Cleaner Air for Scotland - annual progress report 2017/18

Second annual progress report for Cleaner Air for Scotland strategy.

3. Progress across CAFS policy areas

Key to acronyms in the table:

AQAP – Air Quality Action Plan

AQMA – Air Quality Management Area

CAFS – Cleaner Air for Scotland

CAFS GG – Cleaner Air for Scotland Governance Group

EPS - Environmental Protection Scotland

FCS – Forestry Commission Scotland

HPS – Health Protection Scotland

JHPPs – Joint Health Protection Plans

LA – Local Authorities

LAQM – Local Air Quality Management

LEZ – Low Emission Zone

NHSBs – National Health Service Boards

NLEF – National Low Emission Framework

PfG – Programme for Government

RTPs – Regional Transport Partnerships

SAQI – Scottish Air Quality Indicator

SEPA – Scottish Environment Protection Agency

SG – Scottish Government

SEAP – Sustainable Energy Action Plan

TS – Transport Scotland

WHO – World Health Organisation

Where actions contain two or more distinct elements at different stages of completion, the action status has been split to reflect this. Where necessary, revised periods for completion have been provided, but will be kept under review, as in some cases delivery of these actions is dependent on ongoing changes to Government policy.

3.1 Communications

Objective Ref. CAFS Action Period for Completion Delivery Organisation Progress Delivery Status/ Revised Period for Completion
Communication Advice and information to key audiences on air quality  
C1 A Scottish Air Quality Indicator will be developed which will assist in assessing compliance with air quality legislation and delivery of CAFS objectives 2016/17 SG and contractor Easily understood environmental indicators are essential to communicate and report effectively on complex environmental issues, such as air quality. The Scottish Air Quality Indicator (SAQI) project was commissioned by the Scottish Government in 2016. The contract was awarded to a consortium led by the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), supported by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology and the University of Glasgow.

The final report was received from the contractors in September 2017. The outcomes from the project provide a sound basis for developing the SAQI, but the report identified several issues which require further consideration before the indicator can be finalised. A follow-up project is currently being scoped out, which will be undertaken by the University of Glasgow. It is envisaged that work on this follow-up project will commence in the second half of 2018 and be completed in the first half of 2019.
Significant progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
C2 CAFS will support the ongoing Greener Scotland communication campaigns, encouraging individuals to use the car less to improve their health and their local environment 2016/17 SG/TS The CAFS Communications subgroup, chaired by Environmental Protection Scotland (EPS) has established a revised terms of reference, with the emphasis on working with communications professionals from the CAFS delivery organisations, including representatives from Greener Scotland, to provide a quarterly forum in which they and wider stakeholders involved in air quality can share and develop communications opportunities.

The group will draw on key messages produced as part of the Air Pollution and Health Impacts project, and continue to support the ongoing Greener Scotland communication campaigns. This will further delivery of the CAFS objectives and raise awareness and understanding of air quality issues through events such as Clean Air Day, which also aligns with Greener Scotland campaign messages (see C3).
In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
C3 A national air quality public awareness campaign will be developed 2015-2020 HPS/SG/TS EPS is coordinating Clean Air Day (CAD) Scotland on 21 June 2018, on behalf of the Scottish Government and the CAFS GG. Building on last year’s national event, key messages continue the focus on outdoor air quality and encouraging people to switch from their cars to public/active travel and/or encouraging motorists to consider buying or hiring electric vehicles. EPS is working closely with communications professionals in the CAFS delivery organisations, to ensure CAD utilises any fresh information, campaigns or health updates and that CAD messages are conveyed using the correct links via their social media channels.

EPS is also working with the 32 local authorities in Scotland to organise a range of activities to promote CAD with the general public. Local authority-led events include a demonstration of electric vehicles and bicycles in George Square in Glasgow, together with awareness-raising for the city’s LEZ plans; road closures in Edinburgh to promote CAD and the city’s placemaking policies; CAD promotions in hospitals and NHS administrative offices; promotion of LA no-idling campaigns, and a range of other activities across Scotland. A YouGov survey on public attitudes to air quality is also being compiled. EPS will submit a post-event evaluation report to the Scottish Government. CAD supports the delivery of the CAFS commitment to ensure that the public are well informed, engaged, and empowered to improve air quality.

SEPA continues to support the national air quality teaching package ( This teaches pupils about air quality, the impact it can have and how they can influence it, as well as ensuring this message is fed back into the pupil’s home environment, thus reaching the wider population. A proposal is being taken forward to replace the current free sensors loaned to schools as part of the teaching resource, and to increase the scope of the teaching material. It is anticipated that these improvements to the package will be delivered over the next 12 months, depending on funding availability.

