The Scottish Translation, Interpreting and Communication Forum
Good Practice Guidelines
The Scottish Executive has made a strong commitment to Equality of opportunity for all, and to the principles of Social Justice. Our vision is for a just and inclusive Scotland.
A Scotland where everyone has the opportunity to fulfil their potential.
Issues around language provision and Translating and Interpreting services are key to ensuring this. I wholeheartedly concur with the principle that there should be joined-up good practice approach to the provision of interpreting and translating services. It is important that wherever you are in Scotland, whatever your communication needs, you can be assured of receiving a consistently high level of service.
This set of guidelines is very much the work of the Scottish Translation, Interpreting and Communication Forum, and I thank them for all their efforts. This concludes a chapter in the process, but I hope signifies the start of a new one in which these guidelines will further raise awareness of the issues of access to information and services, which are quite rightly already high on our agenda. Under the Disability Discrimination Act, and the Race Relations (Amendment) Act, for example, public bodies have to make sure that people have access to their services, and this means, among other things, ensuring that appropriate translating and interpreting provision is in place.
The Executive strives to work in partnership to deliver change. As the work of the Forum continues, and their guidelines are disseminated, I hope that organisations across Scotland will be able to use these guidelines as a stepping stone towards ensuring genuine equality of access to all the people of Scotland.
Iain Gray, MSP
Minister for Social Justice
Section 1 Good Practice Guidelines
An Agreed Framework of National Standards for Public Bodies for the Management and Delivery of Quality and Effective Public Service Interpreting and Translating in Scotland.
"The Right to Understand"
The right to understand and receive appropriate communication support is a civil right and fundamental to an inclusive and democratic society that seeks to ensure that it provides for the needs of all its citizens.
On this theme, the first conference on Public Service Interpreting was held in Scotland a decade ago. It brought together agencies, policy makers, community interpreters and translators to discuss the need for standards for interpreting, translation and all forms of communication support in the public sector. These would include a commitment to the development of skills, a code of ethics, allocation of resources, promotion of good practice and raising the profile of the professionalism of the interpreter.
Many factors were identified which continue to create formidable barriers to full participation in Scottish life. These include difficulties in accessing communication support, compounded by lack of awareness of cultural differences on the part of public sector agencies and lack of awareness of rights and entitlements to public services among minority ethnic communities. The Commission for Racial Equality expressed the view that meeting the communication support and language needs of the community is the responsibility of the public authority in its capacity as a service-provider. Failure to deal with this and other barriers to equal access could amount to unlawful indirect discrimination. Cases taken against public bodies under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 indicate a similar position on disabled people's rights to communication support.
"Creating Linguistic Access for Deaf and DeafBlind People: A Strategy for Scotland"
This report produced by the Scottish Association of Sign Language Interpreters (SASLI) highlights the fact that deaf people may need access, by either sign language or by English in another form, such as lip-reading or in writing; and that their opportunity to be included in such key areas as education, employment, social work services, the justice system, or health and medical services is greatly diminished by the lack of linguistic access and the ignorance and discrimination inherent within these systems.
Meeting the Increasing Challenges
Notwithstanding the above, support for the provision of interpreting, translation and communication support services across the public sector has declined. At the same time, a whole new agenda is emerging which recognises the importance of social inclusion, social justice, community cohesion and good community and race relations. It is, therefore, essential to develop a co-ordinated approach across Scotland to the development of a framework of standards geared towards meeting the communication support and language needs of all communities.
Local authorities and other public sector agencies will need to take account of the following legislative and policy changes in their future thinking about translation, interpreting and communication support:
Social justice... A Scotland where everyone matters.The Scottish Executive emphasises community empowerment and devolved decision-making policies.
Equality Strategy - Working Together for Equality.The Scottish Executive is committed to securing a just and inclusive Scotland and to putting equality at the heart of policy, practice and procedures.
The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000places a new, enforceable and positive duty on all public authorities to eliminate racial discrimination. The Race Relations Act 1976 (Statutory Duties) (Scotland) Order 2000 requires Scottish public bodies to publish a Race Equality Scheme which includes arrangements for ensuring public access to the information and services which they provide.
The Stephen Lawrence Enquiry - The Scottish Executive Action Planhighlights how failure to provide effective communication support became an issue of institutional racism.
The Human Rights Act 1998establishes rights and entitlements to the assistance of an interpreter if needed.
