Publication - Research and analysis

Low carbon heating in domestic buildings - technical feasibility: technical appendix

Technical appendix to accompany the technical feasibility of low carbon heating in domestic buildings report.

38 page PDF

6.3 MB

38 page PDF

6.3 MB

Contents
Low carbon heating in domestic buildings - technical feasibility: technical appendix
1 Suitability of Scotland's housing stock for individual low-carbon heating technologies

38 page PDF

6.3 MB

1 Suitability of Scotland's housing stock for individual low-carbon heating technologies

1.1 Introduction

The suitability of Scotland's housing stock for the considered low-carbon heating technologies was further investigated. For each technology, the characteristics of suitable and unsuitable homes were analysed and compared. Additionally, the number of homes that are affected by different suitability constraints was assessed.

The following sections report our findings on the stock suitability for each technology in 2017. For those technologies where the fuse limit constraint or the peak specific heat demand constraint are relevant, separate sets of outputs were produced for a range of threshold values: 60A, 80A and 100A for fuse limit and 100, 120 and 150 W/m2 for specific heat loss.

A figure summarising our results was therefore produced for each technology and threshold sensitivity. Each figure reports on the left a summary of the composition of the suitable and unsuitable portions of the stock, showing a breakdown of homes according to their age, property type, property size, wall insulation, roof insulation and existing heating system. On the right, the number of homes affected by each suitability constraint is reported (blue), together with the total number of constrained homes (red). Note that the total number of constrained homes is generally smaller than the sum of homes affected by each constraint, as the same home may be affected by more than one constraint at a time.

No results are reported in this section for GSHP and high-temperature GSHP, as the analysis of their suitability was performed on the basis of only two characteristics of the stock: the dwelling type and the location in an urban or rural area.

1.1.1 Characteristics of the housing stock

The choice of dwelling characteristics considered in the archetype definition was predominantly based on characteristics influencing the suitability of low-carbon heating in Scottish homes. An overview of the dwelling characteristics reported in the plots in the next sections is shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Relevant dwelling attributes
Attributes Values Notes
Age
  • Pre-1919
  • 1919-1991
  • Post-1991
The age group 1919-1991 was not further disaggregated, as associated potential restrictions on renovation and materials are expected to be similar among this group.
Property type
  • Detached
  • Semi-detached
  • Terraced
  • Flat (block)
  • Flat (other)
'Semi-detached' includes both semi-detached houses and end-terraced houses, as these are expected to have similar heat demand per unit floor area, having the same number of external walls. 'Terraced' only includes mid-terraced houses. 'Flat (block)' includes homes in large blocks of flats, composed of >15 residential dwellings located within a single building. 'Flat (other)' includes homes in smaller blocks of flats, composed of up to 15 residential dwellings located within a single building.
Size
  • Small (< 66 m2)
  • Medium (66 – 108 m2)
  • Large (> 108 m2)
Total dwelling floor area
Wall insulation
  • SWI - Solid wall insulated
  • SWU - Solid wall uninsulated
  • CWI - Cavity wall insulated
  • CWU - Cavity wall uninsulated with low exposure to wind and rain
  • CWU exposed - Cavity wall uninsulated with high exposure to wind and rain
'High exposure to wind and rain' corresponds to 'very severe' or 'severe' exposure. Similarly, 'low exposure to wind and rain' corresponds to 'sheltered' or 'moderate' exposure.
Roof insulation
  • <100 mm
  • 100-250 mm
  • >250 mm
  • Room in roof
  • No loft
Homes with non-habitable space in the loft were assigned a value according to the thickness of their roof insulation ('<100 mm', '100-250 mm' or '>250 mm').
Homes with habitable space in the loft were assigned the value 'Room in roof' for insulation of less than 200 mm, or the value '>250 mm' for insulation of more than 200 mm. Homes with no access to the loft (e.g. flats) were assigned the value 'no loft'.
Existing heating system
  • Gas boiler
  • Oil boiler
  • Electric
  • Other
'Oil boiler' heating systems include both oil and LPG boilers. 'Electric' heating systems include electric storage and direct electric. 'Other' heating systems include: biomass boilers, solid fuel boilers, communal heating and homes with no heating system.
The type of pre-existent heat distribution system was not considered a barrier to suitability of heating technologies.