SEPA is also working in partnership with others to develop a mobile Cleaner Air for Scotland exhibit. This will complement the existing static exhibit located at the Glasgow Science Centre, launched in January 2017. The mobile exhibit will incorporate a pilot air quality technical version of the Place Standard tool (see P1) to capture the general public’s perception of air quality issues at each location. The initial funding will allow the exhibit to be located in the four cities that are currently undertaking LEZ assessments. Beyond this, it is intended that the mobile exhibit will be made available for each of the LAs that have Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) to promote local improvement measures.

Whilst all of these activities continue to raise public awareness of air quality as an issue, a priority for the CAFS Communications sub group in the coming year will be to draw these strands together into a more comprehensive air quality campaign for Scotland.
Significant progress

Ongoing delivery

3.2 Legislation and Policy

Objective Ref. CAFS Action Period for Completion Delivery Organisation Progress Delivery Status/ Revised Period for Completion
Legislation and Policy Local and national air quality management
LP1 A refocused Local Air Quality Management system will be implemented. 2016-2020 SG In 2016, as part of the Cleaner Air for Scotland (CAFS) Strategy, the Scottish Government launched a revised system for implementing Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) which included the introduction of Annual Progress Reports (APRs) and a change to reporting timescales to streamline the reporting process. The new single APR has led to a significant improvement in punctuality of report submissions by local authorities. This has been hugely beneficial to Scottish Government, SEPA and the local authorities and is a good example of collaborative working under CAFS.

No further changes to the LAQM system have been made during this CAFS reporting period, other than an update to the LAQM annual progress report template to allow local authorities to report on CAFS-related actions. Current ongoing work includes integration of the revised National Low Emission Framework (NLEF) into LAQM (see LP10 for further detail). SEPA is also contacting all local authorities with Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) to request an update and/or submission of final Air Quality Action Plans (AQAPs), and an assessment of current AQMA status with a view to considering whether any AQMA revocations may be appropriate, in line with one of the key overarching objectives of Cleaner Air for Scotland to see significant progress towards revocation of all AQMAs by 2020.
Significant progress

Ongoing delivery
LP2 A PM2.5 monitoring network will be established. 2016-2018 SG The PM2.5 monitoring network now contains 44 sites. Funding for an additional 10 sites has been provided in 2018/19. Complete
LP3 Revised and updated Scottish action plans will be produced to demonstrate how compliance with the EU Ambient Air Quality Directive will be achieved. 2015-2020 SG The High Court judgement on the second Client Earth Judicial Review in November 2016 required the UK Government to submit a revised UK air quality action plan and associated zonal plans to the European Commission by the end of July 2017. For the purposes of assessing compliance with Directive requirements, the UK is divided into 43 zones. A detailed plan for each currently non-compliant zone has been prepared to complement the overall UK plan. Four of the currently non-compliant zones are in Scotland – the Edinburgh Urban Area, the Glasgow Urban Area, Central Scotland and North East Scotland. The revised UK plans and zonal plans were published and submitted on 24 July 2017. The Scottish Government worked closely with the other UK administrations to develop the revised UK plan. The plan confirms that Cleaner Air for Scotland is the Scottish Government’s key approach for securing compliance with the relevant Directives and also outlines the proposed approach for establishing Scotland’s first Low Emission Zone (LEZ) by the end of 2018 and subsequent LEZs, and other policy interventions to improve local air quality up to 2020 and beyond.

The latest modelling undertaken to inform the plan indicates that Scotland will be compliant with EU air quality requirements by 2020, with the exception of a small number of roads in the Glasgow Urban Area zone. These roads include the former M8 ‘missing link’ between Baillieston and Newhouse, which has now been upgraded to motorway. For this modelling exercise the road was assessed as an A road, however separate modelling undertaken previously indicated that it would be compliant once the upgrade was complete. Further monitoring and modelling will be carried out to confirm that this is the case. This would leave two road stretches within the Glasgow city area as non-compliant. The Scottish Government, Transport Scotland and Glasgow City Council will work together to address this issue, with the aim of meeting the Cleaner Air for Scotland commitment of full compliance with EU Directives by 2020.

Scottish local authorities made an important contribution to development of the zonal plans. These plans summarise the wide range of measures being implemented by authorities as part of their air quality action plans, which complement actions being undertaken by central government and are also crucial to one of the overall aims of Cleaner Air for Scotland, which is to make significant progress in reducing the number of Air Quality Management Areas by 2020.