The Immigration and Asylum Act 1999and the resulting dispersal policy have led to a substantial increase in the provision of welfare services by the voluntary sector and have stretched the existing interpreting and translating facilities to their limits.
The Race Equality Advisory Forumrecommends that all public sector bodies, when preparing Race Equality Schemes in accordance with the Race Relations (Amendment) Act, 2000 should set out their arrangements for the provision of, and access to, interpreting and translation services.
The Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (CoSLA)Officers/Elected Members Equality Network recommends the use by all local authorities in Scotland of the Good Practice Guidelines drawn up by the Scottish Translation, Interpreting and Communication Forum in 2001.
The Commission for Racial Equality, in its Racial Equality Agenda for Action for the Scottish Parliament, recommends establishing the feasibility of a national strategy for interpreting and translating, which might incorporate a national agency, properly resourced, to oversee the development of standards of services throughout the country.
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995promotes the right to reasonable adjustments for people with disabilities to access goods, facilities and services, including aids and adaptations, and access to appropriate communication support.
Language and Literacy Policy for Scotlandcompiled by the Scottish Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research recommends the development of a clearly stated language policy for Scotland, which should cover English, community languages like BSL and the languages of people from minority ethnic communities, heritage languages like Gaelic and modern languages.
Best Value Regimepromotes community wellbeing, joined-up working, democratic renewal and the empowerment of communities so that they can take an active role in the planning and provision of services for which effective translation, interpreting and communication support will be crucial.
The Scottish Translation, Interpreting and Communication Services Forum (The Forum)
This Forum was formally established in 1998 and brings together public sector service-providers, including the Scottish Association of Sign Language Interpreters. These providers are based in Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fife and Glasgow - full details can be found at Appendix 2. The Forum aims to promote good practice in the use of interpreting, translating and communication support to people for whom English is not a suitable language of communication and people who need to access English by Sign Language or in another form. More specifically, it aims to develop high professional standards in the use, management and delivery of interpreting and communication support in Scotland. The Forum has recently been involved in the Scottish Executive's Translation, Interpreting and Communication Support (TICS) Group and has taken part in discussions with the Solicitor General's Office about the setting of standards for Court interpreting.
The first major task of the Forum was to draw together an agreed framework of standards - the Good Practice Guidelines.
The aim of these guidelines is to promote equality and social inclusion by removing barriers to communication.
Section 2 Translation, Interpretation and Communication Support (TICS) Group
The Government is working to transform Britain into a society which is inclusive and prosperous. Eliminating unjustified discrimination, wherever it exists, and making equality of opportunity a reality for all are at the heart of the Government's agenda.
Government's Equality Statement of 30th November 1999
The Scotland Act 1998 reserves responsibility for equal opportunities to Westminster, subject to two exceptions. These are the encouragement and observance of the equal opportunities requirements and the imposition of duties on Scottish public authorities in relation to their Scottish functions.
The Scotland Act definition of equal opportunities is as follows:
"The prevention, elimination or regulation of discrimination between persons on grounds of sex or marital status, on racial grounds, or on grounds of disability, age, sexual orientation, language or social origin, or of other personal attributes, including beliefs or opinions, such as religious beliefs or political opinions."
The Scottish Executive formed the Translation, Interpreting and Communication Support Services Framework Group to develop a national, cross-sectoral framework of standards for such services. Guiding principles for the work of this group include the goal of meeting the communication support and language needs of the community.
Literature Review of Research, Policy and Practice Relating to Translation, Interpreting and Communication Support Services across the Public Sector in Scotland
This review was produced for the Scottish Executive by the Scottish Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (Scottish CILT). It was commissioned to research policy and practice relating to translation, interpreting and communication support services across the public sector in Scotland, and to identify key issues of common concern or relevance to translators, interpreters and others providing communication support for a range of clients or service-users.
The Literature Review will also recommend the development of a comprehensive strategy for the implementation of good practice guidelines, including time-scales, funding implications, training implications, core standards for training, and monitoring and evaluation procedures.
Section 3 The Right to Quality Communication Support
All individuals and communities in Scotland have the right to access and understand full, accurate and timely information, in a manner appropriate to their needs in order to be included in, to benefit on an equal basis from, all the opportunities and services offered in their local communities.