1.1.2 Suitability constraints

The suitability constraints considered in this study and reported in our plots are peak heating demand, heat density, gas network, space constraint, installation disruption and solar orientation.

Peak heating demand

Peak heating demand includes both fuse limit and peak specific heat demand constraints.

The fuse limit constraint is relevant for heating technologies that rely on electricity, as a large peak heat demand may result in a peak consumption of electrical power that can be incompatible with the fuse rating of a home. Therefore, this constraint may affect the implementation of all types of electric heating and conventional or high-temperature heat pumps.

Peak specific heat demand is intended as total heat demand of a dwelling divided by the total floor area of the habitable rooms. A large peak specific heat demand may be an obstacle for the implementation of air-source and ground-source heat pumps, as the required low-temperature radiators may be insufficient to ensure thermal comfort during all seasons.

Heat density

A heat density constraint was considered to test the suitability of homes for district heating.

A map of Scotland's domestic heating demand was analysed and homes located in areas with local heat demand density above a threshold of 40kWh/m2 were considered compatible with district heating. This heat demand density test was performed both on each Scottish datazone and on each square of a grid with 1 km2 resolution, with either of the two tests being sufficient for suitability. The assessment on the 1 km2 resolution grid was performed in order to identify rural areas with local high heat density that would otherwise not have emerged from the datazone analysis, as rural datazones have very large areas.

80% of homes that resulted compatible with district heating were assumed to be suitable for district heating, based on the likely cost-effectiveness of DH deployment.

Gas network

The gas network constraint was applied to all homes that are not located on the gas grid. This constraint impacts the installation of heating technologies that rely on low-carbon gas, such as hydrogen boilers, natural gas boilers with biomethane grid injection and hybrid heat pumps with natural gas.

Space constraint

Homes with total dwelling floor area per habitable room smaller than 18m2 are considered space constrained. This constraint is expected to affect the installation of conventional, high-temperature and hybrid heat pumps, due to their additional requirement of a large hot water cylinder for the production of hot water.

Installation disruption

A high level of disruption is expected for the implementation of all heat pump technologies and solid biomass boilers, due to the extensive work required for the installation of large equipment and new radiators, and to the allocation of storage for solid biomass. A higher hassle factor is expected to be associated with older homes and homes which may require planning consent to perform minor construction work. Therefore, it was assumed that 50% of old homes (built before 1919), listed homes and homes in conservation areas are constrained by installation disruption.

Solar orientation

The solar orientation constraint affects the suitability for heating technologies in combination with solar thermal. Only homes with roofs facing south, south east or south west were considered suitable for solar thermal.

1.2 ASHP

Figure 1: Stock suitability for ASHP, considering fuse limit of 100A and peak specific heating demand of 150 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 585,000 Scottish homes or 24% of total stock is unsuitable for air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 100 A and peak specific heat demand of 150 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.88 million homes or 76% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 24,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 by available space and 263,000 by installation disruption.
Figure 2: Stock suitability for ASHP, considering fuse limit of 80A and peak specific heating demand of 120 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 693,000 Scottish homes or 28% of total stock is unsuitable for air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 80 A and peak specific heat demand of 120 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.77 million homes or 72% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 186,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 3: Stock suitability for ASHP, considering fuse limit of 60A and peak specific heating demand of 100 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.12 million Scottish homes or 45% of total stock is unsuitable for air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 60 A and peak specific heat demand of 100 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.34 million homes or 55% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 734,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.3 High-temperature ASHP

Figure 4: Stock suitability for high-temperature ASHP, considering fuse limit of 100A and peak specific heating demand of 150 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 575,000 Scottish homes or 23% of total stock is unsuitable for high-temperature air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 100 A and peak specific heat demand of 150 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.89 million homes or 77% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 5: Stock suitability for high-temperature ASHP, considering fuse limit of 80A and peak specific heating demand of 120 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 577,000 Scottish homes or 45% of total stock is unsuitable for high-temperature air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 80 A and peak specific heat demand of 120 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.88 million homes or 77% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 347,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 6: Stock suitability for high-temperature ASHP, considering fuse limit of 60A and peak specific heating demand of 100 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 784,000 Scottish homes or 32% of total stock is unsuitable for high-temperature air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 60 A and peak specific heat demand of 100 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.68 million homes or 68% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 294,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.4 Communal ASHP

