Agriculture and Climate Change: Evidence on Influencing Farmer Behaviours

This report sets out to answer a number of questions relating to farming behaviour and meeting greenhouse gas emissions targets.


ADAS (2011) Monitoring the implementation of Farming for a Better Climate and associated greenhouse gas emissions reductions - A scoping Study, conducted for Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services (RESAS) Scottish Government.

ADAS (2010) Feasibility of Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation methods, conducted for Defra.

ADAS (2009) Evaluation of Cross Compliance, conducted for Defra.

ADAS (2008) An Investigation into the Role and Effectiveness of Scottish Monitor Farms, prepared for the Scottish Government

AEA (2010) Agricultural advisory services analysis, Report to Defra. Issue 4, July 2010.

Ahnstrom, J; Francis, C; Hockert, J; Skelton, P; Bergea, H; Hallgren, L (2009) Farmers and nature conservation: What is known about attitudes, context factors and actions affecting conservation? Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 24(1); 38-47.

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Bailey, A, P; Garforth, C; Angell, B; Scott, T; Beedell, J; Beechener, S; Rana, R B (2006) Helping farmers adjust to policy reforms through demonstration farms: lessons from a project in England, Journal of Farm Management 12 (10):613-625.

Barnes, A; Beechener, S; Cao, Y; Elliot, J; Harris, D; Jones, G; Toma, L; Whiting, M (2010) Market segmentation in the agriculture sector: climate change. Final Report to Defra.

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Barnes, A; Toma, L; Hall, C; Willock, J. (2007) Implementing the Action Programme for Nitrate Vulnerable Zones in Scotland, SAC Rural Policy Centre/Queen Margaret University College / Scottish Government.

Barnes, A; Willock, J; Toma, L; Hall, C (2011) Utilising a farmer typology to understand farmer behaviour towards water quality management: Nitrate Vulnerable Zones in Scotland, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Volume 54, Issue 4, 477 - 494.

Bergevoet, R.H.M., Ondersteijn, C.J.M., Saatkamp, H.W., van Woerkum, C.M.J., Huirne, R.B.M. (2004). Entrepreneurial behaviour of Dutch dairy farmers under a milk quota system: goals, objectives and attitudes. Agricultural Systems 80: 1-21.

Blackstock, K; Brown, K; Burton, R; Dilley, R and Slee, B (MLURI) Dwyer, D; Ingram, J; Mills, J and Taylor, J (CCRI) (2007) Good Practice Guide: Influencing environmental behaviour using advice: Principles for use in designing and implementing advisory measures/schemes/initiatives to stimulate positive environmental behaviour by farmers and land managers.

Blackstock, K; Ingram, J; Burton, R; Brown, K; Slee, B (2010) Understanding and influencing behaviour change by farmers to improve water quality, Science of the Total Environment, 408: 23: 5631 - 5638.

Boatman, N; Ramwell, C; Parry, H; Jones, N; Bishop, J; Gaskell, P; Short, C; Mills, J; Dwyer, J (2008) A review of environmental benefits supplied by agri-environment schemes, Land Use Policy group.

Burton, R (2004) Seeing through the 'good farmer's' eyes: towards developing an understanding of the social symbolic value of 'productivist' behaviour, Sociologia Ruralis, Vol 44, Number 2, April 2004.

Burton, R; Dwyer, J; Blackstock, K; Ingram, J; Brown, K; Mills, J; Schwarz, G; Dempster, K; Slee, B (2006) Influencing positive environmental behaviour among farmers and land managers - a literature review, Countryside and Community Research Institute and Macaulay Land Use Research Institute.

Burton, R; Kuczera, C; Schwarz, G (2008) Exploring Farmers' Cultural Resistance to Voluntary Agri-environmental Schemes, Sociologia Ruralis, Volume 48, Issue 1, pages 16-37.

Bywater, A (2011) A Review of Anaerobic Digestion Plants on UK Farms - Barriers, Benefits and Case Studies, prepared for the Royal Agricultural Society of England

Chatterton, T (2011) An introduction to thinking about 'energy behaviour': a multi-model approach, paper for the Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Chouinard, H; Paterson, T; Wandschneider, P Ohler, A (2008) Will Farmers Trade Profits for Stewardship? Heterogeneous Motivations for Farm Practice Selection, Land Economics, vol. 84, no. 1, 66-82.

