The Impact of Welfare Reform in Scotland - Tracking Study - Year 1 Report - Appendices

The aim of the study is to explore the impact of on-going welfare changes on a range of households in Scotland over time. This report provides the findings from the first year of the study by presenting results from the first two sweeps of interviews. Sweep 1 took place from September 2013 to January 2014 and sweep 2 took place from April 2014 to July 2014

Appendix 1 Key Welfare Reforms

Table A1.1: An overview of welfare reforms and when they were implemented




Uprate working age benefits by 1% for 3 years - personal and couple allowances of Income Support, income-based JSA, Housing Benefit; personal rate of contributory JSA; basic rate and Work Related Activity Component of ESA (income-based and contributory); Child Benefit; Statutory Sick, Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Pay; basic, 30 hour, second adult and lone parent element of Working Tax Credit; the child element of Child Tax Credit.

From April 2013, for 3 years

Switch uprating of disability benefits - DLA, Attendance Allowance, Carers Allowance, IB (for those still on it) - from RPI/Rossi to CPI

Permanently, from April 2011

Household benefit cap - £500 for a couple or single parent, £350 for a single person (some exceptions - e.g. households receiving DLA, Attendance Allowance, or the support component of ESA, and those in receipt of Working Tax Credits)

Pilot from April 2013, national rollout from July to September 2013

Introduce Universal Credit to replace income-based JSA and ESA, Income Support, Working and Child Tax Credits and Housing Benefit with a single monthly payment

Pilot from April 2013, national rollout due "during 2016"

Appeal only allowed after revision considered by DWP

For decisions made after 28 October 2013

Introduction of £50 civil penalty for overpayment recovery where this was caused by claimant negligence in reporting change in circumstances

From October 2013

Welfare cap - an expenditure limit on total welfare spending (some exceptions - e.g. JSA and its passported Housing Benefit)

From April 2015/16

Abolition of Community Care Grants and Crisis Loans, replaced with local welfare schemes - local authorities currently delivering an interim Scottish Welfare Fund, legislation in progress to put this on a statutory footing

From 1 April 2013


All Housing Benefit and Council Tax Reduction claimants

Increase Housing Benefit deductions for non-dependent residents, so that by 2014 they are in line with where they would be if they had risen with rents instead of being frozen in 2001. Future increases in line with prices.

From April 2011

LHA claimants in the private rented sector

Set LHA at 30th percentile of local rents instead of 50th, with national caps on rates

From April 2011

Abolish entitlement to keep up to £15 per week if LHA > rent

From April 2011

Uprate LHA in line with CPI instead of local rents, and by 1% for 2 years from April 2014

From April 2013

Cut LHA to shared room rate for 25-34 year olds with no dependent children

January 2012

Increase LHA by 1% for 2 years except in areas of highest rent growth

April 2014

Housing Benefit claimants in the social rented sector

Cut housing benefit for those under-occupying social rented properties

April 2013

Owner occupiers and leaseholders

Support for Mortgage Interest - set standard rate at which mortgage interest is paid at average Bank of England rate (currently 3.63% - previously frozen at 6.08%)

October 2010

Council tax benefit

Replace CTB with local rebate schemes and reduce Treasury funding by 10%

April 2013


Move IB claimants onto ESA, including introduction of more stringent medical testing (the Work Capability Assessment)

October 2010

Contributory ESA time limited to 1 year for those in WRAG

May 2012

Introduction of conditionality and toughening of sanctions regime for those in ESA WRAG

December 2012

Replace DLA with PIP for those aged under 65; introduction of an assessment with a healthcare professional, abolition of middle rate, greater targeting on those most in need of support with estimated reduction in overall caseload

Pilot April 2013, new claimants from June 2013, renewals or changes from October 2013, rollout of reassessment October 2015 to be completed by October 2018


Replacement of existing active labour market programmes with the Work Programme

June 2011

Toughening of sanctions regime for JSA clients

October 2012

Introduction of Help to Work

April 2014


Tax credits

Freeze basic and 30 hour elements of WTC for 3 years

April 2011

Freeze couple and lone parent element of WTC for 2 years (?)

April 2012

Increase hours requirement for WTC from 16 to 24 for couples with children

April 2012

Reduce proportion childcare costs covered by tax credits from 80% to 70%

April 2011

Withdraw family element of child tax credit immediately after withdrawing other elements (rather than once income > £50,000)

April 2011

Increase tax credit withdrawal from 39% to 41%

April 2011

Increase child element of CTC by £180 above inflation

April 2011

Remove baby element of CTC

April 2011

Reduce backdating period from 3 months to 1 month

Child Benefit

Freeze child benefit for 3 years

April 2011

Uprate child benefit by 1% for 2 years

April 2014

Taper child benefit at (individual) incomes over £50,000 to zero at incomes over £60,000

January 2013

Other family allowances

Restrict Sure Start Maternity Grant to first birth

April 2011

Single parents

Reduce age of youngest child at which lone parents must move onto JSA to 5

May 2012

Increased Income Support conditionality

April 2014

Replacement of CSA with CMS

December 2012


Email: Communities Analytical Services

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