Publication - Progress report

Annual Fish Farm Production Survey 2012

Published: 9 Sep 2013
Part of:
Marine and fisheries
ISBN:
9781782568384

Annual Fish Farm Production Survey 2012

54 page PDF

2.0 MB

54 page PDF

2.0 MB

Contents
Annual Fish Farm Production Survey 2012
2. ATLANTIC SALMON (Salmo salar) - OVA AND SMOLTS

54 page PDF

2.0 MB

2. ATLANTIC SALMON ( Salmo salar) - OVA AND SMOLTS

Production survey information was collected from all 28 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 100 active sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater industry operating in Scotland.

Company and Site Data

Table 12: Number of companies and sites in production during 2004-2012

Year No. of companies No. of sites
2004 48 172
2005 41 148
2006 39 135
2007 37 135
2008 38 130
2009 30 105
2010 31 104
2011 28 98
2012 28 100

In 2012 the number of companies authorised by the Scottish Government and actively engaged in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon remained at 28. A total of 100 sites were actively engaged in commercial production.

Production and Staffing

Table 13: Number (000's) of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt productivity during 2002-2012

Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number (000's) of smolts produced 47,161 44,414 39,999 36,326 40,827 38,125 36,450 36,868 36,872 43,626 44,324
Staffing Full-time 312 291 259 200 209 217 209 216 233 225 235
Part-time 93 82 60 74 62 62 54 54 56 68 93
Total 405 373 319 274 271 279 263 270 289 293 328
Productivity, 000's of smolts per person 116.4 119.1 125.4 132.6 150.6 136.6 138.6 136.5 127.6 148.9 135.1

Smolt production in 2012 increased by 1.6% compared to 2011. The number of staff employed increased by 35 and productivity decreased by 9.3%, to a figure of 135,100 smolts produced per employee.

Escapes

There was one incident involving the loss of 3,180 fish from a freshwater Atlantic salmon site in 2012. There was one additional reported incident where the farm confirmed there was no loss of fish.

Smolts by Age Group

Table 14: Number of smolts (000's) produced by type during 2001-2012

Year S1 S1½ S2 Total
2001 14,684 32,732 110 20 47,546
2002 15,791 30,527 843 0 47,161
2003 14,907 28,836 671 0 44,414
2004 14,428 24,862 709 0 39,999
2005 12,639 22,197 1,489 1 36,326
2006 16,953 23,172 698 4 40,827
2007 15,431 22,694 0 0 38,125
2008 12,431 24,019 0 0 36,450
2009 13,837 23,031 0 0 36,868
2010 14,116 22,756 0 0 36,872
2011 17,233 26,393 0 0 43,626
2012 18,795 25,239 290 0 44,324

In 2012, production was dominated by S1 smolts, although numbers produced decreased by 4.4%. The production of S½ smolts increased by 9.1%. A small amount of S1½ smolts were produced and there was no production of S2 smolts.

Production Systems

Table 15: Number and capacity of production systems during 2008-2012

System No. of sites with system Total capacity, 000's cubic metres
Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Cages 53 47 45 44 43 385 388 401 325 349
Tanks and Raceways 77 58 59 54 57 41 37 38 49 51
Total 130 105 104 98 100 426 425 439 374 400

The principal types of facility used for the production of smolts in fresh water are cages or tanks and raceways. In 2012, the number of farms using tanks and raceways increased by three and the number of farms using cages decreased by one. In terms of volume, tank and raceway capacity increased by 2,000 m³ and cage volume increased by 24,000 m³. This resulted in a net increase in volume of 26,000 m³ available for the production of smolts in Scotland during 2012.

Table 16: Number (000's) of smolts produced and stocking densities by production system during 2008-2012

Year Number of smolts produced (000's) Stocking densities (smolts/m 3)
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Cages 17,065 17,041 20,333 23,135 26,882 44 44 51 71 77
All others 19,385 19,827 16,539 20,491 17,442 472 536 435 418 342
Total 36,450 36,868 36,872 43,626 44,324 - - - - -

The average stocking densities of cages increased from 71 to 77 fish per m³ in 2012 compared to 2011 while densities in tanks and raceways decreased from 418 to 342 fish per m³.