A response to the revised UK action plans submitted in July 2017 is still awaited from the European Commission. A further update will be given in the 2018/19 CAFS progress report.
National Modelling Framework (NMF) and National Low Emission Framework (NLEF)
LP4 Design, develop and implement a two-level modelling system for regional and local scales to provide evidence for appraising and identifying potential transport and planning solutions to local air quality issues. 2015-2018[1]

(local scale)
SG/TS/SEPA SEPA has continued to develop the two-level modelling approach as set out within the National Modelling Framework (NMF) in CAFS. The original date for delivery of the first LEZ was bought forward by 2 years from 2020 to 2018 in the 2016 Programme for Government announcement. As a result it has been necessary to focus the NMF work for this reporting period on progressing the local models to a stage where they can be used to provide the evidence base for LEZ implementation, with some resulting slippage for the development of the regional model.

Although there was some slippage with the peer review process for the NMF local/city model approach, this did not prohibit the development and refinement of the overall methodology and development of the models (see LP7). SEPA used this time to consult with the National Low Emission Framework (NLEF) group, refining the data collection and visualisation techniques. The peer review was finalised, and the main comments were incorporated within the final local/city model methodology which is now being used to gather evidence for the development of LEZ options - see LP7.
Significant progress

Ongoing delivery


(regional scale)
SEPA has acquired the Dutch air quality modelling methodology that has been legally adopted as the national model for the Netherlands. This has formed the basis of the approach for the NMF regional model, which has been developed, but requires further work before rolling out more widely - see LP5. In progress

Completion of regional model expected in 2019
LP5 Evaluate the requirements of a regional model and then support its development during the first two years of implementing CAFS. 2016-2018 SG/TS/SEPA SEPA has continued to develop the regional air quality model during this reporting period, and has tested the performance of the Dutch model upon which it is based against Aberdeen and Glasgow using the detailed traffic data obtained through the NMF city model process. However there has been some slippage due to a lack of regional traffic data available to support the regional NMF air quality model, the need to review the current traffic models available and as a result of the necessary focus on progressing the local model development to support LEZ implementation.

In order to continue with the development of the regional model, SEPA extracted the underlying traffic information from within the national noise maps, and will be approaching individual local authorities to investigate what further traffic data is available. However, the lack of good quality regional traffic information remains a major issue. SEPA is exploring ways to resolve this, and to develop a more robust data collection process in the future.

In the meantime SEPA will continue to use the local city NMF model traffic data to inform the regional approach within each of the four cities, and aim to identify what traffic data is currently available from wider local authorities to support the regional model.
In progress

Completion expected in 2019
LP6 Develop guidance and promote a support network for all practitioners involved in reviewing and assessing local impacts on air quality resulting from regional decision making. 2015-2017 SG/TS/SEPA A robust support network for the local NMF has been developed via the NMF and LEZ city delivery groups, and SEPA has taken on responsibility of providing assistance to other local authorities undertaking NLEF appraisals in the future, which will require a detailed local NMF model. SEPA and Transport Scotland continue to work closely with each of the cities developing LEZs to ensure a consistent approach has been taken nationally. Specific guidance on the use of the local NMF model is therefore not considered necessary.

Guidance for the regional model will be developed once the regional air quality modelling approach has been fully implemented – see LP5.
In progress.

Completion expected in 2019 for regional model guidance
LP7 Undertake detailed modelling of all four major cities and associated adjoining spaces in Scotland, covering areas associated with highest levels of poor air quality. 2016-18[2] SG/TS/SEPA The four local NMF delivery groups have further progressed the development of detailed air quality models for Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow, which continue to be reviewed and updated as required. Both Glasgow and Edinburgh have also set up LEZ Delivery Groups, but have maintained the NMF subgroups to provide technical support and the evidence base for LEZ interventions, through source-apportionment of transport emissions resulting in poor air quality in the relevant areas.

SEPA has continued to further refine the Glasgow air quality model, with Glasgow City Council providing a series of scenarios and areas for consideration to support the design of the Glasgow LEZ. The visualisation tools developed by SEPA for the Glasgow LEZ Delivery Group helped to facilitate discussion around appropriate actions including vehicle restriction schemes, based on the evidence provided by the model. These included restrictions on private vehicles and public transport within the city centre in relation to vehicle Euro standards.

A proposal for the collection of additional traffic information was made to help inform the development of the city’s traffic model. SEPA also held a meeting with the bus operators through the Confederation of Passenger Transport and have now begun to collect detailed bus information to provide more accurate vehicle classification in relation to individual routes and timetable frequencies within the proposed LEZ area and beyond.

Traffic data have now been processed for Edinburgh and the basic model parameters have been developed. Due to the location and spread of AQMAs in Edinburgh, the model build has been undertaken to cover the majority of the city. The initial model outputs are currently being tested against observed air quality data, after which traffic-related scenarios will be tested to provide the evidence base to support LEZ design.

The NMF model parameters have been developed for Dundee, with the model extending beyond the city area. Traffic data for Dundee was collected during September 2017, and provided to SEPA in late December. The traffic data is currently being assessed and validated.

