Publication - Report

Climate Change Plan: monitoring report 2018

Published: 31 Oct 2018
Directorate:
Energy and Climate Change Directorate
Part of:
Environment and climate change
ISBN:
9781787813113

The first annual report monitoring progress towards Scotland's Climate Change Plan.

109 page PDF

1.7 MB

109 page PDF

1.7 MB

Contents
Climate Change Plan: monitoring report 2018
Transport

109 page PDF

1.7 MB

Transport

Greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector have been reduced by 2% (1990 to 2016). The Climate Change Plan sets out policies and proposals to reduce emissions from this sector by a further 37% (2018 to 2032).

The Plan sets out the following eight “policy outcomes” for the sector:

1. Average emissions per kilometre of new cars and vans registered in Scotland to reduce in line with current and future EU/UK emissions standards.
2. Proportion of ultra-low emission new cars and vans registered in Scotland annually to reach 100% by 2032.
3. Average emissions per tonne kilometre of road freight to fall by 28% by 2032.
4. Proportion of the Scottish bus fleet which are low emission vehicles has increased to 50% by 2032.
5. By 2032 low emission solutions have been widely adopted at Scottish ports and airports.
6. Proportion of ferries in Scottish Government ownership which are low emission has increased to 30% by 2032.
7. We will have electrified 35% of the Scottish rail network by 2032.
8. Proportion of domestic passenger journeys travelled by active travel modes has increased by 2032, in line with our Active Travel Vision, including the Cycling Action Plan for Scotland Vision that 10% of everyday journeys will be by bike by 2020.

The decarbonisation of transport is a long term objective underpinned by sustained action. Because of this we expect to see the key indicators accelerate as we approach 2032, this is particularly the case as emerging technologies, underpinned by a range of behaviour change approaches, work through the system. As a result it is too early to make an assessment on the majority of indicators. But these will provide a valuable assessment of progress in future years.

There has been some progress in improving new car efficiency with average CO2 emissions for new registrations in Scotland falling by 27% between 2006 and 2016. However, progress between 2015 and 2016 slowed, with only a small improvement in this time period. It is too early to draw firm conclusions, but there will be a key role for sustained action on reducing vehicle emissions at a UK and EU level.

In Scotland, 1.2% of car sales were Electric Vehicles (EV) in 2017, up from 0.7% in 2016. The proportional growth of EV sales in Scotland was faster than the rest of the UK in 2017. We have introduced a number of initiatives to drive uptake, including: support for public sector fleet uptake of Ultra-Low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs); interest free loans for business and individuals; and funding for local authorities to take concentrated local action to support EV uptake.

Drivers of EVs in Scotland benefit from one of the most comprehensive charge point networks in Europe through Charge Place Scotland. This year we are aiming to add 1500 new charge points in homes, businesses and on local authority land and 150 new public charge points. Our investment in charging infrastructure will aid the pursuit of our ambition to phase out the need for petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2032.

The Government is committed to building an Active Nation, and to achieve this has doubled the previous budget of £39.2 million (2017-18) to £80 million in 2018-19. In 2017, for commutes of five miles or under, 4% of people cycled to work. This figure is at its highest level. In 2017, for commutes of two miles or under, 23% of people walked to work. This figure has decreased slightly between 2016 and 2017.

On buses, since 2011 the Scottish Green Bus Fund has enabled 363 low carbon buses to be purchased and early indications suggest that the number of low carbon buses is ahead of the trajectory for 50% by 2032. We are continuing to work with bus operators to improve data held on the number of low carbon buses purchased without the Scottish Green Bus Fund.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

Average emissions of new cars registered in Scotland have continued to reduce in line with EU/UK standards.

2018 2019 2020 2021
Total change in average gCO2e/ km (cars) 107 103 99 95

Most Recent Data: 120.0gCO2e/km for new cars registered in 2016.

Baseline Data: 164.4gCO2e/km for new cars registered in 2006.

Change: Change of 44.4gCO2e/km for new cars registered from 2006 to 2016.

Data Source(s): Scottish Transport Statistics[1].