Figure 7: Stock suitability for communal ASHP, considering fuse limit of 100A and peak specific heating demand of 150 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.43 million Scottish homes or 58% of total stock is unsuitable for communal air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 100 A and peak specific heat demand of 150 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.03 million homes or 42% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.228 million constrained by peak heating demand and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 8: Stock suitability for communal ASHP, considering fuse limit of 80A and peak specific heating demand of 120 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.45 million Scottish homes or 59% of total stock is unsuitable for communal air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 80 A and peak specific heat demand of 120 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.01 million homes or 41% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.259 million constrained by peak heating demand and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 9: Stock suitability for communal ASHP, considering fuse limit of 60A and peak specific heating demand of 100 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.51 million Scottish homes or 62% of total stock is unsuitable for communal air source heat pump for a fuse limit of 60 A and peak specific heat demand of 100 W/m2 in 2017 and 947,000 homes or 38% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.357 million constrained by peak heating demand and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.5 Electric storage heating

Figure 10: Stock suitability for electric storage heating, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 4,500 Scottish homes or 0.2% of total stock is unsuitable for electric storage heating for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 2.46 million homes or 99.8% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 4,500 constrained by peak heating demand.
Figure 11: Stock suitability for electric storage heating, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 158,000 Scottish homes or 6% of total stock is unsuitable for electric storage heating for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 2.30 million homes or 94% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 158,000 constrained by peak heating demand.
Figure 12: Stock suitability for electric storage heating, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 442,000 Scottish homes or 18% of total stock is unsuitable for electric storage heating for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 2.02 million homes or 82% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 442,000 constrained by peak heating demand.

1.6 Direct electric heating

Figure 13: Stock suitability for direct electric heating, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 493,000 Scottish homes or 20% of total stock is unsuitable for direct electric heating for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 1.97 million homes or 80% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 493,000 constrained by peak heating demand.
Figure 14: Stock suitability for direct electric heating, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 929,000 Scottish homes or 38% of total stock is unsuitable for direct electric heating for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 1.53 million homes or 62% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 929,000 constrained by peak heating demand.
Figure 15: Stock suitability for direct electric heating, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.66 million Scottish homes or 67% of total stock is unsuitable for direct electric heating for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 800,000 homes or 33% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.66 million constrained by peak heating demand.

1.7 Electric boilers

Figure 16: Stock suitability for electric boilers, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.25 million Scottish homes or 51% of total stock is unsuitable for electric boilers for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 1.97 million homes or 49% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.25 million constrained by peak heating demand.
Figure 17: Stock suitability for electric boilers, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.65 million Scottish homes or 67% of total stock is unsuitable for electric boilers for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 810,000 homes or 33% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.65 million constrained by peak heating demand.
Figure 18: Stock suitability for electric boilers, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 2.24 million Scottish homes or 91% of total stock is unsuitable for electric boilers for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 220,000 homes or 9% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 2.24 million constrained by peak heating demand.

1.8 Solid biomass boilers

Figure 19: Stock suitability for solid biomass boilers in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 263,000 Scottish homes or 11% of total stock is unsuitable for solid biomass boilers in 2017 and 2.20 million homes or 89% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.9 BioLPG boilers and bioliquid boilers

Figure 20: Stock suitability for bioLPG boilers and bioliquid boilers in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.95 million Scottish homes or 79% of total stock is unsuitable for bioLPG and bioliquid boilers in 2017 and 507,000 homes or 21% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.953 million constrained by the gas network.

1.10 Hydrogen boilers and biomethane grid injection

Figure 21: Stock suitability for hydrogen boilers and biomethane grid injection in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 507,000 Scottish homes or 21% of total stock is unsuitable for hydrogen boilers and biomethane grid injection in 2017 and 1.95 million homes or 79% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 507,000 constrained by the gas network.