Christensen, T; Rygnestad, H (2000) Environmental Cross Compliance: Topics for Future Research. Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics. SJFI Working paper No. 1/2000.

Christopoulos, S; Vlahos, G (2011) Application of the Agri-environmental Footprint Index for the Environmental Assessment of Agri-environmental Policy Schemes in Greece, paper presented at OECD workshop on the evaluation of agri-environmental policies.

Collier, A; Cotterill, A; Everett, T; Muckle, R; Pike, T and Vanstone, A. Defra (2010) Understanding and influencing behaviours: a review of social research, economics and policy making in Defra.

Crompton, T (2010) Common Cause: the Case for Working with our Cultural Values, WWF Strategies for Change Project

Darnton, A (2008) Practical Guide: An overview of behaviour change models and their uses, GSR Behaviour Change Knowledge Review.

Darnton, A; Jones, J; Lucas, K and Brooks, M (2008) Promoting pro-environmental behaviour: existing evidence and policy implications, Environmental Science and Policy, 11 (5) 456-466.

Davies, B (2006) Carrots, sticks and sermons: influencing public behaviour for environmental goals, Macaulay Institute.

Davies, B; Blackstock, K; Brown, K; Shannon, P (2004) Challenges in creating local agri-environmental cooperation action amongst farmers and other stakeholders, SEERAD Final report, the Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen.

Davies, B; Hodge, I (2006) Farmers' Preferences for New Environmental Policy Instruments: Determining the Acceptability of Cross Compliance for Biodiversity Benefits, Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 57, No. 3, 393-414.

Defra (2008) Understanding Behaviours in a Farming Context.

Defrancesco, E; Gatto, P; Runge, F; Trestini, S (2008) Factors Affecting Farmers' Participation in Agri-environmental Measures: A Northern Italian Perspective, Journal of Agricultural Economics, 59 (1) 114 - 131.

Dick, J., Smith, R., Clark, N (2010) Greenhouse Gas Emissions and UK Farming: a
Farmers' Survey, Accessed 31 March 2011.

Diederen, P; Meijl, K van; Wolters, A; Bijak, K (2003) Innovation adoption in agriculture: Innovators, Early Adopters and Laggards, Cahiers d'economie et sociologie rurales.

Dwyer, J; Mills, J; Ingram, J; Taylor, J (CCRI); Burton, R; Blackstock, K; Slee, B; Brown, K; Schwarz, G; Matthews, K; Dilley, R (2007) Understanding and influencing positive behaviour change in farmers and land managers - a project for Defra.

Elliott, J; Sneddon, J; Lee, J and Blache, D (2011) Producers have a positive attitude towards improving lamb survival rates but may be influenced by enterprise factors and perceptions of control, Livestock Science, 140, Issues 103, September 2011, 103-110.

Falconer, K (2000) Farm-level constraints on agri-environmental scheme participation: a transactional perspective, Journal of Rural Studies 16, 379 - 394.

Fearne, A and Walters, R (2004) The costs and benefits of farm assurance to livestock producers in England, Final report, Imperial College London.

Garforth, C; Rehman, T (2006) Research to Understand and Model the Behaviour and motivations of farmers in responding to policy changes in England, University of Reading, Defra.

iNARS e-conference on 'Knowledge management and sharing in agriculture,' February to June 2006

Jackson, T (2005) Motivating sustainable consumptions: a review of evidence on consumer behaviour and behavioural change, report to the Sustainable Development Research Network, London

Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (RLUS1) (2009) Changing Land Use in Rural Scotland - Drivers and Decision-Making.

MacLeod, M; Moran, D; McVittie, A; Rees, R; Jones, G; Harris; Antony, S; Wall, E; Eory, V; Barnes, A; Topp, K; Ball, B; Hoad, S; and Eory, L (2010) Review and update of UK marginal abatement cost curves for agriculture, final report to The Committee on Climate Change.

Macgregor, C.J; Warren, C,R (2006) Adopting sustainable farm management practices within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone in Scotland: The view from the farm, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 113(1-4): 108-119.

Manley, W; Smith G (2007) Agri-Environment Schemes in Scotland: A Survey of Participants and Non-Participants, Royal Agricultural College and Scottish Government.

