Survey 2020 Telephone Survey 2020).
- In 2019, the last year figures are available, when cinema was included, there was a 20 percentage point difference in cultural attendance between the 20 per cent most and 20 per cent least deprived areas (71% compared with 91%) (Scottish Household Survey 2019). When cinema attendance is excluded, the difference was even greater, with 63% in the most deprived areas and 86% in the least deprived areas (Scottish Household Survey 2019).
- Socio-economically disadvantaged people are more likely to experience poorer mental and physical wellbeing, lower life satisfaction, and feelings of loneliness, all of which either have already been impacted by COVID or are likely to be impacted by an economic downturn and increased poverty. Age-standardised death rates for COVID-19 have been twice as high for people living in the 20% most-deprived areas compared to the 20% least deprived areas The impacts of COVID-19 on equality in Scotland.
There is a problem
Thanks for your feedback