2. ATLANTIC SALMON ( Salmo salar) - OVA AND SMOLTS
Production survey information was collected from all 28 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 100 active sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater industry operating in Scotland.
Company and Site Data
|Year||No. of companies||No. of sites|
In 2012 the number of companies authorised by the Scottish Government and actively engaged in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon remained at 28. A total of 100 sites were actively engaged in commercial production.
Production and Staffing
|Number (000's) of smolts produced||47,161||44,414||39,999||36,326||40,827||38,125||36,450||36,868||36,872||43,626||44,324|
|Productivity, 000's of smolts per person||116.4||119.1||125.4||132.6||150.6||136.6||138.6||136.5||127.6||148.9||135.1|
Smolt production in 2012 increased by 1.6% compared to 2011. The number of staff employed increased by 35 and productivity decreased by 9.3%, to a figure of 135,100 smolts produced per employee.
There was one incident involving the loss of 3,180 fish from a freshwater Atlantic salmon site in 2012. There was one additional reported incident where the farm confirmed there was no loss of fish.
Smolts by Age Group
In 2012, production was dominated by S1 smolts, although numbers produced decreased by 4.4%. The production of S½ smolts increased by 9.1%. A small amount of S1½ smolts were produced and there was no production of S2 smolts.
|System||No. of sites with system||Total capacity, 000's cubic metres|
|Tanks and Raceways||77||58||59||54||57||41||37||38||49||51|
The principal types of facility used for the production of smolts in fresh water are cages or tanks and raceways. In 2012, the number of farms using tanks and raceways increased by three and the number of farms using cages decreased by one. In terms of volume, tank and raceway capacity increased by 2,000 m³ and cage volume increased by 24,000 m³. This resulted in a net increase in volume of 26,000 m³ available for the production of smolts in Scotland during 2012.
|Year||Number of smolts produced (000's)||Stocking densities (smolts/m 3)|
The average stocking densities of cages increased from 71 to 77 fish per m³ in 2012 compared to 2011 while densities in tanks and raceways decreased from 418 to 342 fish per m³.
|No. of ova||73,211||60,941||83,822||135,230||91,964||91,655||78,208||90,489|
Just over 90.4 million ova were stripped in 2012, an increase of nearly 12.3 million (15.7%) on the 2011 season.
|Year||In-house broodstock||Out-sourced GB broodstock||GB wild broodstock||Foreign ova||Total||Previous year's estimate|
The number of ova laid down to hatch was 63.2 million, a decrease of just over one million (2.1%) on the 2011 figure. The majority of the ova (54.9%) were derived from foreign sources this being an increase of 0.3 million (1.1%) on the 2011 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock decreased by 1.8 million this being a 5.8% decrease on the 2011 figure. Producers' estimates for the number of ova to be laid down in 2013 has decreased from the actual number of ova laid down in 2012. No ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down in 2012, however, in previous years the ova derived from wild stocks were generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild fisheries managers.
Smolts Produced and Put to Sea
|Actual smolts put to sea||43.8||39.1||37.2||41.1||37.8||36.6||38.5||38.5||42.7||41.1|
|Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced||1.8||1.8||2.1||1.6||2.0||1.7||1.8||1.9||1.5||1.4|
The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England and fish imported from elsewhere, whereas smolt production data relate only to those produced in Scotland. Farmers estimate putting 28.1 million smolts to sea in 2013.
The ratio of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2012 was less than the ratio in 2011.
Scale of Production
|Year||Scale of production||No. of sites in production||Total smolts produced|
Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or parr are excluded.
The number of sites producing smolts remained at 61 in 2012. The number of sites producing less than 101,000 smolts has decreased by six while there has been an increase of ten in the number of sites producing more than 100,000 but less than one million smolts. The number of sites producing in excess of one million smolts per year has decreased by four.
Production of Ova and Smolt by Production Area
|Region||Number of staff employed in 2012||Ova laid down to hatch (000's)||Smolt production (000's)||Estimated smolt production (000's)|
|East and South||42||16||4,587||13,561||2,292||3,626||2,356||6,000|
The North West, the West and the Western Isles were the main smolt producing areas in Scotland in 2012; whilst the North West, the Western Isles and the East and South were the main ova producing areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West and the East and South regions. An increase in the ova laid down in the East and South region was observed.
International Trade in Ova
Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1 st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established.
In addition, the European Economic Area ( EEA) Agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association ( EFTA). Until 2003, trade under the EEA Agreement was restricted to halibut alevins and salmonid eggs or gametes. With the cessation of these restrictions, trade became based on the same rules as are established within the EU regarding compartments and zones declared free from listed diseases. Areas of Norway have equivalent status to Great Britain with regard to non exotic diseases, but Approved National Control Measures granted to Great Britain in respect of Gyrodactylus salaris has meant trade in live fish has not occurred.
Trade with Third Countries has also been established, but only from sites that have met the same health standards as are established within the EU regarding the approval of farms and zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EU are subject to the health conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.
Imports and Exports
|Import Year||Ova||Parr and Smolts|
|EU Member States||EFTA||Third Countries||Total||EU Member States|
The numbers of ova imported decreased by 13.4%. No parr and smolts were imported in 2012.
|Export year||Farmed origin||Total||Parr and Smolts|
In 2012, no ova were exported. Parr and smolt exports decreased by 69.9% on the 2011 figure.
|No. of sites||98||84||79||73||80||68||70||67||63|
|No. of fish (millions) vaccinated||39.4||33.8||43.5||41.0||36.7||39.6||42.6||49.2||48.1|
Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, which was the cause of serious losses within the fish farming industry in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Vaccination is normally carried out at the pre‑smolt stage by intra-peritoneal injection. In addition, some sites vaccinated fish against ERM, infectious pancreatic necrosis ( IPN), pancreas disease ( PD) and Vibriosis. A total of 48.1 million fish were vaccinated across 63 sites.