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

The latest edition of the Scottish Transport Statistics (published in early 2018) provides trends over the past 10 years (2006 – 2016). The data show that the average CO2 emissions for new car registrations in Scotland has fallen by 27% between 2006 and 2016 and 1.2% from 2015 to 2016. 2017 data have not yet been published in the Scottish Transport Statistics but we are aware that progress has slowed.

EU legislation sets mandatory emission reduction targets for new cars. By 2021, phased in from 2020, the fleet average to be achieved by all new cars is 95gCO2/km. More years of data are needed before we can make assessment of whether we are on track to meet this EU target. The table above outlines a simplistic linear prediction for meeting the 2021 target, however, progress might not necessarily be linear - some years might see greater reductions in average CO2 emissions than others as manufacturers bring more efficient models to the market. It is expected that all major manufacturers will begin adding hybrid systems to their standard offers to reduce their emissions and meet the European CO2 targets.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

Average emissions of new vans registered in Scotland have continued to reduce in line with EU/UK standards.

2018 2019 2020 2021
Total change in average gCO2e/ km (vans) 165 156 147 -

Most Recent Data: 176.2gCO2e/km for new vans registered in 2016.

Baseline Data: 188.4gCO2e/km for new vans registered in 2012.

Change: Change of 12.2gCO2e/km for new vans registered from 2012 to 2016.

Data Source(s): Department for Transport vehicle statistics[2].

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

CO2 data for light goods vehicles only started being recorded in earnest in 2012, so only 4 years of data are available, compared to over ten years of CO2 data for cars. Average CO2 emissions in Scotland for new light goods vehicles registrations has fallen by 6.5% from 2012 to 2016 and 2.9% from 2015 to 2016.

EU legislation sets CO2 emission targets for new vans sold on the European market. For 2020, the target is 147gCO2/km – 19% less than the 2012 average. It is too early to make an assessment of whether we are on track to meet this target until more years of data are available. The table above outlines a simplistic linear prediction, however, progress might not necessarily be linear - some years might see greater reductions in average CO2 emissions than others.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

Annual share of biofuels as a percentage of total petrol and diesel sales in the UK.

2018 2019 2020 2021
Biofuels as % of total petrol and diesel sales* n/a n/a n/a n/a

*At the time of publication, the UK Government is taking a Statutory Instrument through the UK Parliament to amend the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation system, which will likely result in new targets being set in this area.

Most Recent Data: 3% of total transport fuel (road and non-road mobile machinery) is biofuel in the period April 2016-17.

Data Source(s): Department for Transport Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation statistics[3].

On Track: Insufficient Data.

Commentary:

The UK Government’s Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation mechanism requires fuel suppliers to ensure that a specified percentage of the road fuels they supply in the UK is made up of renewable fuels. It also requires suppliers to report on the actual percentage of the fuel they supply coming from renewable and sustainable sources. For the period April 2016-17, 3% of total road and non-road mobile machinery fuel was renewable and 99.96% of this renewable fuel has been demonstrated to meet the sustainability requirements.

We have indicated that there are insufficient data to monitor this indicator as there is no separate reporting mechanism for biofuel sales in Scotland. We are therefore unable to monitor how Scotland compares to the UK in terms of the proportion of road transport renewable fuel.

New UK biofuel targets came into force in April 2018. The changes will compel owners of transport fuel who supply at least 450,000L a year or more, to make sure the mix is at least to 9.75% by 2020, and 12.4% by 2032. Currently the industry is only expected to meet a target of 4.75% biofuel.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

Average emissions per kilometre of cars and vans registered in Scotland.

Most Recent Data: Average emissions of 142.4gCO2e/km for cars in 2016. Robust data on the average emissions for all vans registered are not available.

Data Source(s): Scottish Transport Statistics[1].

Commentary:

Average CO2 emissions for all cars registered in Scotland has fallen by 15% between 2006 and 2016, and 2.4% from 2015 to 2016.

CO2 data for light goods vehicles (vans) only started being recorded in earnest in 2012 meaning robust data on the average emissions for all vans registered (i.e. the stock) are not available.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

The outcome of changes in Vehicle Exercise Duty at each budget.

Most Recent Information: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/vehicle-licensing-statistics-2017

Information Source(s): Department for Transport vehicle licensing statistics[4].