To enable this to happen, public authorities in Scotland should develop a strategic and coherent approach whereby they would:
a. make a commitment - to the provision of accessible information and appropriate communication support, which should emphasise the right of choice (which at the moment for certain groups is significantly reduced due to the limited range of information and communication available);
b. know their communities - carry out community profiling and identifying minority ethnic and other groups by culture, religion, age, gender, language usage and literacy rates;
c. ascertain information needs - and communication needs in relation to individual services;
d. ensure access to interpreting, translation and communication support - for disabled people and people for whom English is not a suitable language of communication (people who may be d/Deaf and/or Blind and may require BSL or Braille, Lip Speakers, Note Takers etc.);
e. make sure communities are aware of their rights and entitlements - by outlining arrangements for the provision of communication support facilities and how to access them and promoting these both within the public authorities and among the communities of interest;
f. allocate resources - by identifying appropriate funding sources; and
g. consult regularly with service users to ensure that the communication support facilities are meeting their needs.
Key Components of Good Communication Practice for All Public Authorities
The following are definitions used by the Scottish Centre for Information and Language Teaching and Research at the University of Stirling.
The conversion of written text from one language to another.
The conversion of speech from one language (including British sign language and other sign languages) to another.
A variety of forms of supporting and communication with those who do not use the conventional forms of spoken or written English, including braille and other tactile forms of writing, lip reading and lip speaking and various communication technologies.
2. Equality of Opportunity
The provision of appropriate communication support to users of public services is an issue of equality of opportunity. It also helps combat the effects of racism, social exclusion and the removal of other discriminatory barriers to full participation in society.
3. Human Rights
The Human Rights Act 1998 envisages the right to information in a language that a person understands, when s/he is subject to legal processes. All public authorities should recognise the rights of those who live in our multi-lingual and multi-cultural society to understand, to be understood, and to express themselves according to their own linguistic and cultural norms and values.
4. Best Value
The provision of accessible communication arrangements promotes best value by ensuring that public bodies are open, transparent and accountable organisations. Appropriate communication support ensures a customer/citizen focus to the delivery of services.
5. Procurement of Communication Services and Health and Safety Issues
As procurers of communication services, public authorities should ensure that the terms and conditions offered to qualified interpreters and translators are comparable to those offered to other professionals. These include training in, and awareness of, health and safety requirements. Public authorities should ensure that the appropriate number of interpreters be commissioned, bearing in mind the physically strenuous nature of BSL/English interpreting and the dangers of repetitive strain injury.
6. Professionalism of Interpreters
Public authorities should make a commitment to using professional interpreters. This is a means of promoting trust and confidence among communities that they are receiving the highest standard of service.
The authorities should also be setting targets for the employment of a greater number of disabled people and people from minority ethnic backgrounds. The same people should not, however, be used as unqualified interpreters.
7. Quality of Preparation
It is the responsibility of public authorities to engage the interpreter - it is not the responsibility of the service user. Staff need to prepare themselves properly for any meetings and to assume full responsibility for the procedure.
8. Briefing Interpreters
Public authorities should respect the role of the interpreter. Pre-meetings could be used to clarify respective roles, to provide briefing about the background and practical purpose of the interview or assignment and to deal with issues such as confidentiality and positioning. The authorities should also ensure that the interpreter is clear about the use of technical terms or specialist vocabulary.
9. Needs of the Service Users
When accessing communication support the needs of the individual client are paramount. Staff should take steps to ensure matches for language and dialect and that gender issues are addressed. This is of particular, but not singular, importance to Muslim women. Constant evaluation of interpreting assignments is important to gauge that the individual needs are being met.
10. Use of Alternative Formats
It is good practice to state on all information leaflets and public documents that alternative formats are available on request including in appropriate community languages. Such wording should eventually be replaced by a logo, recognisable by the community, defining an organisation with accessible communications.
Public authorities should make arrangements to ensure that sufficient funding is available for the engagement of professional interpreters, all forms of communication support and the translation of information as appropriate. Under no circumstances should public authorities rely upon family members or friends to provide an informal interpreting service. When applying for external funding for specific projects, the issue of communication support should be resourced along with other access criteria.
12. Payment of Interpreters
On completion of the assignment public authorities should ensure that the interpreter is aware of the procedure for payment of fees and other appropriate expenses.