The parameters for the Aberdeen city model have been extended beyond those used in the pilot project. Traffic data was collected during March 2017 and supplied to SEPA in June. After initial checks, further survey requirements were identified, and the final traffic surveys were completed by August 2017. The traffic data was uploaded to the visualisation tool for comparison with the previous data collected as part of the pilot project in 2012. Initial observations suggested that there had been some substantial changes in the traffic flows along the stretches of road next to the monitors during the intervening five year period. Background maps suggested harbour emissions were a significant source within the city centre, therefore detailed model runs have also been carried out on individual ship scenarios within the vicinity of the harbour to ascertain the level of impact from berthed ships.
Significant progress Ongoing delivery
LP8 Identify requirements and undertake data collection requirements for additional urban areas within three years of implementing CAFS. 2016-2019 SG/TS/SEPA The identification of further cities and urban areas requiring detailed assessment and modelling within an NMF city model will be progressed once modelling of the initial four cities is complete. The identification of these areas will be informed through the pre-appraisal process set out in NLEF (see LP10). Those local authorities that are required to progress through the NLEF appraisal will have the assistance of a local NMF model to ensure actions developed are proportionate and informed through robust local evidence.

As such, additional areas will be identified by 2019, with data collection and a local NMF model complete by 2020, to support implementation of future LEZs by 2023, as per the Programme for Government commitment.
In progress

Completion expected in 2019 /20
LP9 Implement the national databases for traffic data collection and local modelling outputs associated with CAFS. 2015-2017

(local model outputs)
SG/TS/SEPA SEPA has continued to collate air quality and traffic data for each of the four local models and present the data in a range of visualisation tools for local authority practitioners, alongside the publically available enhanced data analysis applications previously developed which provide a visual interface for live and historic air quality datasets. The local air quality model applications are password protected for local authority and partner use alone, as these will relate to the development of appropriate actions and NLEF option appraisals.

Using data collected from individual bus operators, SEPA is also in the process of developing operator-specific tools to enable them to consider improvement programmes in relation to vehicle Euro class, operation routes and frequency, to deliver the greatest air quality benefits on the most polluting routes. This approach will help to ensure successful delivery of the phased approach that has been proposed for Glasgow's LEZ.
Complete for local modelling outputs

(traffic data)
A centralised approach to the collation of traffic data generated across Scotland will support the continued development and use of the NMF regional model. The National Transport Data System (NTDS), managed by Transport Scotland, became operational in July 2016 and is collating automatic traffic data from the Scottish trunk road network. A public facing NTDS website is currently being developed to facilitate open access to the data. Further work is underway identify the most appropriate way to support the collation of data from other sources, such as local authority traffic data collected as part of the NMF process. Completion of traffic data element expected in 2018/19
LP10 By April 2016, in further consultation with partner organisations, the NLEF criteria, tests, and processes will be developed, agreed, and finalised. 2015-2017 SG/TS/SEPA An initial draft of the NLEF guidance was completed in April 2017. The document is currently being updated to take account of feedback on the initial draft from local authorities and SEPA to ensure integration with the existing LAQM regime, commitments in relation to the establishment of Low Emission Zones included in the Programme for Government (September 2017) and the outcome of the national consultation “Building Scotland’s Low Emission Zones - A Consultation” (March 2018), all of which have resulted in delay to publication of the final guidance. The intention is that the NLEF guidance document will be published in October 2018 subject to completion of any statutory requirements. In progress

Completion of updated guidance expected in 2018/19
LP11 A standard appraisal process will be designed and implemented for assessing local air quality measures. 2015-2017 SG/TS/SEPA See LP10 In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
LP12 Develop the software tools and associated guidance for the NLEF, including funding options and technical reports that will underpin the evidence on effectiveness of options. 2015/16 SG/TS/SEPA See LP10 In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19

3.3 Health

Objective Ref. CAFS Action Period for Completion Delivery Organisation Progress Delivery Status/ Revised Period for Completion
Health Protection of human health  
H1 World Health Organization guideline values for PM10 and PM2.5 will be included in legislation as Scottish objectives. 2016/17 SG In April 2016, the Air Quality (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2016 came into force. These regulations introduced into Scottish legislation the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value for PM2.5 of 10 μg/m3 as an annual average to be met by 2020. Scotland is the first country in Europe to include this WHO guideline value in domestic legislation.

Plans to adopt the WHO guideline value for PM10 remain on hold. Given that the WHO guideline value is less stringent that the current Scottish objective (20μg/m3 compared to 18μg/m3), it is possible that a number of local Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) could immediately be revoked following such a change, through having higher PM10 concentrations than the current Scottish objective but lower than the WHO guideline value. It is likely that most if not all of these AQMAs will be covered by new PM2.5 declarations once sufficient monitoring data is available, but in the meantime action on tackling fine particulate pollution could cease in these areas. This would be an unintended consequence of the change.