Commentary:

Vehicle Excise Duty is charged on vehicles registered in the UK. For cars licensed after March 2001, Vehicle Excise Duty is charged in bands on the basis of their CO2 emissions. From April 2017 the Vehicle Excise Duty bands for new cars changed to require much smaller CO2 emissions to be in the lower bands, whilst making the higher bands larger.

The outcome of the 2017 Vehicle Excise Duty reform will be reflected in the April 2018 statistical publication. However, it is important to note that a range of factors, in addition to Vehicle Excise Duty, influences changes in the fuel type, efficiency and emissions of the vehicle fleet.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

Negotiations regarding biofuels are ongoing within the context of an EU framework. Scotland has engaged in the development of the approach.

Most Recent Information: The UK Government’s Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation.

Information Source(S): Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation statistics[5].

Commentary:

Scottish Minsters and relevant officials have engaged with the UK Government through the process of negotiations with the EU on regulations concerning biofuels, and the development of UK-wide systems, such as the revised Renewable Transport Duels Obligation mechanism.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 1:

Number of individuals and organisations who have completed fuel efficient driver training.

Most Recent Data: 1,967 individuals and 78 organisations who have completed training in 2016-17.

Data Source(s): Energy Saving Trust[6].

Commentary:

Fuel Good driver training is a driver training scheme established to help Scottish businesses and their employees save on fuel costs and reduce carbon emissions. Since 2011 more than 15,000 individuals and 360 organisations have completed the training.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Percentage of grant funding for charge points utilised each year.

Most Recent Data: 98.1% of grant funding for charge points was utilised in Financial Year 2016-17.

Data Source(s): Transport Scotland[7].

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

Local Authorities and the Energy Saving Trust aim to utilise 100% of the grant funding made available by Transport Scotland for installing charging points. This year (2018-19) £15 million of grant funding is available for Local Authorities, a substantial increase from £3.6 million in 2017-18. It is too early to assess whether we are on track to meet our commitment to phase out the need for petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2032 but this increasing investment in charging infrastructure will aid the pursuit of this ambition. This year we are aiming to add 1500 new charge points in homes, businesses and on local authority land, including 150 new public charge points.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Percentage of charge point installs completed each year.

Most Recent Data:

70 charge point installs completed by Local Authorities in 2017-18.

123 workplace installs completed by the Energy Saving Trust in 2017-18.

1024 domestic installs in 2017-18.

Data Source(S): Charge Place Scotland and the Energy Saving Trust[7].

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

Drivers of EVs in Scotland benefit from one of the most comprehensive charge point networks in Europe through Charge Place Scotland (www.chargeplacescotland.org). There are currently more than 800 publicly available charge points on the Charge Place Scotland network, including over 175 rapid charge points. We have increased our investment in infrastructure for 2018-19 to expand the Charge Place Scotland network and home charging with the aim of adding 1500 new public, domestic and workplace charge points across Scotland. It is too early to assess whether we are on track to meet our commitment to phase out the need for petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2032 but increasing number of charge points will aid the pursuit of this ambition.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Annual utilisation of the Charge Place Scotland network.

Most Recent Information: In 2017 the Charge Place Scotland network was used over 420,000 times by over 8,000 members.

Information Source(S): Charge Place Scotland[7].

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

There are been a year on year increase in the annual utilisation of the Charge Place Scotland network. It is too early to assess whether we are on track to meet our commitment to phase out the need for petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2032 but the increasing utilisation of the charge point network reflects the increasing number of EV owners.

Transport Figure 1: Increasing amount of power drawn each year on the Charge Place Scotland network

Transport Figure 1: Increasing amount of power drawn each year on the Charge Place Scotland network

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Percentage of grant funding for publically available charge point installations that is utilised each financial year.

Most Recent Data: £15 million of grant funding available to Local Authorities for the financial year 2018-19.

Data Source(s): Transport Scotland[7].

Commentary:

This year (2018-19) £15 million of grant funding is available for Local Authorities, a substantial increase from £3.6 million in 2017-18. This funding is for the installation of publically available charge points and for the installation of workplace charge points for local authority fleet vehicles. This year we have a commitment to add 150 new public charge points.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Percentage of grant funding for domestic/workplace charge point installations that is utilised each financial year.

