The contribution of EEA citizens to Scotland: response to the Migration Advisory Committee call for evidence - evidence annex

The Evidence Annex sets out the main elements of the most robust date we have on migrants and migration in Scotland.


1. Anderson, B. and Blinder, S. (2017) Who counts as a migrant? Definitions and their consequences, Migration Observatory, Briefing, 17/01/17:

2. Ibid.

3. Switzerland is not included in the EEA (although it does belong to the single market).

4. Country Groups are defined as follows: EU14, EU8, EU2, European Union Other. For more detail about the countries in each group, see Introduction. All estimates are based on reported Nationality in each year.

5. Employment, Unemployment and Economic Inactivity rate are based on International Labour Organisations definitions. Employment rate is calculated based on number in employment aged 16-64 years divided by the population aged 16-64 years. Unemployment rate is calculated based on unemployed aged 16 years and above divided by the economically active (unemployed and employed aged 16 years and above). Economic Inactivity rate is calculated based on economically inactive (aged 16-64 years divided by the population aged 16-64 years).

6. Reasons for economic inactivity include: students, looking after family and home, retired.

7. 'Education' refers to 2007 Standard Industrial Classification division 85 Education. Includes primary, secondary and higher education.

8. It includes social work without accommodation, human health activities, residential care activities.

9. Estimates are only provided for EU nationals above. Data for non- EU nationals is more limited as this group account for a smaller number and percentage of all in employment in Scotland.

10. Further definitions and data can be found at

11. No information is included for the Energy Growth Sector in the table, as estimates of migrants employed in this sector are too small to be used reliably from the APS.

12. A broader range of economic data, including GVA, Export value and number of business, is published by the Scottish Government.

13. Non- UK EU nationals have a higher proportion of people whose highest qualification was "Other qualifications", which are those that could not be easily mapped to the UK qualification levels. These are likely to encompass a range of qualification levels.

14. Medium-High Skill - requires a body of knowledge associated with a period of post-compulsory education but not to degree level ( e.g. health associate professional occupations ( e.g. nurse, midwife, paramedic and construction trades). High Skill - requires a degree or equivalent period of relevant work experience ( e.g. teaching and functional management).

15. Medium-Low Skill - requires knowledge provided via a good general education as above, but will typically have a longer period of work-related training or work experience. ( e.g. sales assistant, retail cashier and healthcare/personal service occupations such as auxiliary nurse or home carer). Low Skill - requires a general education, signalled via a satisfactory set of school-leaving examination grades.( e.g. bar staff, waiters/waitresses and elementary cleaning occupations).

16. It is not possible to provide employment rates for Non- EU nationals due to the smaller number residing in Scotland and associated lack of reliability of associated employment estimates.

17. Lisenkova, K., McGregor, P.G., Pappas, N., Swales, J., Turner, K. and Wright, R.E. (2010) Scotland the grey: a linked demographic-computable general equilibrium ( CGE) analysis of the impact of population ageing and decline, Regional Studies, 44 (10), pp 1351-1368. Abstract available at

18. A brief description of the Scottish Government CGE model can be found here:

19. The modelling approach is the same as that adopted by PWC (2017) Facing facts: the impact of migrants on London, its workforce and its economy:

20. See: Borgy, V., Chojnicki, X., Le Garrec, G. and Schwelinus, C. (2010) Macroeconomic consequences of global endogenous migration: a general equilibrium analysis, Annals of Economics and Statistics, No 97/98, pp13-39:; Lisenkova, K., McGregor, P.G., Pappas, N., Swales, J., Turner, K. and Wright, R.E. (2010) Scotland the grey: a linked demographic-computable general equilibrium ( CGE) analysis of the impact of population ageing and decline, Regional Studies, 44 (10), pp 1351-1368. Abstract available at; Nana, G., Sanderson, K. and Hodgson, R. (2009) Economic impacts of immigration: scenarios using a computable general equilibrium model of the New Zealand economy, International Migration, Settlement and Employment Dynamics, Department of Labour, New Zealand Government:; Pouliakas, K., Roberts, D., Balamou, E and Psaltopoulos, D. (2014) Modelling the effects of immigration on regional economic performance and wage distribution: a computable general equilibrium ( CGE) analysis of three European Union regions, Journal of Regional Studies, Vol 48, 2, pp 318-338. Abstract available at

21. More details regarding the Economic Impact of Migration can be found here:

22. Scotland's Census 2011, National Records of Scotland, Table AT_096_2011.

23. Characteristics of Migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census, Scottish Government

24. Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee (2010) Fifth official report: Inquiry into migration and trafficking:

25. George, A., Meadows, P., Metcalf, H. and Rolfe, H. (2011 ) Impact of migration on the consumption of education and children's services and the consumption of health services, social care and social services, NIESR, December 2011:

26. Ibid.

27. Sime, D. (2014) 'I think that Polish doctors are better': newly arrived migrant children & their parents' experiences and views of health services in Scotland, Health and Place, 30, 86-93

28. George et al, op. cit.

29. Migrants who arrived in Scotland between the Censuses of 2001 and 2011.

30. George et al, op.cit.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid.

34. Kay, R. and Morrison, A. (2012) Evidencing the Social and Cultural Benefits and Costs of Migration in Scotland, University of Glasgow, Centre for Russian, Central and East European Studies, COSLA Strategic Migration Partnership:

35. Bell, B. and Machin, S. (2011) The impact of migration on crime and victimisation, LSE consulting

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid.

39. Scottish Government (2016) Scottish Social Attitudes 2015: attitudes to discrimination and positive action:

40. Annual Census of Agriculture, RESAS, June 2017:

41. De Lima, P. (2012) Boundary crossings: migration, belonging/'un-belonging' in rural Scotland, in Hedberg, C and do Carmo, R (eds) Translocal ruralism: mobility and connectivity in European rural space, New York, Springer.

42. Flynn, M. and Kay, R. (2017) Migrants' experiences of material and emotional security in rural Scotland: implications for longer-term settlement , Journal of Rural Studies, 52, 56-65:

43. Ibid.

44. De Lima, op. cit.

45. Flynn and Kay, op. cit.

46. De Lima, P. and Wright, S. (2009) Welcoming migrants? Migrant labour in rural Scotland, Social Policy and Society, 8:3, 391-404.


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