Ova Production

Table 17: Number (000's) of salmon ova produced during 2005-2012

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
No. of ova 73,211 60,941 83,822 135,230 91,964 91,655 78,208 90,489

Just over 90.4 million ova were stripped in 2012, an increase of nearly 12.3 million (15.7%) on the 2011 season.

Table 18: Source, number (000's) and previous year's estimate of ova laid down to hatch during 2001-2013

Year In-house broodstock Out-sourced GB broodstock GB wild broodstock Foreign ova Total Previous year's estimate
2001 40,086 32,002 615 10,720 83,423 83,458
2002 40,732 30,664 120 15,184 86,700 80,679
2003 38,766 21,138 0 20,822 80,726 73,193
2004 31,390 20,024 27 19,138 70,579 74,464
2005 43,261 22,465 71 9,896 75,693 65,741
2006 19,063 17,768 63 27,157 64,051 58,385
2007 18,837 14,366 78 42,022 75,303 68,032
2008 19,831 14,261 171 26,409 60,672 75,302
2009 17,148 20,158 65 30,200 67,571 64,693
2010 13,744 26,220 0 29,657 69,621 61,011
2011 15,664 14,630 0 34,322 64,616 54,526
2012 18,556 9,981 0 34,700 63,237 55,723
2013 49,249

The number of ova laid down to hatch was 63.2 million, a decrease of just over one million (2.1%) on the 2011 figure. The majority of the ova (54.9%) were derived from foreign sources this being an increase of 0.3 million (1.1%) on the 2011 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock decreased by 1.8 million this being a 5.8% decrease on the 2011 figure. Producers' estimates for the number of ova to be laid down in 2013 has decreased from the actual number of ova laid down in 2012. No ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down in 2012, however, in previous years the ova derived from wild stocks were generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild fisheries managers.

Smolts Produced and Put to Sea

Table 19: Actual and projected smolt production and smolts put to sea (millions) during 2003-2014

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Actual smolts put to sea 43.8 39.1 37.2 41.1 37.8 36.6 38.5 38.5 42.7 41.1
Smolts produced 44.4 40.0 36.3 40.8 38.1 36.4 36.9 36.9 43.6 44.3
Estimated production 44.2 40.0 36.2 33.2 41.2 34.9 32.6 28.7 35.9 31.3 28.1 42.1
Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced 1.8 1.8 2.1 1.6 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.5 1.4

The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England and fish imported from elsewhere, whereas smolt production data relate only to those produced in Scotland. Farmers estimate putting 28.1 million smolts to sea in 2013.

The ratio of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2012 was less than the ratio in 2011.

Scale of Production

Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000's) of smolts produced during 2000‑2012

Year Scale of production No. of sites in production Total smolts produced
1-10 11-25 26-50 51-100 101-250 251-500 501-1,000 >1,000
2000 1 2 10 17 36 24 24 9 123 45,583
2001 0 1 7 19 30 26 13 14 110 47,546
2002 1 1 11 17 29 34 17 10 120 47,161
2003 2 0 7 20 32 31 12 10 114 44,414
2004 3 3 9 14 31 22 18 7 107 39,999
2005 2 1 4 15 25 22 21 4 94 36,326
2006 1 4 2 9 19 21 18 10 84 40,827
2007 2 2 4 7 21 21 14 11 82 38,125
2008 2 1 5 8 21 20 15 9 81 36,450
2009 0 0 3 7 14 18 10 12 64 36,868
2010 1 0 4 4 16 15 10 14 64 36,872
2011 1 0 4 5 11 14 9 17 61 43,626
2012 0 0 1 3 19 14 11 13 61 44,324

Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or parr are excluded.

The number of sites producing smolts remained at 61 in 2012. The number of sites producing less than 101,000 smolts has decreased by six while there has been an increase of ten in the number of sites producing more than 100,000 but less than one million smolts. The number of sites producing in excess of one million smolts per year has decreased by four.