Most Recent Data: £5 million of grant funding available in 2018-19 for domestic/workplace charge point installations.

Data Source(s): Energy Saving Trust[7].

Commentary:

This year (2018-19) £5 million of grant funding is available compared to £1.7 million in 2017-18.

Transport Figure 2: Domestic / Workplace Installations

Transport Figure 2: Domestic / Workplace Installations

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Percentage of publically available charge point installs that are completed each financial year.

Most Recent Data: 134 public charge point were added to the Charge Place Scotland network in 2017-18.

Data Source(s): Charge Place Scotland[7].

Commentary:

Chart showing the total number of public chargers on the Charge Place Scotland network by year:

Transport Figure 3: Number of public charge points

Transport Figure 3: Number of public charge points

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 2:

Percentage of domestic/workplace charge point installs that are completed each financial year.

Most Recent Data: 123 workplace and 1024 domestic charge point installations completed in FY 2017-18.

Data Source(s): Energy Saving Trust[7].

Commentary:

123 workplace charge points were installed in 2017-18, up from 82 installations in 2016-17.

1024 domestic charge points were installed in 2017-18, up from 472 installations in 2016-17.

Transport Figure 4: Domestic and workplace installations completed by year

Transport Figure 4: Domestic and workplace installations completed by year

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 3:

Average emissions of HGVs per tonne kilometre.

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Total emissions (gCO2e) per tonne kilometre of Road Freight Index 2017 = 100 98 96 94 92 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 78 76 74 72

Most Recent Data:

  • Goods originating and delivered within Scotland: Average emissions of 203.8gCO2e per tonne kilometre from HGVs (Heavy Goods Vehicles) in 2015.
  • Goods originating in Scotland and delivered elsewhere: 289.6gCO2e per tonne kilometre from HGVs in 2015.
  • Total goods originating in Scotland (delivered in Scotland and elsewhere) - Average emissions of 119.6gCO2e per tonne kilometre from HGVs in 2015.

Data Source(s):

  • Scottish Transport Statistics publishes the number of million tonne kilometres travelled by all goods transported within Scotland and to the rest of the UK by UK HGVs[1].
  • The Carbon Account for Scotland publishes emissions data for HGVs[8].
  • The measure is calculated by dividing HGV emissions by the sum of million tonne kilometres transported from Scotland to Scotland and to elsewhere.

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

It is too early to make an assessment of whether we are on track until more years of data are available. As emissions data are published approximately 18 months after the end of the year in question, the base year figure for 2017 cannot yet be established.

There are a number of initiatives that should positively impact upon the carbon emissions of the freight industry, this includes the following:

  • The Scottish Government has produced a series of guides and case studies through its Freight Best Practice Scheme to help the logistics industry save fuel, reduce emissions and increase safety. The guides help individuals to drive smarter and more efficiently to save money, develop skills and preserve the environment.
  • The Scottish Freight and Logistics Advisory Group has been set up to increase sustainable economic growth in Scotland, recognising the importance of freight in the transport sector. Amongst the aims of the group is to prioritise and co-ordinate action taken by industry in response to government policies, including carbon reduction.
  • Through its freight grant schemes, the Scottish Government helps companies choose sustainable rail and water methods to move goods. Taking freight off congested roads and moving it by rail or water can have environmental and wider social benefits but it can be more expensive. The Scottish Government runs three schemes that help offset these extra costs to encourage the use of rail or water transport instead of road transport.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 3:

Report on the number of ECO Stars member organisations and impact on emissions and fuel savings.

Most Recent Data:

  • 258 ECO Stars commercial vehicle members in Scotland as of August 2018.
  • 11 local authority ECO Stars schemes in Scotland as of August 2018.

Most Recent Information: Specific fuel savings are not recorded directly so only able to report on member numbers.

Data/Information Source(S): Transport Research Laboratory, who are responsible for ECO Stars delivery[9].

On Track: Insufficient data.

