Closure to be reviewed in three weeks and follows consultation with sector.
Nightclubs will close from 27 December to tackle the transmission of Omicron which continues to spread rapidly.
The measure follows feedback from nightclubs on the impact of incoming restrictions needed to slow the spread of Omicron. It will affect around 150 clubs and will be reviewed after three weeks.
Nightclub premises will have the option of opening to operate with table service and physical distancing, in line with the requirements for other hospitality businesses.
Deputy First Minister John Swinney said:
"Having engaged with the sector, we have concluded nightclubs should close. While it would be open to them to operate with physical distancing and table service - and that option will remain - we believe closure in regulations, combined with financial support, could reduce losses and help nightclubs weather what we hope will be a short period until they are able to operate normally again.
"The Scottish Government is acutely aware of the financial implications for many businesses. We will work with the nightclub industry to develop targeted financial support for businesses that will now be required to close. We are providing additional support of £375 million, including £100 million announced last week, to support businesses directly impacted by Omicron and will publish a full breakdown and allocation of funding as soon as possible."
The regulations come into effect at 05:00 on 27 December.
All measures will be reviewed after three weeks on Tuesday 11 January.