Cross Justice Working Group on Race and Workforce: progress report

Progress report from short life working group set up to provide a strategic and cohesive approach to tackling barriers to employment across the justice system and to support cross system learning.

Annex F: Literature Review

Name and Year of Publication

Type of Publication


Key Findings

Maier Barcroft, K., 2014. Diversity management and the political economy of policing (Doctoral dissertation, University of Stirling).

PhD Thesis

This thesis explores police diversity training in the context of broader political and policy changes in the policing field in the Scottish context.

Shifts identified in the delivery and embeddedness of diversity training in police training, and how it has changed to consider the emotional ecology of policing as defined by the occupational culture and how this this is defined by the broader changes in the political field. Recognises the changes in broader organisational values but the continued challenges and demands of policing.

Police Scotland Equality and Diversity 2021Mainstreaming and Equality Outcomes Progress Report

Official Report

Outlines key progression made in relation to Equality outcomes and demonstrates an increasingly diverse workforce and outlines initiatives being taken to encourage recruitment and progression.

Bury, J., Pullerits, M., Edwards, S., Davies, C. and DeMarco, J., 2018. Enhancing diversity in policing. Report prepared by NatCen Social Research for the National Police Chiefs Council and the Police Transformation Fund. Report

Commissioned Research Report NPCC

Based on a Landscape review, Rapid Evidence Review and Empirical Research

While progress has been made this report identified continued barriers in recruitment, retention, promotion, and progression in relation to diversity. Also stated one major issue was a lack of evaluation on these initiatives. Makes recommendations about embedding equality and diversity into the service, outlines practical measures that can be take and the requirement for strong leadership to ensure changes occur.

Rowe, M., and Ross, J.I., 2015. Comparing the recruitment of ethnic and racial minorities in police departments in England and Wales with the USA. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 9(1), pp.26-35.

Academic Article

Comparative policy analysis

This article explores police attempts to recruit minority ethnic groups in the US and in England and Wales and finds that despite progress, targets in the UK were missed. Furthermore, it suggests that while progress has been made other factors that impact on recruitment need to be considered to make further progress such as the police as an attractive career

Zempi, I., 2020. 'Looking back, i wouldn't join up again': the lived experiences of police officers as victims of bias and prejudice perpetrated by fellow staff within an English police force. Police practice and research, 21(1), pp.33-48.

Linked Reference Zempi, I., 2021. Nottinghamshire police: experiences of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) police officers as victims of hate crimes/incidents (externally) and of bias and prejudice (internally).

Academic Article/Original Research

A small Qualitative Study in one police force

This research in conjunction with Nottingham Police (see linked reference) this discussed BAME officers experiences of both external and internal prejudice. There was some evidence of positive experiences of some BAME officers but other reported experience of prejudice and discrimination and barriers to retention, progression and promotion were also made, the reports made a series of recommendations also.

Wankhade, P. and Patnaik, S., 2020. Collaboration and Governance in the Emergency Services. Springer International Publishing.


Mostly literature based

This discusses aspects of diversity and culture and explores all the blue light services including fire, police, and ambulance services.

Andrews, R. and Ashworth, R., 2018. Feeling the heat? Management reform and workforce diversity in the English fire service. In Fire and Rescue Services (pp. 145-158). Springer, Cham.

Book Chapter

Review of literature and quantitative analysis of existing performance data

This article used existing data to assess the extent to which diversity had improved in the Fire Service using quantitative multi-variate analysis. The conclusion was that while increased representation or particular groups had occurred this tended to be at entry levels, with gaps continuing in higher levels of the organisation. Existing organisational cultures perceived as a barrier to progression for BAME groups.

Hasan, M., 2021. Racist bullying of BAME (Black and Asian Minority Ethnic) women within police services in England: Race, gender, and police culture. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 23(2), pp.182-195.


Qualitative Research

Explores the issues of intersectionality but specifically the experience of BAME women in the English Police Service, it provides accounts of negative organisational experiences including around promotion and progression.



Back to top