Commentary:

ECO Stars is a recognition and advice scheme, making suggestions for sustainable operational practice and fleet choices. Operators are not required to submit fuel usage information as part of their application, and as such these data are not currently recorded. Specific fuel savings and emissions reductions are therefore not possible to estimate as a direct result of ECO Stars membership. Success and impact of the scheme is focussed on recruitment of new members and continued engagement with existing members.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 3:

Report qualitatively against the actions outlined in the Rail Freight Strategy.

Most Recent Information: The Rail Freight strategy was published in 2016.

Information Source(S): The Rail Freight strategy[10].

On Track: Yes.

Commentary:

‘Delivering the Goods, Scotland’s Rail Freight Strategy’, which was published in March 2016, sets out a number of actions that are being taken forward by the Scottish Government, Network Rail and the Scotland Freight Joint Board. These actions are looking at new and efficient ways of transporting goods in addition to building strong and lasting partnerships to grow existing and new markets. Each freight train removes up to 76 HGVs from the road and per tonne of cargo, rail freight produces 76% less carbon dioxide than road freight.

The strategy includes actions to inform our High Level Output Specification (HLOS) which sets Network Rail’s regulatory outputs for the next rail control period (2019 to 2024). Our HLOS was published in July 2017 and includes a Scottish Gauge requirement, a specific output on the availability of cross-border routes for freight and targets to grow rail freight alongside freight performance and journey time improvements. The freight strategy and the outputs in the HLOS incentivise Network Rail to work with the wider rail industry with a clear focus on delivering our priorities for Scotland’s railways.

The strategy included specific promotion actions and we published our rail freight guide ‘Delivering Your Goods - Benefits of Using Rail Freight’ in February 2017. This short Guide gives an introduction to using rail freight and is aimed at companies and public sector organisations who may be unfamiliar with rail’s capabilities, but who could benefit from the resilience of a rail alternative for their supply chain. The Guide sign-posts to other more detailed sources of information.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 3:

Uptake of the ECO-Stars programme.

Most Recent Information: There are 258 unique ECO Stars commercial vehicle members in Scotland as of August 2018.

Information Source(S): Transport Research Laboratory, who are responsible for ECO Stars delivery[9].

Commentary:

There are no defined recruitment targets for ECO Stars membership, however, there has been good uptake rates with scheme geographic coverage continuing to grow. There are currently established schemes in 11 of 14 local authorities with Air Quality Management Areas, and plans to commence in a further 2. This will widen the target recruitment area for commercial vehicle members and subsequent potential scheme impact.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 3:

Progress in delivering the Rail Freight Strategy.

Most Recent Information: The Rail Freight strategy was published in 2016.

Information Source(S): The Rail Freight strategy[10].

Commentary:

There are 22 actions in the rail freight strategy, most of which have been completed, are on-going or are being taken forward through other channels. One of the key actions that has been completed is the identification and formalisation of the Scottish strategic freight network.

Also, following the publication of the rail freight guide, Transport Scotland, in conjunction with industry partners, hosted a series of freight commodity workshops in Coatbridge, Aberdeen, Inverness and Fife. The purpose of these workshops was to shine a light on the benefits of using rail freight, to look at the role of rail freight in the logistics chain, to hear from users of rail and industry experts, and to explain how rail could assist businesses.

In terms of investment, the current rail control period to 2019 has seen a record £5 billion investment in our railways, including a £30 million Scottish Strategic Rail Freight Investment Fund. In addition, the Scottish Government continues to administer EC state aid approved freight mode shift grant schemes which can provide capital support for infrastructure or revenue support for the additional costs of moving freight by rail or water instead of road.

Our 2017-18 mode shift revenue support enabled eight rail freight services move up to three million tonnes of freight by rail rather than road. Since 2007, £11.3 million in mode shift capital grants has been invested in 12 freight handling facilities across Scotland removing over 110 million lorry miles from road.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 4:

Proportion of bus fleet made up of low emission vehicles is 50% by 2032.

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Proportion of bus fleet made up of low emission vehicles (%) 13 15 18 20 23 25 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 50

Most Recent Data: Currently unavailable – will be available for future monitoring reports.

Data Source(s): Bus Service Operators Grant[11].

On Track: Insufficient Data.