13. Accredited Interpreters and Assessing Their Work
Qualified interpreters and translators in minority community languages are in short supply in Scotland. Language, interpreting and translation skills should always be checked before employment is offered. This can be done by bringing in an expert (for example the Institute of Linguists) or by involving an existing member of staff, known to be fluent in the required language. The checking should involve oral and written tests and possibly some role playing.
Local Authorities and public bodies procuring interpreting and translation services should ensure that appropriate quality assurance processes exist. These should include a sample proof reading of translated material and the occasional recording and checking of interpreting work.
14. Approved Qualifications
Bilingualism is an essential element of proficiency in interpreting. An interpreter however, also has to have knowledge of the organisation's environment and operating processes, the ability to cope with specialist vocabulary and an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of the public service interpreter. The best way to acquire such proficiency is through high quality training.
Successful completion of the Diploma in Public Service Interpreting (DPSI) provides interpreters and translators with the only professional certificate of competence currently available in this field. Those who have gained a DPSI can ensure service users that they are working with qualified staff trained to nationally recognised and assessed standards.
The Diploma in Public Service Interpreting (DPSI) is available in three different options. Further information can be obtained from the Institute of Linguists, in London.
A degree level qualification in Conference Interpreting from any university or equivalent qualification from abroad will also be a good indicator of the level of competency.
SASLI hold the register of BSL/English interpreters in Scotland and these interpreters are recognised by Scottish Executive and the Crown Office.
Training providers are as follows:
- Stevenson College, Edinburgh
- Cardonald College, Glasgow
- Bell College, Hamilton
- Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh - Certificate course in Sign Language Interpreting Studies.
An example of good practice is Fife Community Interpreting Services' scheme for Diploma Standard interpreter training in Glenrothes.
There is also a need to train those that use interpreting and translating services and special training is available through Forum members. Training lasts between half a day and one day.
The National Register of Public Service Interpreters' Code of Conduct and Guide to Good Practice states under 'Ethical and Professional Issues', that interpreters disclose any information, including any criminal record, which may make them unsuitable in any particular case.
Interpreters may find themselves working in positions of trust, such as assignments involving children or vulnerable adults. In the interests of public safety interpreters should be prepared to agree to appropriate searches being carried out by the Scottish Criminal Records Office (SCRO) and the new Disclosure Bureau. Full details of this service are available from the Disclosure Bureau, 1 Pacific Quay, Glasgow, G51 1EA, Telephone 0141 585 8495.
Section 4 Engaging an Interpreter
1. The Role of the Interpreter
The role of the Interpreter is to facilitate communication between two individuals, where, typically, one is a service providing agency, such as a local authority housing department and the other a client with a problem or an important request.
Interpreters are often given little time to prepare for work in a given situation. They must, therefore, possess the requisite skills and information to respond immediately and effectively to their client's needs in a particular context.
In order to work reliably and effectively, interpreters working in the public sector must have:
- a good command of English and the target language;
- a familiarity with and an objective understanding of the culture(s) in question;
- competence in the relevant interpreting and translation techniques;
- an ability to function professionally in all situations;
- a commitment to the National Register of Public Service Interpreters' professional Code of Conduct and Guide to Good Practice;
- a commitment to the Scottish Association of Sign Language Interpreters' Code of Conduct and Practice;
- a sound knowledge of the structure, procedures and commonly used terminology of the professional areas in which they work; and
- complete impartiality of attitude, speech and script.
2. On Initial Contact
On initial contact the Interpreter must indicate clearly and unequivocally:
- if s/he is available to undertake the assignment;
- if s/he is able to accept the nature of the task; and
- that there is a correct match between the language of the non-English speaking client and the interpreter's own working language.
If the assignment is accepted, the interpreter should record appropriate details, such as:
- the date and time of request;
- the name, address and telephone number of the agency from which the request is being made.
- the interpreter will not negotiate or advocate on behalf of either party;
- the interpreter will not act as advisor or counsellor for any party; or
- the interpreter will not attempt to influence the outcome of any exchange between parties.
The interpreter will maintain utmost confidentiality and trust, since clients need to feel that total discretion will be observed by both the interpreter and the agency.
5. Awareness of Professional Limitation
The interpreter has the right to refuse an assignment in the following circumstances:
- when s/he feels that they have been inadequately briefed;
- when s/he feels that they do not have adequate training or support; or
- when s/he is subject to unacceptable demands or behaviour from clients.
6. Equal Opportunities
An interpreter will not discriminate between parties, either directly or indirectly, on the grounds of race, colour, ethnic origin, age, nationality, religion, gender or physical ability.
