Addressing Loss and Damage conference - practical action: summary report

In October 2022, Scotland hosted a conference which brought together international representatives and practitioners to articulate best practice and explore innovative new opportunities to mobilise finance for, and address Loss and Damage ahead of COP27.

Notes and References

1. In this report we use Loss and Damage (upper case) to refer to UNFCCC decisions and processes; loss and damage (lower case) as the proper noun for the wider phenomenon; and losses and damages (pluralised) for what has been experienced and is happening in terms of observed impacts and projected risks from climate change.

2. IPCC, 2022: Summary for Policymakers [H.-O. Pörtner, et al, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3–33, doi:10.1017/9781009325844.001.

3. IFRC (2020) World Disasters Report. Come Heat or High Water: Tackling the humanitarian impacts of the climate crisis together. IFRC, Geneva.

4. Glasgow Dialogue | UNFCCC

5. Least Developed Countries website LDC Climate Change;

6. Alliance of Small Island States website

7. Colenbrander, S., Cao, Y., Pettinotti, L. and Quevedo, A. (2021) A fair share of climate finance? Apportioning responsibility for the $100 billion climate finance goal. ODI Working Paper. London: ODI.

8. The 2022 Barbados Agenda – Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade:

9. Conference presentation by Colin McQuistan on behalf of the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance. Day 2 Opening plenary: A continuum of action: addressing the loss and damage gap.

10. Eleventh report of the Green Climate Fund to the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change:

11. Addison, S., Bharadwaj, R., Carthy, A., Gallagher, C., More, C., Nisi, N., Shakya, C. (2022). Addressing loss and damage: practical insights for tackling multidimensional risks in LDCs and SIDS. IIED, London (Ch.6).

12. ICRC, ODI, ICVA, Mercy Corps, RCCC, UNHCR, WFP. (2022) Embracing Discomfort: A Call to Enable Finance for Climate- Change Adaptation in Conflict Settings. London.

13. Beirne, John, Renzhi, Nuobu and Volz, Ulrich (2021) ‘Feeling the Heat: Climate Risks and the Cost of Sovereign Borrowing.’ International Review of Economics & Finance, 76. pp. 920-936.

14. Ethiopia | Index-Based Livestock Insurance:

15. Mitigating effects of climate change through crop insurance in Rwanda:

16. UNFCCC, The Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility (CCRIF):

17. Climate Home News, 21/10/2022:

18. CVF & V20 Joint Multi-Donor Fund – V20: The Vulnerable Twenty Group:

19. The Special Drawing Right (SDR) is an interest-bearing international reserve asset created by the IMF in 1969 to supplement other reserve assets of member countries. It is based on a basket of international currencies comprising the U.S. dollar, Japanese yen, euro, pound sterling and Chinese Renminbi. It is not a currency, nor a claim on the IMF, but is potentially a claim on freely usable currencies of IMF members. See for further explanation:

20. IMF Resilience and Sustainability Trust:

21. London School of Economics, (18th July 2022) What is the polluter pays principle?

22. Wewerinke-Singh, M. and Salili, D.H. (2020) Between negotiations and litigation: Vanuatu’s perspective on loss and damage from climate change, Climate Policy, 20:6, 681-692.

23. C2LI Climate Change Litigation Initiative, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

24. Eskander, S and Steele, P (2020) Bearing the climate burden: how households in Bangladesh are spending too much. IIED, London.; Eskander, S, Steele, P, Rashid, M, Imam, N and Munira, S (2022) Still bearing the burden: how poor rural women in Bangladesh are paying most for climate risks. IIED, London.

25. IIED article “Principles for locally led adaptation”

26. UNDP (2013) Post-disaster need assessment. Vol A. Guidelines

27. Oxfam Australia (2012) Integrated disaster risk reduction and climate change. Participatory capacity and vulnerability analysis (PCVA) toolkit,

28. UNDP press release 26th September 2022

29. UNDRR (2020) National Platforms for Disaster Risk Reduction

30. Adaptation Consortium website

31. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2015) Cash in Emergencies Toolkit

32. In Kenya, a Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) is used to identify the early stages of drought events in dryland areas of the country. Once the VCI level for a particular area reaches a particular level it triggers a social safety net payment to households registered with the Hunger Safety Net Programme (HSNP). See: Lung, F. (2020) ‘Aligning with the bigger picture: thinking strategically in disaster risk financing’, guidance note, Centre for Disaster Protection, London.

