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Addressing the gender pay gap: employer methods

This report presents the findings of 14 interviews with employers in the private and public sector.

This document is part of a collection


Footnotes

1. Scottish Government (2018) ASHE 2018 Scotland Tables, available at https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Earnings/ASHE-SCOT-2017.

The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) is based on a 1% sample of HMRC PAYE records. It does not include self-employed workers or those affected by career absences. Official gender pay gap statistics also exclude overtime payments.

2. ONS (2018) Gender Pay Gap in the UK: 2018. Office for National Statistics. Available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/bulletins/genderpaygapintheuk/2018.

3. SPICe (2018) The gender pay gap: facts and figures - 2018. The Scottish Parliament. Available at https://sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/published/2019/2/4/The-gender-pay-gap--facts-and-figures---2018/SB%2019-08.pdf.

4. Scottish Government (2018) Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings - Scotland Analysis. OCEAES: Economic Statistics. Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0054/00543278.pdf.

5. SPICe (2018) The gender pay gap: facts and figures - 2018. SPICe Briefing. The Scottish Parliament. Available at https://sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/published/2019/2/4/The-gender-pay-gap--facts-and-figures---2018/SB%2019-08.pdf.

6. The Gender Pay Gap Action Plan can be accessed https://www.gov.scot/publications/fairer-scotland-women-gender-pay-gap-action-plan/.

7. The Gender Representation on Public Boards (Scotland) Act 2018 can be viewed at http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2018/4/contents/enacted.

More information about policy developments in relation to early learning and childcare provision are available at https://www.gov.scot/publications/blueprint-2020-expansion-early-learning-childcare-scotland-quality-action-plan/.

For more information on the Scottish Government's efforts to increase the number of women in STEM, see https://www.gov.scot/policies/science-and-research/women-stem/.

8. GEO (2019) Employers' Understanding of the Gender Pay Gap & Actions to Tackle it - Research Report on the 2018 Survey. Government Equalities Office. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/770036/Employers-understanding-gender-pay-gap-actions-tackle-it.pdf.

9. Ibid.

10. IPPR (2018) The Fair Pay Report: How Pay Transparency Can Help Tackle Inequalities - Women and the Economy. Institute for Public Policy Research. Available at https://www.ippr.org/files/2018-11/the-fair-pay-report-november18.pdf.

11. Close the Gap (2018) A Road to Change? An assessment of Scottish employer reporting of the UK gender pay gap regulations. Close the Gap Working Paper 19. Link to full report available at https://www.closethegap.org.uk/news/blog/close-the-gap-assessment-of-scottish-gender-pay-gap-reporting-suggests-most-employers-are-/.

12. See ref. 8.

13. The Analytical Annex can accessed https://www.gov.scot/publications/fairer-scotland-women-gender-pay-gap-action-plan/, under 'Supporting Documents'.

14. GEO (2018) The gender pay gap in the UK: evidence from the UKHLS: Research Report. Government Equalities Office. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/706030/Gender_pay_gap_in_the_UK_evidence_from_the_UKHLS.pdf.

15. For an overview of the distribution of men and women in occupations and sectors, see, regarding occupational distribution: (in the context of the UK generally) House of Commons Library (2019) Women and the Economy. Briefing Paper No. CBP06838.
Available at https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN06838. Regarding sector, see The Scottish Parliament (2017) The Gender Pay Gap: Facts and Figures - 2017. Available at https://digitalpublications.parliament.scot/ResearchBriefings/Report/2018/3/7/The-gender-paygap--facts-and-figures---2017#What-is-the-pay-gap-by-industry-.

16. Gaucher, D., Friesen, J., & Kay, A. C. (2011, March 7). Evidence That Gendered Wording in Job Advertisements Exists and Sustains Gender Inequality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Available at http://gap.hks.harvard.edu/evidence-gendered-wording-job-advertisements-exists-and-sustains-gender-inequality.

17. Personnel Today (2018) Asking candidates about current salary contributes to gender pay gap. Available at https://www.personneltoday.com/hr/asking-candidates-about-current-salary-contributes-to-gender-pay-gap/.

18. ONS (2018) Gender Pay Gap in the UK: 2018. Available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/bulletins/genderpaygapintheuk/2018.

19. IFS (2016) Gender wage gap grows year on year after childbirth as mothers in low-hours jobs see no wage progression. Institute for Fiscal Studies. Available at https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8429.

20. See, for example: JRF (2016) How Flexible Hiring Could Improve Business Performance and Living Standards. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Family Friendly Working. Available at https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/how-flexible-hiring-could-improve-business-performance-and-living-standards See also Timewise (2018) The Timewise Flexible Jobs Index Scotland, available at https://timewise.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Timewise_Flexible_Jobs_-Index_2018.pdf. For research on the negative consequences for mothers requesting flexible working practices, see: EHRC (2016) Pregnancy and Maternity Related Discrimination and Disadvantage: experience of Mothers. Equality & Human Rights Commission and HM Government. Available at https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/mothers_report_-_bis-16-146-pregnancy-and-maternity-related-discrimination-and-disadvantage-experiences-of-mothers_1.pdf.

21. GEO (2018) The gender pay gap in the UK: evidence from the UKHLS: Research Report. Government Equalities Office. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/706030/Gender_pay_gap_in_the_UK_evidence_from_the_UKHLS.pdf.