7. Cultural Guidance
The interpreter may, as a separate assignment, give guidance on cultural norms and differences, in order to facilitate fuller understanding between parties. This is done, however, in the recognition that it is the view of the individual interpreter and that no individual can speak for a whole culture or race.
If the assignment has been accepted, the interpreter will also be required to demonstrate sensitivity and understanding in coping with tense and stressful situations, such as racial abuse, child abuse, domestic violence or the trauma of asylum seekers. Similarly, consideration should be given to the sensitivities of the interpreter and his/her vicarious exposure to such situations.
Section 5 Translation Policy
The Role of the Translator
The translator works with the written word, meaning-fully re-assembling the fragments of communication from the source language to the target language. The translator provides his/her own view of the meaning of the original text.
It is important to see the translation as more than a simple operation of swapping one word for another into the target language. The finished article needs to be meaningful to the reader.
There are a number of circumstances that can challenge the skills and expertise of the translator. These include:
- ambiguities, abbreviations, jargon or colloquialism, puns, word play and sayings or proverbs;
- where there is no direct equivalent of an English term in the target language, for example, there is no direct equivalent of "Council/Local Authority" in Urdu.
This is often dealt with through the creation of vocabulary banks to ensure a uniform approach, taking into account developments in client's home languages and the fact that many of their local speakers may be unaware of such developments;
- where the layout of the target language version is likely to differ significantly from that of the source version. This is likely to arise due to differences in the length of text, from the fact that, in the case of Urdu and Arabic; and
- where queries will be followed up by an agency without the capacity to use the target language.
Sometimes either the source or the target language is in a non-written format ie audio-tape, Braille, video or just personal dictation or reading. Agencies using these will need to consider how best they should be handled in the target language(s). The production of these alternative formats is often called transcription but "translation" is used to cover all such approaches in this guidance note unless otherwise stated.
Public authorities should develop their own translation guidelines. These can either be in the form of a policy or a procedure and, among other things, should cover:
- the use of plain, grammatically correct and idiomatically simple English in all documents that require translation;
- the recognising that translation should be seen as a supplement to interpreting and other communication services, not a substitute;
- an indication of the costs of translation at the very outset of any document being prepared for public use;
- an assessment of the benefit of translating documents against using an interpreter or an audio tape;
- an assessment of the need for a document to be translated in full, as against a shortened version or summary;
- provision for the proof reading of all documents for accuracy, readability and appropriateness;
- consideration of the target audience, how they will be reached and the best format for their needs, for example, audio information may, in some cases, be preferable to a written format.
The thirty-nine steps - Questions you need to ask yourself when undertaking a translation - have been reproduced with the kind permission of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting ( www.iti.org.uk). This can be found at Appendix 1.
Published by kind permission of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting
The Thirty-Nine Steps
Questions you need to ask yourself when undertaking a translation
1 Into what variant language is the translation to be made?
e.g. Castillian Spanish, Mexican, Spanish . . .
2 What is the purpose of the translation?
e.g. information, publication, use in court, training . . .
3 What is the target readership of the translation?
e.g. literacy, specialist . . .
4 What is the intended quality level for the translation?
e.g. draft, revision, third party revised . . .
5 Does the style of terminology used in the translation have to conform to any specific requirements?
e.g. consistency with ISO document, house style, pharmacopoeia . . .
6 Can any reference/background material be provided?
e.g. prior correspondence, reports, glossaries, specifications . . .
7 Who is the contact for queries?
Keep records of the contact person details: name, e.mail, telephone . . .
8 Is the layout of the translation to comply with any particular requirements?
e.g. facsimile of the original, page for page . . .
9 Are tables and graphical matter to be incorporated with the text?
e.g. figures, diagrams, equations, flow charts . . .
10 Which particular word processing software requires the translation?
e.g. MSWord, Macintosh, QuarkXpress . . .
11 In which format is the translation to be provided?
e.g. paper, diskette, electronic file . . .
12 When is the translation to be delivered?
Don't forget there is always a deadline for the submission of translations.
13 How is the translation to be delivered?
e.g. fax, modem, internet . . .
14 Where is the translation to be delivered?
e.g. client's address, intermediary, both, internet address . . .
15 Is any non-standard form of delivery required?
e.g. courier, express post, recorded/special delivery . . .