Therefore no change to the PM10 objective will take place until sufficient progress has been made with PM2.5. Given the significant expansion in the PM2.5 monitoring network over the last two years (see LP2), it is envisaged that by the time of the next CAFS progress report, sufficient PM2.5 data will be available to allow a final decision to be made.
Complete for PM2.5

On hold for PM10
H2 NHS boards and their local authority partners will include reference to air quality and health in the next revision of their Joint Health Protection Plans, which should identify and address specific local priority issues. 2016/17 Health Boards A survey of all NHS boards (NHSBs) in Scotland was carried out in late 2017. This identified that a majority of the NHSBs had either already included air quality as a topic in their current Joint Health Protection Plan (JHPP), or were planning to include it in the next revision of their plan (under preparation at the time of the survey). This was an encouraging finding. The initial results of the JHPP survey were shared with the Scottish Parliament Health and Sport Committee, which held an evidence hearing in relation to air pollution and health in early April 2018.

The content of JHPPs varied considerably; some included general points about the implementation of CAFS objectives and priorities, others included more specific items linked to plans for local Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) and broader objectives to improve air quality in their local areas. It was apparent that attitudes to the importance of air pollution as a topic varied mainly in relation to whether the NHSB was in a rural area, where air pollution is perceived to be less of an immediate threat or in a predominately urban area, especially in central Scotland where concerns related mainly to city centre pollution hot spots.

The NHSBs were keen to have more guidance on what should be included in future JHPPs to address air pollution, and made a number of suggestions. These suggestions for improving the content of JHPPs will be included in the proposed Air Pollution and Health briefing under development by the Air Pollution and Health Group (APHG), a subgroup of the Scottish Health Protection Network (SHPN) Environmental Public Health Group (EPHG).

The APHG, chaired by HPS, aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between air pollution and health in Scotland, develop initiatives to reduce the public health burden of preventable ill health associated with air pollution, and provides a mechanism of linking public health professionals in Scotland with the wider network of activities being undertaken under the auspices of the CAFS programmes. Recent topics considered by the group have included identifying options to support research to evaluate the health impacts of establishing the first Low Emission Zones (LEZs) in Scotland, and reviewing preliminary results of funded research work being carried out at Glasgow University to investigate options for the design of LEZs, to increase the potential for health improvement as well as to reduce air pollution levels.

The group will also be producing a briefing paper on air pollution and health in summer 2018, for circulation to all NHS boards and Local Authorities as an information resource. This will incorporate the latest data on air pollution monitoring trends in Scotland based on the latest report from the Scottish Air Quality Database (SAQD). In addition, previous work published by HPS in 2014 will be updated with the latest figures, providing estimates of the excess attributable mortality associated with (anthropogenic) PM2.5 pollution in Scotland. These show a trend for a reduction in average PM2.5 levels across Scotland since 2014, with a corresponding reduction in excess attributable mortality. It is planned to update this data each year. The briefing will also be used to provide links to other useful resources, especially those featuring toolkits on actions that local authorities and NHS boards can take to improve local situations, as well as suggestions for improving the air quality content of future JHPPs.
Significant progress

Completion expected in 2018/19

3.4 Transport

Objective Ref. CAFS Action Period for Completion Delivery Organisation Progress Delivery Status/ Revised Period for Completion
Transport Avoiding travel
T1 All local authorities should ensure that they have a corporate travel plan (perhaps within a carbon management plan) which is consistent with any local air quality action plan. 2016/17 LAs The LAQM annual progress report (APR) template has been updated to allow local authorities to report on CAFS related actions. A review of the information provided in the annual progress reports for 2017 indicates the following progress has been made:
  • 20 LAs have reported that they either have a corporate travel plan or a similar transport strategy in place, or were in the process of developing one at the time of reporting.
  • 4 LAs do not have a corporate travel plan or they have reported that it is outdated.
  • 9 LAs have not submitted enough information to determine their progress with T1 in their APR.
SEPA and the Scottish Government will consider what next steps or guidance may be required to encourage those LAs which do not yet have an appropriate corporate travel plan in place to ensure one is developed over the next CAFS reporting period.
In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
Active travel
T2 We will finalise and deliver the National Walking Strategy Delivery Plan by 2016. 2016/17 TS/LA The National Walking Strategy Action Plan was launched on 3 March 2016, along with a website and supporting infographic. This Action Plan is a high level plan that has been developed to assist in the delivery of the National Walking Strategy (NWS). The NWS Delivery Forum oversees the delivery of the Action Plan. The Forum is seeing strong progress against the Strategy’s overarching aim to create a culture where everyone walks more often. A strong endorsement of the National Walking Strategy is evidenced in the latest Scottish Household Survey which shows that more people year after year are walking recreationally (up to 67% this year). It is encouraging to see the greatest increase is in those aged 75 and over, who are amongst those most likely to be inactive. Complete
T3 We will work with partners to deliver our shared vision in the Cycling Action Plan for Scotland that by 2020, 10% of everyday journeys will be made by bike. 2016-2020 TS/LAs Progress towards meeting the headline shared vision of 10% of everyday journeys being made by bike has been disappointing. Transport Scotland are undertaking a broad programme of analytical work and engagement with delivery partners to better understand where we are making progress in improving rates of active travel and where we are not. Also, we have doubled the already record investment in walking and cycling, from £39.2 million £80 million this financial year. The doubling of the active travel budget – plus match funding from local authorities and other partners - will allow us to invest in major capital infrastructure and behaviour change projects, which will increase active travel levels and reduce emissions through modal shift to walking and cycling. In progress

