The BSE epidemic resulted from the feeding of cattle with mammalian meat and bone meal derived from cattle infected with BSE. Experiments have shown that as little as one thousandth of a gram of BSE-infected brain material is sufficient to infect a calf. Effective feed controls are key to the eradication of BSE.
With certain exceptions, it is illegal to feed animal proteins to farmed animals, and there are strict controls on the storage and use of pet food and fish meal on farms. There are authorisation and registration requirements to produce feed containing the following ingredients, or for farmers to use or store feed containing them:
- fish meal
- blood products
- blood meal (only to be fed to farmed fish)
- dicalcium phosphate or tricalcium phosphate
Feed mills, on-farm mixers or mobile mixers who wish to use the above ingredients to produce feed for non-ruminants such as pigs, poultry or farmed fish require authorisation.
Farmers who do not manufacture feed, but wish to use or store non-ruminant feedingstuffs containing the above ingredients, on farms where ruminant animals (such as cattle, goats or sheep) are also kept, require registration.
EU-wide feed controls
Regulation (EC) No.999/2001 introduced EU controls to combat the spread of BSE. The measures included a ban on the feeding of processed animal proteins to animals which are kept, fattened or bred for the production of food. Some of these measures have been amended in line with the European Commission's TSE Roadmap and further amendments are possible in the future. The Regulation is administered by the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Regulations.
Feed controls at a glance
|Farmed animals other than fur animals||Pets and fur animals|
|Ruminants||Non-ruminants (except fish)||Fish|
|Ruminant PAP, including ruminant blood meal||NA||NA||NA||A|
|Non-ruminant PAP, including non-ruminant blood meal and insect PAP, but excluding fishmeal||NA||NA||A||A|
|Blood products from ruminants||NA||NA||NA||A|
|Gelatine and collagen from ruminants||NA||NA||NA||A|
|Hydrolysed proteins other than those derived from non-ruminants or from ruminant hides and skins||NA||NA||NA||A|
|Blood products from non-ruminants||NA||A||A||A|
|Di and tricalcium phosphate of animal origin||NA||A||A||A|
|Hydrolysed proteins from non-ruminants or from ruminant hides and skins||A||A||A||A|
|Gelatine and collagen from non-ruminants||A||A||A||A|
|Egg, egg products, milk, milk products, colostrum||A||A||A||A|
|Animal proteins other than the above mentioned ones||NA||A||A||A|
* Milk replacers containing fishmeal and intended only for unweaned ruminants are authorised.
Ruminants: cattle, sheep, goats
Non-ruminant animals: poultry, fish, pigs
PAP: processed animal protein, also referred to as 'meat and bone meal', high protein feedstuff derived from animals at rendering
NA: not allowed
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