16 Before delivering: has the translation been properly checked?
e.g. correct terminology, spell-check, structure and syntax . . .
17 Does the target text read like a piece of original text in that language?
18 Is the source text, reference material, to be returned?
19 Does the translation have to be certified?
e.g. official documents. An ITI official translator can certify documents. If not, you have to go to a notary public, solicitor or registrar.
20 On what basis will the translation be charged?
e.g. target text length, source text length, time, lump sum . . .
21 What rate will be applied?
Some publications like the ITI Rates & Salaries survey will give you all the details about charges taking into account all the below specifications.
22 Will there be an additional charge for urgency?
e.g. unsociable hours, weekend working (see step 20).
23 Will there be an additional charge for complex layout?
e.g. multiple font changes, complex tables . . .
24 Will there be an additional charge for unusual difficulties?
e.g. poorly legible text, contact with foreign informants . . .
25 Will there by an additional charge for special presentations?
26 Will there by an additional charge for research?
e.g. pertinent legislation, specialist terminology, prior documentation.
27 Will there be an additional charge for attendance?
e.g. for certifying a translation, travel to a collection point . . .
28 Will any other additional services be required?
e.g. post-editing, proof-reading . . .
29 Will VAT apply to these changes?
Refer to step 20.
30 How is payment to be made?
e.g. single payment, advance instalments . . .
31 When is payment to be made?
e.g. on delivery, 30 days.
32 What method of payment is to be used?
e.g. bank transfer, cheque, eurocheque, banker's draft . . .
33 Does foreign payment convey any charge?
e.g. foreign cheques, bank transfers . . .
34 Is copyright to be retained or transferred?
e.g. by assignment, licence . . .
35 To whom and under what conditions?
See ITI Model Terms for Business.
36 Is the subject matter of the translation under confidentiality restrictions?
Refer to the previous step.
37 Is there any source of possible consequential liability of which the translator should be aware?
e.g. printing of documentation . . .
38 Is there any likelihood of a possible liability, which might exceed the normal level of insurance cover?
39 What compensation should be agreed when a job is cancelled after work has begun?
See step 35.
Appendix 2 Interpreting Services in Scotland
The Interpreting Services in Scotland
Aberdeen City Council Public Interpreting and Translation Service
Community Development Department, St Nicholas House,
Broad Street, Aberdeen AB10 1GZ
Telephone: 01224 523542
Fax: 01224 522832
Dundee Translation and Interpreting Services
Central Library, The Wellgate Centre, Dundee
Telephone: 01382 431563
Fax: 01382 431542
Edinburgh - The Interpretation and Translation Service
Central Library, George IV Bridge, Edinburgh, EH1 1EG
Telephone: 0131 242 8181
Fax: 0131 242 8009
Falkirk Council (Interpreting Services are currently provided by contract)
Municipal Building, Falkirk, FK1 5RS
Telephone: 01324 506012
Fax: 01324 506253
Fife Community Interpreting Service
Room 319, Glenrothes House, Glenrothes, Fife KY7 5PB
Telephone: 01592 611 745
Fax: 01592 612 722
Glasgow Interpreting Services
39 Napiershall Street, Glasgow, G20 6EZ
Telephone: 0141 341 0019
Fax: 0141 334 7276
Scottish Association of Sign Language Interpreters
Donaldson's College, West Coates, Edinburgh EH12 5JJ
Telephone; Voice and Text: 0131 347 5601
Fax: 0131 347 5628
Unit Costs for interpreting range from: 16.00 per hour to 35.00 per hour
Unit Costs for translations range from: 14.00 per 100 words to 25.00 per 100 words
Other expenses can be out of hours interpreting, travel, public holidays, specialist skills, cancellation fees, these are available from the above Interpreting Services on request.
Falkirk Council (Chair)
Aberdeen City Council (Secretary)
Scottish Association of Sign Language Interpreters
Dundee City Council
Edinburgh Interpreting Services
Edinburgh City Council
Fife Community Interpreting Service
Dr S Singh
Glasgow Interpreting Services
National Interpreting and Translation Organisations
Institute of Linguists
48 Southwark Street, London, SE1 1UN
Tel: 020 7940 3100
Fax: 020 7940 3101
National Register of Public Service Interpreters
A wholly owned, non-profit making subsidiary of the Institute of Linguists, contact details as for the Institute of Linguists.