1.11 Hybrid heat pumps with gas boilers or hydrogen boilers

Figure 22: Stock suitability for hybrid heat pumps with gas boilers or hydrogen boilers in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 960,000 Scottish homes or 39% of total stock is unsuitable for hybrid heat pumps with gas boilers or hydrogen boilers in 2017 and 1.50 million homes or 61% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 507,000 constrained by the gas network, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.12 Hybrid heat pumps with bioliquid

Figure 23: Stock suitability for hybrid heat pumps with bioliquid boilers in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 2.07 million Scottish homes or 84% of total stock is unsuitable for hybrid heat pumps with bioliquid boilers in 2017 and 386,000 homes or 16% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.953 million constrained by the gas network, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.13 Hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating

Figure 24: Stock suitability for hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 575,000 Scottish homes or 23% of total stock is unsuitable for hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 1.89 million homes or 77% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 25: Stock suitability for hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 611,000 Scottish homes or 23% of total stock is unsuitable for hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 1.85 million homes or 75% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 58,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.
Figure 26: Stock suitability for hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 894,000 Scottish homes or 36% of total stock is unsuitable for hybrid heat pumps with direct electric heating for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 1.57 million homes or 64% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 440,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space and 263,000 constrained by installation disruption.

1.14 District heating

Figure 27: Stock suitability for district heating in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.82 million Scottish homes or 74% of total stock is unsuitable for district heating in 2017 and 640,000 homes or 26% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.82 million constrained by heat density.

1.15 ASHP with solar thermal

Figure 28: Stock suitability for ASHP with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 100A and peak specific heating demand of 150 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.16 million Scottish homes or 47% of total stock is unsuitable for air source heat pump with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 100 A and peak heating demand of 150 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.30 million homes or 53% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 24,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 29: Stock suitability for ASHP with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 80A and peak specific heating demand of 120 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.23 million Scottish homes or 50% of total stock is unsuitable for air source heat pump with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 80 A and peak heating demand of 120 W/m2 in 2017 and 1.23 million homes or 50% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 186,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 30: Stock suitability for ASHP with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 60A and peak specific heating demand of 100 W/m 2 in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.54 million Scottish homes or 62% of total stock is unsuitable for air source heat pump with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 60 A and peak heating demand of 100 W/m2 in 2017 and 924,000 homes or 38% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 734,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 345,000 constrained by available space, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.

1.16 Electric storage heating with solar thermal

Figure 31: Stock suitability for electric storage heating with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 950,000 Scottish homes or 39% of total stock is unsuitable for electric storage heating with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 1.51 million homes or 61% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 32: Stock suitability for electric storage heating with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.03 million Scottish homes or 42% of total stock is unsuitable for electric storage heating with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 1.43 million homes or 58% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 158,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 33: Stock suitability for electric storage heating with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.21 million Scottish homes or 49% of total stock is unsuitable for electric storage heating with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 1.25 million homes or 51% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 442,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.

1.17 Direct electric heating with solar thermal

Figure 34: Stock suitability for direct electric heating with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.24 million Scottish homes or 50% of total stock is unsuitable for direct electric heating with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 1.22 million homes or 50% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 493,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 35: Stock suitability for direct electric heating with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.53 million Scottish homes or 62% of total stock is unsuitable for direct electric heating with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 930,000 homes or 38% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 929,000 constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 36: Stock suitability for direct electric heating with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 2.01 million Scottish homes or 82% of total stock is unsuitable for direct electric heating with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 448,000 homes or 18% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.66 million constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.

1.18 Electric boilers with solar thermal

Figure 37: Stock suitability for electric boilers with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 100A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 1.75 million Scottish homes or 71% of total stock is unsuitable for electric boilers with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 100 A in 2017 and 706,000 homes or 29% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.248 million constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 38: Stock suitability for electric boilers with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 80A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 2.01 million Scottish homes or 82% of total stock is unsuitable for electric boilers with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 80 A in 2017 and 454,000 homes or 18% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 1.65 million constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.
Figure 39: Stock suitability for electric boilers with solar thermal, considering fuse limit of 60A in 2017
A vertical bar chart is split over two levels showing that 2.36 million Scottish homes or 96% of total stock is unsuitable for electric boilers with solar thermal for a fuse limit of 60 A in 2017 and 98,000 homes or 4% of total stock is suitable. The suitability is considered based on the dwelling attributes found in Table 1. A supplementary bar chart breaks down the number of unsuitable homes into 2.24 million constrained by peak heating demand, 263,000 constrained by installation disruption and 775,000 constrained by solar orientation.

Contact

Email: zeroemissionsheat@gov.scot