Commentary:

We are currently unable to provide an accurate value for the percentage of the total fleet made up of low emission vehicles, however, indications are that the number of low carbon buses is ahead of the trajectory for 50% by 2032.

We know that there are 4,000 registered buses in the Scottish bus fleet (Scottish Transport Statistics, 2018). We also know that the number of low carbon buses that will be available via claims for the Bus Service Operators Grant Low Carbon Vehicle, however, reforms to data collection and assurance work is required. In addition, applications for more than 100 low carbon buses have been made for the eighth round of the Scottish Green Bus Fund.

A value for the percentage of the total fleet is subject to reforms to Bus Service Operators Grant data collection and assurance work, and will be available for future monitoring reports.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 4:

Number of low carbon buses purchased including those through the Scottish Green Bus Fund.

Most Recent Data: Currently unavailable.

Data Source(s): We know the number of low carbon buses purchased through the Scottish Green Bus Fund but we don’t have reliable data on the number of low carbon buses purchased without the Scottish Green Bus Fund.

Commentary:

The number of low carbon buses purchased through the Scottish Green Bus Fund for each year from 2011 is available here[12]: https://www.transport.gov.scot/public-transport/buses/scottish-green-bus-fund/#45456

46 buses were purchased with the seventh round of the Scottish Green Bus Fund and information on the eighth round will be added in due course.

We will continue to work with bus operators to improve data held on the number of low carbon buses purchased without the Scottish Green Bus Fund. This will allow for a total number of low carbon buses purchased to be provided.

Transport Figure 5: Number of bus purchases with each round of the Scottish Green Bus Fund

Transport Figure 5: Number of bus purchases with each round of the Scottish Green Bus Fund

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 4:

Annual low carbon bus expenditure through Scottish Green Bus Fund and Bus Service Operators Grant incentive.

Most Recent Data: £5.1 million low carbon bus expenditure in the financial year 2017-18.

Data Source(s): Scottish Green Bus Fund[12], Bus Service Operator’s Grant[11] incentive claims.

Commentary:

The Scottish Government provides funding support to bus operators for the additional costs associated with the purchase and operation of low carbon buses within the Scottish bus fleet. The Scottish Government is committed to accelerating the uptake of such vehicles, and continue to work with bus stakeholders on the level of support required to make this commercially viable now and in the future as the technology and its associated costs matures. The 2017-18 timeframe is to reflect the latest available financial year figures.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 4:

Numbers of kilometres run by low emission buses as a percentage of total bus kilometres.

Most Recent Data: 10.2% of kilometres run by low emission buses in the financial year 2017-18.

Data Source(s): Bus Service Operators Grant low carbon vehicle incentive claims[11].

Commentary:

As a greater percentage of the Scottish bus fleet become low carbon buses, the percentage of kilometres run will increase. The 2017-18 timeframe is to reflect that the data are sourced from Bus Service Operators Grant incentive claims covering the financial year.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 5:

Qualitative report on Transport Scotland’s input into port and airport strategies.

Most Recent Information: Transport Scotland.

Information Source(S): Transport Scotland[13].

On Track: Insufficient data.

Commentary:

Ports and airports in Scotland are primarily operated by independent organisations distinct from the Scottish Government and it is the responsibility of these organisations to operate their facilities in line with the relevant regulatory regimes.

We are aware that light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is being increasingly used across Scotland’s airports and ports leading to lower carbon emissions as a result of LED lighting using around 50% of the energy of previous lighting. Highlands and Islands Airports Limited aim to replace all building lights with LED by 2023 and all fixed apron lighting by 2024. Highlands and Islands Airports Limited has also invested over £2 million to date replacing lighting including at Benbecula Airport where 100% of the Aeronautical Ground Lighting has been converted to LED. Ports continue to explore options for shore side power to be provided to ships alongside (cold-ironing). Key examples include Fraserburgh Harbour Commissioners and Orkney Islands Council (Stromness Multi Modal Low Carbon Transport and Active Travel Hub).

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 5:

Qualitative annual report on Transport Scotland’s engagement with Scottish port authorities and airports.

Most Recent Information: Transport Scotland.

Data Source(s): Transport Scotland[13].

