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Coronavirus (COVID-19): ONS Infection Survey – antibody data for Scotland – 1 June 2022

Antibody data from the ONS COVID-19 infection survey published 1 June 2022.

This document is part of a collection


ONS Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey – Antibody Data – 1 June 2022

The COVID-19 Infection Survey aims to measure:

  • how many people across England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland test positive for a COVID-19 infection at a given point in time, regardless of whether they report experiencing symptoms
  • the average number of new positive test cases per week over the course of the study
  • the number of people who test positive for antibodies

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) publish estimates for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland on their website.

The underlying data displayed in the charts in this publication is available in the reference tables on the ONS website.

All results are provisional and subject to revision.

Main Points

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, the percentage of the adult (aged 16 years and above) population in Scotland estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the level of 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) remained high, at 99.4% (95% credible interval: 99.1% to 99.6%).

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, antibody positivity in adults (aged 16 years and above) has continued to remain high across all age groups in Scotland.

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, in Great Britain, the percentage of children (aged 8 to 15 years) estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the level of 179 ng/ml was high, at 95.5% for children aged 12 to 15 years (95% credible interval: 91.4% to 97.8%), and 94.6% for children aged 8 to 11 years (95% credible interval: 89.7% to 97.2%).

Information on this release

The antibody estimates for the most recent week in this publication include data from 9 to 15 May 2022.

The ONS antibody estimates are subject to continuous review as the coronavirus pandemic evolves. This week, we present the estimated percentage of adults (aged 16 years and above) in Scotland with antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at the 179 ng/mL level (see note 11). This release also introduces the reporting of antibody estimates for children (aged 8 to 15 years) for Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) as a whole.

In this publication, the following terminology is used:

  • Antibodies - the ONS measures the levels of antibodies in people who live in private households to understand who has had COVID-19 in the past and the impact of vaccinations. It takes between two and three weeks after infection or vaccination for the body to make enough antibodies to fight the infection. Antibodies can help prevent individuals from getting the same infection again. Once infected or vaccinated, antibodies remain in the blood at low levels and can decline over time.
  • SARS-CoV-2 - this is the scientific name given to the specific virus that causes COVID-19.

Modelled weekly estimates of the percentage of the population testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies at the 179 ng/mL level, from a blood sample, are displayed in the figures in this article, as estimates for week beginning date, showing the trend over time.

In this article, we have removed the 42 ng/ml level from figures, as all age groups have been at or nearly at 100% antibody positivity at or above 42 ng/mL for some time.

The most recent antibody data for the previously reported standard threshold of 42 ng/mL (up to 3 April 2022), and antibody data up to 17 April 2022 for the 800 ng/ml threshold, can be found in the reference tables on the ONS website.

All COVID-19 Infection Survey estimates are subject to uncertainty, given that a sample is only part of the wider population, so caution should be taken in interpreting the results.

The ONS blog on antibodies and immunity, gives further information on the link between antibodies and immunity and the vaccine programme.

Further information on methodology can be found in the notes at the end of this release and in the COVID-19 Infection Survey methodology article.

Antibody estimates: likelihood of testing positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, the percentage of the adult (aged 16 years and above) population in Scotland estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the level of 179 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) remained high, at 99.4% (95% credible interval: 99.1% to 99.6%). Please see note 6 for information on credible intervals.

Figure 1: Modelled weekly percentage of the adult population in Scotland testing positive for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at or above 179 ng/ml, 7 December 2020 to 15 May 2022, including 95% credible intervals

      In recent weeks, the percentage of adults aged 16 years and above who are estimated to have antibodies against COVID-19 at or above the level of 179 ng/ml has continued to remain high in Scotland.

Antibody estimates by age group: likelihood of testing positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, the percentage of the adult (aged 16 years and above) population estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the level of 179 ng/ml continued to remain high across all age groups in Scotland.

Figure 2: Modelled weekly percentage of the adult population in Scotland testing positive for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at or above 179 ng/ml by age group, 7 December 2020 to 15 May 2022, including 95% credible intervals

   In recent weeks, the percentage of adults aged 16 years and above who are estimated to have antibodies against COVID-19 at or above the level of 179 ng/ml has continued to remain high across all age groups in Scotland.

This release introduces the reporting of antibody estimates for children (aged 8 to 15 years) for Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) as a whole.

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, in Great Britain, the percentage of children (aged 8 to 15 years) estimated to have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at or above the level of 179 ng/ml was high, at 95.5% for children aged 12 to 15 years (95% credible interval: 91.4% to 97.8%), and 94.6% for children aged 8 to 11 years (95% credible interval: 89.7% to 97.2%).