Moran, D; Macleod, M; Wall, E; Eory, V; McVittie, A; Barnes, A; Rees, R; Topp, C; Moxey, A (2011) Marginal abatement cost curves for UK agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Nimmo Smith, R; Glegg, G; Parkinson, R; Richards, J (2007) Evaluating the implementation of the nitrates directive in Denmark and England using an actor-oriented approach, European Environment, 17, 124-144.

Pike, T. (2011) Farmer Segmentation: A review of applied and theoretical work within Defra (including compliance and regulation), Defra Agricultural Change and Environment Observatory: A supplementary paper to accompany Understanding Behaviours in a Farming Context.

Prendergrast, J; Foley, B; Menne, V; Isaac, A, K (2008) Creatures of habit? The Art of Behaviour Change, Ernst and Young, the Social Market Foundation.

RELU (2011) Integrated systems for farm diversification into energy production by anaerobic digestion: implications for rural development, land use and the environment.

Report of the Independent Farming Regulation Task Force (2011) Striking a Balance: reducing burdens; increasing responsibility; earning recognition. A report on better regulation in farming and food businesses.

Ridier, A; Kephaliacos Ch; Carpy-Goulard, F (2008) Cross compliance of CAP first pillar measures: a transaction costs assessment, 12th Congress of the European Association of Agricultural Economists- EAAE.

Sasaki, H (2012) Farmer Behaviour, Agricultural Management and Climate Change, OECD

Scottish Government (2010) The Road Ahead For Scotland: Final Report of the Inquiry Into Future Support For Agriculture.

Slee, B; Gibbon, D; and Taylor, J (2006) Habitus and style of farming in explaining the adoption of environmental sustainability-enhancing behaviour, Defra / University of Gloucestershire.

Smith, P; Olesen, J, E (2010) Synergies between the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change in agriculture, The Journal of Agricultural Science, 148, 543-552.

Southerton, D; McMeekin, A; Evans, D (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives: Climate Change Behaviours Research Programme, Scottish Government Social Research.

Sutherland, L; Burton, R (2011) Good farmers, good neighbours? The role of cultural capital in social capital development in a Scottish farming community, Sociologia Ruralis, Vol 51, Number 3, July 2011.

Taylor, J; Norris, J and Howard, W (1998) Succession patterns and successors in Canadian farm families, Rural Sociology, 63: 533-73

Tranter, R, B; Swinbank, A; Jones, P, J; Banks, C, J; Salter, A, M (2011) Assessing the potential for the uptake of on-farm anaerobic digestion for energy production in England, Energy Policy Volume 39, Issue 5, Pages 2424-2430.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2008) Challenges and opportunities for mitigation in the agricultural sector

Vanclay, F; Howden, P; Mesiti, L; Glyde, S (2006) The Social and Intellectual Construction of Farming Styles: Testing Dutch Ideas in Australian Agriculture, Sociologia Ruralis, Volume 46, Issue 1, pages 61-82.

Weber, A (2011) Why do Farmers Spend Different Amounts of Transaction Costs in Agri-Environmental Schemes?, Paper prepared for presentation at the EAAE 2011 Congress - Change and Uncertainty, Zurich.

Widcorp (2009) Understanding farmer knowledge and attitudes to climate change, climate variability, and greenhouse gas emissions, Water in Drylands Collaborative Research Program. Prepared for the Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne.

Willock, J; Deary, I; Edwards-Jones, G; Gibson, G; Mcgregor, M; Sutherland, A; Dent, B; Morgan, O; Grieve, R (1999a) The Role of Attitudes and Objectives in Farmer Decision Making: Business and Environmentally- Oriented Behaviour in Scotland, Journal of Agricultural Economics - Volume 50, Number 2, 286-303.

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Wilson, P; Harpur, N; Darling, R (2011) Analysis of Farmer Segmentation across farms contributing to the Farm Business Survey: A Pilot Study, Rural Business Research, University of Nottingham.

Wilson G; Hart K (2000) Financial imperative or conservation concern? EU farmers' motivations for participation in voluntary agri-environmental schemes, Environment and Planning A 32(12) 2161 - 2185.


Email: Angela Morgan

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