Production of Ova and Smolt by Production Area

Table 21: Staffing 2012, ova laid down to hatch 2011-2012, smolt production 2011-2012 and estimated production 2013-2014 by region

Region Number of staff employed in 2012 Ova laid down to hatch (000's) Smolt production (000's) Estimated smolt production (000's)
F/T P/T 2011 2012 2011 2012 2013 2014
North West 131 44 31,950 29,998 23,420 27,271 15,841 24,077
Orkney 1 1 0 0 118 130 140 140
Shetland 9 17 1,710 1,250 1,706 1,681 765 1,050
West 24 10 16,501 8,375 9,631 6,582 3,087 6,401
Western Isles 28 5 9,868 10,053 6,459 5,034 5,873 4,475
East and South 42 16 4,587 13,561 2,292 3,626 2,356 6,000
All Scotland 235 93 64,616 63,237 43,626 44,324 28,062 42,143

The North West, the West and the Western Isles were the main smolt producing areas in Scotland in 2012; whilst the North West, the Western Isles and the East and South were the main ova producing areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West and the East and South regions. An increase in the ova laid down in the East and South region was observed.

International Trade in Ova

Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1 st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established.

In addition, the European Economic Area ( EEA) Agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association ( EFTA). Until 2003, trade under the EEA Agreement was restricted to halibut alevins and salmonid eggs or gametes. With the cessation of these restrictions, trade became based on the same rules as are established within the EU regarding compartments and zones declared free from listed diseases. Areas of Norway have equivalent status to Great Britain with regard to non exotic diseases, but Approved National Control Measures granted to Great Britain in respect of Gyrodactylus salaris has meant trade in live fish has not occurred.

Trade with Third Countries has also been established, but only from sites that have met the same health standards as are established within the EU regarding the approval of farms and zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EU are subject to the health conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.

Figure 2: The distribution of active smolt sites in 2012

Figure 2: The distribution of active smolt sites in 2012

Imports and Exports

Table 22a: Source and number (000's) of ova, parr and smolts imported during 2001-2012 derived from health certificates

Import Year Ova Parr and Smolts
EU Member States EFTA Third Countries Total EU Member States
Iceland Norway Australia USA
2001 8,173 10,833 - 1,620 - 20,626 2,475
2002 8,650 11,623 - 1,800 500 22,573 2,879
2003 7,820 9,518 2,900 550 400 21,188 2,570
2004 4,450 3,475 6,750 1,860 450 16,985 824
2005 2,610 570 13,210 - 450 16,840 150
2006 11,575 300 15,940 2,400 - 30,215 375
2007 10,511 0 33,555 0 0 44,066 420
2008 5,600 0 22,703 0 0 28,303 519
2009 5,460 0 29,938 0 0 35,398 328
2010 2,150 0 26,533 0 0 28,683 452
2011 3,400 0 35,851 0 0 39,251 800
2012 10,134 0 23,849 0 0 33,983 0

The numbers of ova imported decreased by 13.4%. No parr and smolts were imported in 2012.

Table 22b: Destination and number (000's) of salmon ova, parr and smolts exported during 2002-2012 derived from health certificates

Export year Farmed origin Total Parr and Smolts
Chile EU Norway Others
2002 1,600 6,627 0 0 8,227 0
2003 0 2,171 0 0 2,171 941
2004 2,215 3,699 0 0 5,914 1,488
2005 8,560 3,130 0 1,566 13,256 1,362
2006 26,930 4,312 0 0 31,242 998
2007 32,150 164 0 0 32,314 2,169
2008 62,185 130 0 15 62,330 551
2009 7,181 317 0 0 7,498 89
2010 0 189 600 0 789 130
2011 0 0 0 820 820 183
2012 0 0 0 0 0 55

In 2012, no ova were exported. Parr and smolt exports decreased by 69.9% on the 2011 figure.

Vaccines

Table 23: Number of sites using vaccines and number (millions) of fish vaccinated during 2004-2012

Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
No. of sites 98 84 79 73 80 68 70 67 63
No. of fish (millions) vaccinated 39.4 33.8 43.5 41.0 36.7 39.6 42.6 49.2 48.1

Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, which was the cause of serious losses within the fish farming industry in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Vaccination is normally carried out at the pre‑smolt stage by intra-peritoneal injection. In addition, some sites vaccinated fish against ERM, infectious pancreatic necrosis ( IPN), pancreas disease ( PD) and Vibriosis. A total of 48.1 million fish were vaccinated across 63 sites.


Contact