22. For an excellent summary of the research here, see Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2017). The gender wage gap: Extent, trends, and explanations. Journal of Economic Literature, 55(3), 789-865. Available at https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jel.20160995.

23. See, for example, TUC (2016) Still just a bit of banter? Sexual harassment in the workplace in 2016. TUC. Available at https://www.tuc.org.uk/sites/default/files/SexualHarassmentreport2016.pdf.

24. Investors in People (2018) Perceptions of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace 2018. Investors in People. Available at https://www.investorsinpeople.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/IIP2237_IIP_IWD2018_BROCHURE_WEB_AWFINAL.pdf.

25. HM Government and EHRC (2016) Pregnancy and Maternity-Related Discrimination and Disadvantage: Summary of key findings. Available at https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/managing-pregnancy-and-maternity-workplace/pregnancy-and-maternity-discrimination-research-findings.

26. GEO (2018) Reducing the gender pay gap and improving gender equality in organisations: Evidence-base actions for employers. Government Equalities Office. Available at https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/actions-to-close-the-gap.

27. EHRC (2018) Unconscious Bias Training: An Assessment of the Evidence for Effectiveness. EHRC. Research report 113. Available at https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/research-report-113-unconcious-bais-training-an-assessment-of-the-evidence-for-effectiveness-pdf.pdf.

28. For reviews of this literature, see: Close the Gap (2016) Gender Equality Pays: The Economic Case for Addressing Women's labour Market Inequality, Available https://www.closethegap.org.uk/content/resources/Gender-Equality-Pays.pdf; and Employment Research Institute (2001) The Relationship between Actions to Promote Gender Equality and Profit, available here; Kingsmill, D. (2001) A Review of Women's Employment and Pay. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20070608062610/http:/www.kingsmillreview.gov.uk:80/.

29. E.g., Credit Suisse (2012) Gender Diversity and Corporate Performance, Available at https://www.calstrs.com/sites/main/files/file-attachments/csri_gender_diversity_and_corporate_performance.pdf; Credit Suisse (2014) The CS Gender 3000: Women in Senior Management, Available at https://www.credit-suisse.com/media/assets/corporate/docs/about-us/research/publications/csri-gender-3000.pdf; PricewaterhouseCoopers (2015) Mining for Talent 2015: A Review of Women on Boards in the Mining Industry 2012-2014, available at https://www.pwc.co.uk/assets/pdf/women-in-mining-2015.pdf.

30. E.g., Badal, S. & Harter, J.K. (2014) 'Gender Diversity, Business-Unit Engagement, and Performance', Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 21(4), 354-365; Ellison, S.F. & Mullin, W.P. (2014) 'Diversity, Social Goods Provision, and Performance in the Firm', Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 23(2), 465-481.

31. E.g., Campbell, K. & Mínguez-Vera, A. (2008) 'Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Financial Performance', Journal of Business Ethics 83(3), 435-451; Isidro, H., & Sobral, M. (2015) 'The Effects of Women on Corporate Boards on Firm Value, Financial Performance, and Ethical and Social Compliance', Journal of Business Ethics 132, 1-19.

32. E.g., Nguyen, T., Locke, S. & Reddy, K. (2015) 'Does Boardroom Gender Diversity Matter? Evidence from a Transitional Economy', International Review of Economics & Finance 37, 184-120; Liu, Y., Wei, Z. & Xie, F. (2014) 'Do Women Directors Improve Firm Performance in China?' Journal of Corporate Finance 28, 169-184; Ntim, C.G. (2015) 'Board Diversity and Organizational Valuation: Unravelling the Effects of Ethnicity and Gender', Journal of Management & Governance 19(1), 167-195.

33. E.g., Ali, M., Kulik, C.T. & Metz, I. (2011) 'The Gender Diversity-Performance Relationship in Services and Manufacturing Organizations', International Journal of Human Resource Management 22(7), 1464-1485; Joecks, J., Pull, K. & Vetter, K. (2013) 'Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Performance: What Exactly Constitutes a 'Critical Mass?', Journal of Business Ethics 118(1), 61-72

34. E.g., Dwyer, S.O., Richard, C., and Chadwick, K. (2003) 'Gender Diversity in Management and Firm Performance: The Influence of Growth Orientation and Organisational Culture', Journal of Business Research 56, 1009-1019; Rodríguez-Domínguez, L., García-Sánchez, I. & Gallego-Álvarez, I. (2010) 'Explanatory Factors of the Relationship between Gender Diversity and Corporate Performance', European Journal of Law and Economics 33(3), 603-620.

35. ONS (2018) Gender pay gap by business size. Available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/adhocs/008137genderpaygapbybusinesssize?:uri=employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/adhocs/008137genderpaygapbybusinesssize.

36. House of Commons (2019) Gender pay gap reporting: Government Response to the Committee's Thirteenth Report: Sixteenth Special Report of Session 2017-18. Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee. Available at https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmbeis/1895/1895.pdf.

37. Research from Women's Enterprise Scotland has estimated that women led 21% of SMEs. See https://www.wescotland.co.uk/research.

38. Scottish Government (2017) Women in enterprise: framework and action plan. Available at https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-framework-action-plan-women-enterprise/.

Contact

Email: joseph.ritchie@scot.gov

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