Commentary:

Ports and airports in Scotland are primarily operated by independent organisations distinct from the Scottish Government and it is the responsibility of these organisations to operate their facilities in line with the relevant regulatory regimes.

Transport Scotland regularly engages with Ports and Airports in a range of forums including discussions on how they can reduce carbon emissions as part of their own operations.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 6:

Number of low emission ferries in Scottish Government ownership.

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Number of low emission ferries in Scottish Government ownership 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9

Most Recent Data: 3 low emission ferries owned in 2018.

Data Source(s): Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (fleet owner)[14].

On Track: Yes.

Commentary:

Three diesel-electric hybrid ferries were delivered from 2011 to 2015 and 2 dual-fuel diesel/Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ferries scheduled for delivery in 2019 and 2020. The size of the fleet has expanded with the purchase in 2018 of the 3 ro-pax ferries serving the Northern Isles Ferry Services, previously on long-term lease. The size of the owned fleet has therefore risen to 33 ferries so the target of low emission ferries in 2032 has risen from 9 to 10.

The Scottish Government is supporting the Hyseas consortium in the development of a world’s first seagoing ro-ro hydrogen ferry. The consortium has secured EU funding to build and test a full scale hydrogen marine drive-train prior to installing it in a ferry earmarked for use on services within Orkney.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 6:

Update on programme of procurement through the Vessel Replacement Plan.

Most Recent Information: Vessel Replacement and Deployment Plan Annual Report 2016 was published January 2018.

Information Source(S): Vessel Replacement and Deployment Plan Annual Report 2016[15].

Commentary:

The latest Vessel Replacement and Deployment Plan Annual Report indicated that the next vessel to be procured for the CalMac fleet would be for the services to Islay. Revised delivery dates for the 2 new dual-fuel vessels were announced on 16 August 2018: Summer 2019 and Spring 2020 respectively.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 7:

The percentage of the rail track electrified.

2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Percentage of rail track electrified (kilometres) 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35

Most Recent Data: 25% of rail track electrified in 2015-16.

Data Source(s): Scottish Transport Statistics: Rail Services[16].

On Track: Yes.

Commentary:

The percentage of rail passenger journeys using electric trains is a more useful indicator than the percentage of rail track electrified. With the addition of three new electrified rail routes operating in Scotland during 2018-19, it is estimated that by summer 2019, 75% of all rail passenger journeys in Scotland will be by faster and more reliable low carbon electric trains. In comparison with the situation in 2016 the proportion of passengers using electric trains as opposed to diesel will have increased by 16%, at a time when significant absolute growth in passenger numbers has also taken place. ScotRail patronage has risen by over 30% in the last 10 years (to April 2017) with some 98 million passenger journeys annually.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 7:

Annual information on electrification is contained within the Scottish Transport Statistics.

Most Recent Information: Network Rail - Not National Statistics.

Information Source(S): Scottish Transport Statistics: Rail Services[16].

Commentary:

See information in the indicator above.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 8:

Active travel budget for the year.

Most Recent Data: £80 million budget for 2018-19.

Data Source(s): Scottish Government budget 2018-19[17].

On Track: Yes.

Commentary:

The Government is committed to building an Active Nation, and to achieve this has doubled the previous budget of £39.2 million per annum (2014-18) to £80 million in 2018-19. This equates to an average spend £14 per capita in Scotland.

Funding has been agreed for majority of this amount including:

  • Capital funding of £66.32 million
  • Resource funding of £6.28 million
  • Cycling, Walking Safer Streets £7.4 million

In addition, £6.56 million funding has been provided for sustainable travel behaviour change programmes (i.e. Smarter Choices, Smarter Places, Energy Saving Trust, CoMo).

We anticipate full spend of £80 million budget by March 2019.

Output Indicator For Policy Outcome 8:

Progress towards active travel vision.

Most Recent Information: Around a third of commutes to work under 5 miles are by active modes. The prevalence of cycling as the main mode of travel for commutes of under 5 miles has increased and is currently at its highest level.

Data Source(s): Scottish Household Survey 2017, Active Travel Delivery Partner reports (quarterly/annual), Annual Cycling Monitoring Report, Bike Life Reports, Hands Up Survey[18].