Ongoing delivery
Public transport
T4 Support for green buses will be reviewed by 2016 including scope for supporting retrofitting existing vehicles, taking account of technological and market developments and the need to tackle air quality as well as climate change. 2016/17 TS Seven previous rounds of the Scottish Green Bus Fund (SGBF) since its launch in 2010 have provided grant funding of £16m, resulting in the addition of 361 new low carbon emission buses to the Scottish fleet. The eighth round, some £1.7m of funding, is currently open to applications. Bids will be considered and evaluated and successful bidders notified later in summer 2018.

Transport Scotland has committed to extending green bus funding, and is currently reviewing how best to align with developments in technology and markets to tackle climate change ambitions, as well as to improve air quality. We are also reviewing the level and type of support to ensure it remains appropriate to incentivise take up from bus operators.

The capital support will extend to both the marginal cost of green buses and infrastructure for the first time. The fund will start from 2019-20 to allow time for further development and for the industry to ramp up in terms of demand and supply.
In progress

Completion expected in 2019/20
T5 Evaluate the Bus Investment Fund in 2016 to learn from supported projects and inform decisions on options for future support for local projects to improve public transport. 2016/17 TS An internal Transport Scotland process review of the former Bus Investment Fund (BIF) has been completed to evaluate how the fund would be structured. The results will help inform decisions on future support for bus-related projects in line with ministerial priorities. Complete
T6 The Bus Operators Grant will be reviewed by 2016 including options to incentivise the use of low emission buses. 2016/17 TS The Scottish Government is maintaining the budget for the Bus Service Operators Grant (BSOG) at £53.5m as outlined in the draft Budget for 2018-19. At a difficult financial time, this shows continued commitment to supporting bus services across Scotland. The core BSOG rates for bus and community transport (14.4p/km) are being retained, illustrating the commitment to supporting the Scottish bus network, particularly in rural areas where BSOG is vital to smaller bus and community transport operators. The low carbon incentive BSOG rate (at 10.1p/km currently) has helped to bring around 500 green buses into the Scottish bus fleet.

Transport Scotland is continuing to look at future options for BSOG, in particular the Low Carbon Vehicle Incentive. Low carbon technology has moved on and costs have reduced since BSOG was introduced in 2010 and there is a need to ensure that the scheme is fit for the technology of today and tomorrow, financially sustainable and effectively integrated with other policies and schemes, including the Scottish Green Bus Fund.
In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
T7 By 2016, review guidance and legislation on the powers of local transport authorities regarding bus service to see if they could be made more effective and to ensure enough priority is given to air quality alongside other considerations. 2016/17 TS The Transport (Scotland) Bill, which was introduced to the Scottish Parliament in June 2018, and the ongoing National Transport Strategy (NTS) Review are both considering Low Emission Zones and bus services. Therefore, decisions on guidance to local authorities and regional transport authorities regarding bus services and consideration of air quality will now be made during 2019-20, to support the provisions of the Transport Act once passed and give effect to the strategic direction set by the NTS. In the meantime the current guidance will be kept under review in case there is a need for interim revisions. On hold

Completion expected in 2019/2020
Low Emission Vehicles
T8 Continue delivery of actions contained in Switched On Scotland: A Roadmap to Widespread Adoption of Plug-In Vehicles. 2016-2020 TS Transport Scotland’s ChargePlace Scotland network has expanded to over 800 publicly available EV charge points including over 175 ‘rapid’ charge points, one of the most comprehensive networks in Europe. Since 2012, the Scottish Government has invested approximately £15 million in the development of this public network and we will continue to work with all 32 Scottish Local Authorities, and private businesses and commercial operators through the Energy Saving Trust, to further develop and strengthen this network. Plans are in place to significantly expand the Switched on Fleets grant support to Community Planning Partnerships and the Low Carbon Transport Loan Fund for businesses and consumers in 2018/19. Significant progress