Figure 3: Modelled weekly percentage of the child population in Great Britain testing positive for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at or above 179 ng/ml by age group, 29 November 2021 to 15 May 2022, including 95% credible intervals

In the week beginning 9 May 2022, in Great Britain, the percentage of children aged 8 to 15 years who are estimated to have antibodies against COVID-19 at or above the level of 179 ng/ml was high.

Methodology and further information

  1. Further information on methodology can be found in the COVID-19 Infection Survey methodology article.
  2. Antibody positivity is defined by having a fixed concentration of antibodies in the blood. Most people who are vaccinated will retain higher antibody levels than before vaccination but may have a lower number of antibodies than the threshold at the time of testing. A negative test result occurs if there are no antibodies, or if antibody levels are too low to reach a threshold at the time of testing. Therefore, a negative result does not necessarily mean that a person has no antibodies or immune protection.
  3. The analysis on antibodies in this bulletin is based on blood test results taken from a randomly selected subsample of individuals aged 8 years and over who live in private households. The survey excludes those in hospitals, care homes and other communal establishments. This can be used to identify individuals who have had the infection in the past or have developed antibodies as a result of vaccination.
  4. It is important to draw the distinction between testing positive for antibodies and having immunity. A person’s immune response does not rely on the presence of antibodies alone. It is not yet known how having detectable antibodies, now or at some time in the past, affects the chance of becoming infected with or experiencing symptoms, as other parts of the immune system will offer protection. A person’s ‘T cell’ response will provide protection but is not detected by blood tests for antibodies. Immune response is affected by a number of factors, including a person’s health conditions and age. Additional information on the link between antibodies and immunity and the vaccine programme can be found in the ONS blog on antibodies and immunity.
  5. More information about the COVID-19 Infection Survey in Scotland can be found on the information page on the Scottish Government website, and previous COVID-19 Infection Survey data for Scotland can be found in this collection.
  6. The model used to provide these estimates is a Bayesian model: these provide 95% credible intervals. A credible interval gives an indication of the uncertainty of an estimate from data analysis. 95% credible intervals are calculated so that there is a 95% probability of the true value lying in the interval. A wider interval indicates more uncertainty in the estimate.
  7. The latest week’s modelled estimate is subject to more uncertainty as it is an incomplete week of data and therefore more likely to change when more data become available.
  8. The sampling method for Northern Ireland is different to the other nations, inviting only people that have previously participated in a Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) survey, which could result in a sample of individuals that are more likely to get vaccinated. This should be taken into consideration if comparing antibody estimates across the four nations, since vaccine status and antibody positivity are related.
  9. The weekly modelled estimates use standard calendar weeks starting on a Monday. To provide the most timely and accurate estimates possible for antibody positivity, the model will include data for the first four to seven days of the week, depending on the availability of test results.
  10. The previously reported standard antibody threshold of 42 ng/mL was determined prior to the development of COVID-19 vaccinations. As the pandemic and vaccinations have evolved, the ONS have reviewed the way that it presents information about antibody levels and introduced two new thresholds: 179 ng/mL and 800 ng/mL (see notes 11 & 12).
  11. In the release on 13 January 2022, the ONS introduced the 179 ng/mL antibody threshold. Research by academic partners identified this threshold as providing a 67% lower risk of getting a new COVID-19 infection with the Delta variant after two vaccinations with either Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines. The 179 ng/mL antibody threshold was determined from analysis during the period when most COVID-19 infections were with the Delta variant. It is likely that the equivalent level of protection for the Omicron variant will require a different antibody threshold.
  12. In the release on 4 May 2022, the ONS introduced the 800 ng/mL antibody threshold. This threshold level has been chosen solely based on the test result data to provide historic estimates and is not based on any evidence on the level of antibodies needed for protection against Omicron, as this evidence is not yet available. The ONS may update the level used in antibody tests if research shows that an alternative level would identify changes in antibody levels earlier (antibody levels greater than 800ng/ml are currently under investigation).
  13. The test used for spike antibodies measures their concentration in ng/ml. The previously reported standard antibody threshold of 42 ng/mL corresponds to 23 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL using the World Health Organisation’s standardised units (enabling comparison across different antibody assays). This is the threshold that the test is CE marked against and approved by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, providing greater than 99% sensitivity and specificity in identifying people who have had a COVID-19 infection before (“natural immunity”) from people who have not. The antibody level of 179 ng/ml corresponds to 100 BAU/ml, and 800 ng/ml to 447 BAU/ml.
  14. The denominators used for antibodies are the total for each age group in the sample at that particular time point, then post-stratified by the mid-year population estimate.
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