On Track: Too early to make assessment.

Commentary:

The active travel vision is a long term one for 2030; there are no existing measures or indicators for this although the indicator does reflect the emphasis on encouraging active travel for shorter everyday journeys (under 5 miles for cycling; under 2 miles for walking). We are developing relevant indicators as part of an Active Travel framework using Theory of Change that will allow progress to be monitored. The active travel budget has been doubled to £80 million this year, therefore it is too early to assess benefits of this, although we are encouraged by the rise in cycling as noted below.

Though no specific target has been set for this indicator, progress, particularly around increasing rates of cycling for short commutes has increased since 2012:

  • In 2017, for commutes of five miles or under, 4% of people cycled to work. This figure is at its highest level.
  • In 2017, for commutes of two miles or under, 23% of people walked to work. This figure has decreased slightly between 2016 and 2017.

Within this there are regional differences in 2016 data:

  • In 2017, for commutes of five miles or under, the figure of people cycling to work in Glasgow is the same as the national figure (4%) but higher in Edinburgh at 10%. This represents an increase in cycling to work in Edinburgh between 2016 and 2017 but a reduction in Glasgow over the same period.
  • In 2017, for commutes of two miles or under, more people walked to work in Edinburgh (35%) than in Glasgow (27%).

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 8:

Qualitative update on what has been achieved through active travel expenditure.

Most Recent Information: In 2017, for commutes of five miles or under, 4% of people cycled to work; walking is the main mode of travel for 23% of population.

Information Source(S): Scottish Household Survey 2017, Active Travel Delivery Partner reports (quarterly/annual), Annual Cycling Monitoring Report, Bike Life Reports, Hands Up Survey[18].

Commentary:

Grant awards in 2017-18 were for a mix of both infrastructure and behaviour change/training projects; we awarded £39.2 million to a range of delivery partners. Most of this funding was awarded to Local Authorities/other partners with a request for 50% match funding for programmes such as Community Links and Community Links PLUS.

The majority of infrastructure funding was issued to Sustrans for Community Links and National Cycle Network. Between 2011–2016, these have delivered 370 miles of newly constructed walking and cycling infrastructure, as well as 160 miles of upgrading/resurfacing.

A number of behaviour change programmes were delivered including:

  • 10,000 adults supported with training in 2017-18. This includes 1,200 bus and lorry drivers trained as part of vulnerable road user awareness courses.
  • A range of Cycle Friendly programmes to promote and support cycling locally and make facilities more cycle friendly by providing funding for improved facilities. Last year 9 Universities, 789 workplaces (with approximately 260k employees) and 418 School (approximately 130k pupils) were presented the appropriate Cycle Friendly awards.
  • School cycle training delivered through Bikeability where 36,000 children from P6 to S2 were taught to cycle safely and to learn how to manage traffic in 2016-17.

Implementation Indicator For Policy Outcome 8:

Qualitative report on the implementation and achievements of Smarter Choices, Smarter Places.

Most Recent Information: Smarter Choices, Smarter Places 2017-18 Programme Review from Paths for All, October 2018.

Information Source(S): Paths for All[19]

Commentary:

Smarter Choices, Smarter Places is changing people’s travel behaviours. It supports the sustainable transport hierarchy by increasing people’s knowledge and understanding of walking, cycling and sustainable transport as credible options for everyday journeys. It reduces the number of car journeys, miles travelled and CO2 emissions produced. In 2017-18 the programme was delivered in partnership with all Scotland’s 32 local authority areas for the first time. A very wide variety of projects tailored to meet local needs and priorities were delivered. Initiatives were focused on school, workplace and community settings. Activities included community and workplace active travel challenges; trialling new bus services; bus ticketing promotions; personal travel planning; maps and wayfinding to increase knowledge; social media and printed media campaigns to increase awareness, and events that helped promote walking and cycling as normal ways to travel. Successful initiatives have shown increases in rates of walking and cycling and increased use of public transport at a local level. Many of the initiatives are focussed on increasing the awareness of walking, cycling and sustainable transport, and early analysis suggest that the programme is responsible for well over half of Scotland’s population receiving pro-sustainable transport messages.


Contact

Email: Decarbonisation Division