Ongoing delivery
T9 Review the Roadmap and develop a post-2015 plug-in vehicle action plan. 2016/17 TS/SG "Switched On Scotland Phase Two - An Action Plan for Growth" was published on 13 June 2017, and supersedes the previous Roadmap. The 2017 PfG commitment "to phase out the need for new petrol and diesel cars and light vans by 2032" further builds on the work of the refreshed roadmap's action plan and a delivery plan for delivery of that is now under development, for publication later in 2017. Complete
T10 Work with key partners to investigate the use of hydrogen as a transport fuel, as well as exploring wider environmental and economic opportunities of using hydrogen for energy applications – especially in promoting renewables, energy balancing and storage. 2015-2017 TS In line with the Scottish Energy Strategy, policy on hydrogen as an alternative low carbon transport fuel is now being developed by Transport Scotland in collaboration with Scottish Government colleagues in the Energy Directorate and the Enterprise Agencies, in tandem with thinking on the role for hydrogen in low carbon heat, energy storage, and energy systems balancing. Complete
T11 Continue to engage with our partners on the role less carbon intensive fuels such as liquid petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and biofuels can play in the transition to a near zero emission road transport sector by 2050. 2016-2020 TS In line with the Energy Strategy, it is recognised that the contribution of lower carbon alternative liquid and gaseous fuels will play a significant role in the transition to a decarbonised transport sector. Transport Scotland are working with Scottish Government Energy colleagues, as well as UK Government and relevant industry and academia stakeholders to ensure that policy in this area is most effective to encourage uptake of such fuels. In progress

Ongoing delivery
T12 Encourage each local authority with an AQMA to create a Freight Quality Partnership (or utilise an existing RTP Freight Quality Partnership) and consider appropriate measures for local air quality improvement by 2017. 2017/18 TS/LAs/RTPs The main forum for partnership working on freight is the Scottish Freight and Logistics Advisory Group (ScotFLAG). There is an Urban Freight subgroup comprising the lead freight officials of the Regional Transport Partnerships and local authorities, with a remit to share best practice, identify opportunities, and co-ordinate activity aimed at increasing the sustainability, safety and efficiency of freight movements in Scotland’s urban areas. Consideration is being given by the group to the first proof of an Urban Freight guidance document, with publication anticipated by the end of July 2018. This guidance also contains a section on Freight Quality Partnerships, and is expected to begin being implemented over the coming year. In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
T13 Encourage Freight Quality Partnerships to extend their activities to include consideration of the environmental impact of freight transport. 2017/18 TS/SG See T12. In progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
Regional and Local Transport Partnerships
T14 Review existing Ministerial guidance on Regional and Local Transport Strategies during 2016 in the light of the refreshed National Transport Strategy. 2016/17 TS/RTPs The ongoing National Transport Strategy (NTS) Review, recommended by the refreshed NTS published early 2016, will set out transport policy across Scotland for the next 20 years. The NTS Review will consider transport governance and take into account new and emerging City and Regional Deal Structures. Work is therefore unlikely to commence on a full scale review of Regional and Local Transport Strategy Guidance until the NTS Review concludes in 2019. On hold

Completion expected in 2019/20
Air Quality Management Areas and the trunk road network
T15 Trunk road impacts on AQMAs will be reviewed and implement mitigation where trunk roads are the primary contributor to air pollutants. 2016-2018 TS Transport Scotland has contributed to the development of the draft Crieff Air Quality Action Plan by Perth and Kinross Council. The key aim is to identify transport-related actions that could be implemented to mitigate air pollution, where the main source of pollution is from traffic on the A85. The draft plan is currently under review. In progress

Ongoing delivery

3.5 Placemaking

Objective Ref. CAFS Action Period for Completion Delivery Organisation Progress Delivery Status/ Revised Period for Completion
Placemaking Contribution of placemaking to air quality improvements
P1 Ensure that future updates and revisions to Scottish Planning Policy and the National Planning Framework will take account of CAFS. 2016-2020 SG Delivery of actions P1 and P2 has been held back, while outcomes were awaited from ‘Places, People and Planning: A consultation on the future of the Scottish Planning System’, and the associated Planning Bill. A clear understanding of the likely outcomes from the review was required, particularly on how development plans are prepared, whether supplementary guidance is required, and which guidance may be embedded in the National Planning Framework, before engagement with local authorities on the CAFS Placemaking actions could begin. A Placemaking subgroup of CAFS is now being set up, which will include the chair of the Placemaking subgroup of the Scottish Government Key Agencies Group to progress actions P1 and P2 further.