33. van Schie, D., Ranon, R., Mirza, A., Anderson, S. (2022). Local responses to climate-related non-economic losses and damages: a case study in Burigoalini and Gabura Union, Southwest Bangladesh. IIED, London.

34. La Vida entre Pérdidas y Daños: Narrativas Centroamericanas

35. Pandit Chhetri, R., Schaefer, L. and Watson, C. (2021) Exploring loss and damage finance and its place in the Global Stocktake. Part of the ‘Financing Climate Action: iGST Discussion Series’.

36. See for example: Local responses to climate-related non-economic losses and damages: a case study in Burigoalini and Gabura Union, Southwest Bangladesh | Publications Library (

37. Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance – Flood Resilience Portal[]=english[]=english

38. WFP (2019) Social Protection and Climate Change

39. UNDRR (2020) National Platforms for Disaster Risk Reduction: Overview. UNDRR, Brussels.

40. For example: Schalatek, L. and Bird, N. (2022). The Principles and Criteria of Public Climate Finance. Climate Finance Fundamentals, 1. Climate Funds Update, ODI, Heinrich Böll Stiftung, London, Washington DC.; and, Shawoo, Z., Maltais, A., Bakhtaoui, I. and Kartha, S. (2021). Designing a fair and feasible loss and damage finance mechanism. ; and Soanes, M., Bahadur, A., Shakya, C., del Rio, C., Dinshaw, A., et al. (2021). Principles for Locally Led Adaptation: A Call to Action. ; and, Soanes, M., Rai, N., Steele, P., Shakya, C. and MacGregor, J. (2017). Delivering Real Change: Getting International Climate Finance to the Local Level. IIED Working Paper. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

41. Zoha Shawoo and Ines Bakhtaoui (2022) Operationalising finance for loss and damage: from principles to modalities, Stockholm Environment Institute.

42. Zoha Shawoo, Aaron Maltais, Ines Bakhtaoui and Sivan Kartha (2021) Designing a fair and feasible loss and damage finance mechanism. SEI briefing paper. October, 2021.

43. These stages of action are the product of collaborative engagement between the Scottish Government and key stakeholders, which have been developed to guide the Scottish Government’s impact programming. They have been developed to try and offer a scalable model for funding to address loss and damage that is backed up with practical examples, and are how the Scottish Government articulates its approach to channelling investments.

44. UNHCR 2017; UNHCR Needs Assessment Handbook;

45. See:

46. See:

47. ICRC/IFRC (2022) The Climate and Environment Charter for Humanitarian Organisations

48. Vanuatu NDC Revised and Enhanced, August 2022

49. Climate Vulnerable Forum (n.d) CVF & V20 Joint Multi-donor

50. Conference case study by Unitarian Universalist Service Committee Day 2 Session 3: Delivering loss and damage interventions

51. See: Zoha Shawoo, Aaron Maltais, Ines Bakhtaoui and Sivan Kartha (2021) Designing a fair and feasible loss and damage finance mechanism. SEI briefing paper. October, 2021.

52. See: Jordan, J. C. (2020) Theatre making and storytelling on the margins: the lived experience of climate change in Dhaka. RiDE: the journal of Applied Theatre and Performance. Vol 25, 2020 – Issue 4.


54. Scottish Government website n.d.


56. The information categories to be included in climate adaptation related reporting to UNFCCC (see Decision 18/CMA.1 MPGs for TF Annex. Section IV) helpfully widen the lens to include information related to averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with climate change impacts.

57. As Vanessa Nakate pointed out in her address to the opening session of the Conference.

58. Government of Indonesia (2021) Long-Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (Indonesia LTS-LCCR 2050)

59. Conference case study by Jubilee Scotland, Day 1 Session 2: Innovative sourcing for loss and damage finance

60. Conference case study by CIFF, Day 1 Session 1: Mobilising finance: lessons learned so far



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