During this CAFS reporting period, an air quality-focussed ‘technical version’ of the Place Standard tool has also been developed in conjunction with the Place Standard Implementation Team to support the CAFS work, encourage more proactive consideration of air quality earlier in the planning process, and to enable better conversations within local authorities and communities of interest on air quality improvement measures, LAQM action planning, LEZs etc. This is currently being trialled in different air quality settings within Crieff, Glasgow and Edinburgh. The technical version of the tool will also be included in the mobile version of the Glasgow Science Centre CAFS exhibit (see C3).
In progress

Ongoing delivery
P2 Expect planning authorities to review the Local Development Plan and revise at the next scheduled update to ensure policies are consistent with CAFS objectives and any local authority air quality action plans. 2016/17 SG See P1. On hold

Completion expected in 2019-20
P3 Work with Environmental Protection Scotland to produce updated guidance on air quality and planning. 2015-2017 SG "Delivering Cleaner Air for Scotland; Development Planning and Development Management" was launched in February 2017. The guidance is intended to be used in the planning system for evaluating air quality. Environmental Protection Scotland (EPS) with assistance from the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) Scotland updated the guidance document “Land-Use Planning and Development Control: Planning for Air Quality”, developed by Environmental Protection UK (EPUK) and the Institute of Air Quality Management (IAQM).

EPS tailored this guidance to Scotland, given its different planning system and air quality standards and objectives. EPS’s air quality expert group, which is chaired by Ricardo Energy and Environment, and includes members from SEPA, local authorities, consultants, and the Scottish Government all provided comments and input to the document.
P4 Work with SEPA to introduce air quality training for local authority spatial and transport planners. 2015-2017 SG The air quality training package for planners is now in the final stages of development by SEPA, and materials are being updated to take account of outcomes from the planning review. Delivery has been trialled with SEPA planners, and local authority planning volunteers. A delivery plan is being developed for rolling the training out more widely to local authority transport and land-use planners during 2018/19. Significant progress

Completion expected in 2018/19
P5 Support SEPA in revising its guidance on Strategic Environmental Assessment to bring it into line with CAFS. 2015-2017 SG SEPA published its revised Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) air quality guidance in April 2017. Representatives from the CAFS Governance Group engaged with the appropriate leads in SEPA, to ensure the revised guidance took account of CAFS. Complete

3.6 Climate Change

Objective Ref. CAFS Action Period for Completion Delivery Organisation Progress Delivery Status/ Revised Period for Completion
Climate Change Effective co-ordination of climate change and air quality policies to deliver co-benefits
CC1 Ensure that future updates to the ‘Low Carbon Scotland: Meeting Our Emissions Reduction Targets’ publication on meeting our climate change targets take into account air quality impacts. 2016/17 SG To ensure that updates to the next Scottish Climate Change Plan took air quality impacts into account, a CAFS Climate Change Sub-group was brought together, drawing widely on the expertise in relevant organisations throughout Scotland. Following even wider consultation, advice and challenge, the Sub-group completed its report “Synergies and Tensions between Climate Change and Air Quality Actions” in October 2016. The report, including 50 key findings, was submitted to the Scottish Government teams drafting the next Scottish Climate Change Plan. The Sub-group also contributed to the work of a UK cross-department group that has been set up to explore the requirements and opportunities for cross disciplinary research to provide a stronger evidence base for analysing the synergies and tensions of policy and regulation of air quality and climate change Complete
CC2 Expect any Scottish local authority which has or is currently developing a Sustainable Energy Action Plan to ensure that air quality considerations are covered. 2018/19 SG/LA The LAQM annual progress report (APR) template has been updated to allow local authorities to report on CAFS related actions. A review of the information provided in the annual progress reports for 2017 indicates the following progress has been made:
  • 12 authorities have reported that they have a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) which includes air quality considerations, or are currently developing a SEAP.
  • 2 authorities do not have a formally adopted SEAP and are not in the process of developing one at this time.
  • 18 authorities have not submitted enough information to determine their progress with action CC2. Although most have climate change policies of some sort, it is not clear if they take air quality policies in to consideration.
SEPA and Scottish Government will consider what next steps or guidance may be required to encourage those LAs developing SEAPs to ensure air quality is considered to ensure air quality is considered.
In progress

Ongoing delivery
CC3 The Forestry Commission Scotland will publish updated guidance on the impact of biomass on air quality to help local authorities fulfil their statutory responsibilities. 2015-2017 FCS In November 2014 the then Minister for Business, Energy & Tourism met with local authorities to discuss biomass procurement. Attendees requested clarification on existing legislation and guidance relating to air quality and biomass boilers installed under the Renewable Heat Incentive. Consequently, Forestry Commission Scotland has produced guidance on this issue which was published in November 2015. Complete


Email: Andrew Taylor

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