1 Information on our purpose targets and performance indicators, including those relating to sustainability, can be found at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms/glanceperformance
2 http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/weekly.html, accessed on 3 June 2013
3 Etheridge, D. M., L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, and V. I. Morgan, (1996), Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO 2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn ( http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/95JD03410/abstract), J. Geophys. Res., 101(D2), 4115-4128, doi:10.1029/95JD03410.
4 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics for the World Bank, Turn Down the Heat ( http://climatechange.worldbank.org/content/climate-change-report-warns-dramatically-warmer-world-century), p.XIV
5 The World Bank. November 2012:
6 Climate Change Delivery Plan: Meeting Scotland's
Statutory Climate Change Targets, 2009:
7 This figure has been adjusted for trading in the EU ETS. Unadjusted emissions have fallen by 29.6% since 1990.
8 Connie Hedegaard, the European Commissioner for Climate Action has stated that the EU is on track to deliver up to a 27% reduction by 2020.
9 European Commission, Green Paper, A 2030 framework for
climate and energy policies:
10 World Meteorological Organization. Annual Statement,
11 Met Office. December 2012:
13 Met Office. January 2013:
15 Unadjusted for EU- ETS.
Gas Emissions Data Viewer:
http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer. Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 1990-2011:
Figures contain estimates for emissions from international aviation and shipping and emissions and removals from the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry LULUCF sector as reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They do not include any adjustment for trading in the EU ETS. Latvia is a net source of emissions in 1990 and a net sink in 2011. Therefore, it is not appropriate to show a percentage change. Emissions resulting from offshore operations are not attributed to England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. They are included in the UK figures.
17 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
18 Sniffer. An online handbook of climate trends across
UK Climate Projections:
20 The Public Bodies Climate Change Duties:
21 Procurement Reform Bill:
22 Scottish Cities Alliance:
23 For example, many people made significant effort to participate in two RPP2 workshops held in Edinburgh in May and September 2012. At the second workshop, the Director General of Enterprise, Environment and Digital committed to having an annual event to continue this engagement. Individual sectors have also continued to engage and consult with stakeholders on aspects of this RPP2.
24 The basket of Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gases comprises carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O), for which the baseline is 1990; and hydrofluorocarbons ( HFCs), perfluorocarbons ( PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6), for which the baseline is 1995.
25 Secondary legislation made under the Climate Change
(Scotland) Act 2009:
26 The Scottish Government, RPP1, Low Carbon Scotland - Meeting the Emissions Reduction Targets 2010-2022: www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/rpp
27 The large drop in 2013 reflects Phase III of the EU ETS coming into effect, with a corresponding reduction in the available number of emissions allowances.
28 The percentage reductions shown for 2010 and 2011 give the precise figures required by those annual targets against the two versions of the 1990 baseline: from the 2008 and 2011 Greenhouse Gas Inventories. They do not show the reported outturn figures for those years. That information is set out in section 2.7.
29 As discussed in this section of the document, any methodological updates to the Greenhouse Gas Inventory are backdated to 1990 wherever possible. This means that the total estimated level of Scottish emissions in 1990 can change in each edition of the Inventory. Adjusting to include a Scottish share of emissions from international aviation and shipping, the 2008 Inventory estimate for 1990 was 70,201 KtCO 2e. In the 2011 Inventory the estimate for 1990 was revised upwards to 72,974 KtCO 2e.
30 See section 2.8 of the main RPP2 and section 3 of the Technical Appendix for more information about the Business-as-Usual Projection.
31 Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions in
Scotland - 2013 progress report:
32 Committee on Climate Change, Welsh Progress Report
33 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory 2011
34 The Scottish Government, Scottish greenhouse gas
emissions annual target:
35 Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions in
Scotland - 2013 progress report:
36 The Committee on Climate Change advice to the
37 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for England,
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2008:
38 The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Regulations
39 As part of an EU wide process to develop the EU ETS in phase 3 (2013-2020), official submission of public sector 'opt-outs' have been made to the European Commissions for consideration. These are due to be resolved later in the year and as such have not been incorporated into this document.
40 European Commission, The state of the European carbon
market in 2012:
41 Committee on Climate Change, Scotland's path to a low
42 The Scottish Government, Draft Budget 2013-14, Details of funding for climate change mitigation measures: www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0040/00408239.pdf
43 Scottish Consumption-based emission reports:
44 Production of a Time Series of Scotland's Ecological
and Greenhouse Gas Footprints:
45 Greenhouse Gas Footprint 2009:
46 Scotland's Climate Change Declaration:
47 Scotland's 2020 Climate Group:
48 Scotland's 2020 Climate Group:
Energy Outlook 2012:
52 The Scottish Government:
53 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
UK Electricity Market
UK Green Investment Bank:
57 Scottish Government, Extending the Challenge:
Energy Efficiency Strategy: The Energy Efficiency Opportunity in
59 The Scottish Government, Draft Budget 2013-14,
Details of funding for climate change mitigation measures:
60 The Scottish Government, Infrastructure Investment
Green Investment Bank:
62 Transport Scotland. Scottish Green Bus Fund:
63 Central Energy Efficiency Fund:
64 Salix Finance:
65 Scottish Futures Trust:
66 Scottish Futures Trust. Scotland-wide hub initiative:
68 Energy Performance Certificates:
69 Scottish Investment Bank:
70 Scottish Government News Release:
71 The Chartered Institution of Building Services
Engineers Technical Guidance:
72 The Carbon Trust Scotland:
73 Scottish Enterprise. Fund Your Business guidance:
74 Knowledge Transfer Network. Low Carbon Funding
The Scottish Partnership for Regeneration in Urban
76 European Commission, LIFE Programme:
77 Scottish Co-investment Fund:
79 The Scottish Government, Low Carbon Scotland
80 Scotland's Census, 2011:
81 Scotland's greenhouse gas emission reduction targets do not change with changing demographics.
82 Climate Change Behaviours Research Programme - Update
83 The Scottish Government: Influencing Behaviours - Moving Beyond the Individual - A User Guide to the ISM Tool : www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/8511
84 Tipping or Turning point. Social Marketing and Climate Change, 2007.
85 Southerton. D. et al (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives. The Scottish Government: Edinburgh. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/01104638/0
86 Changing Household Energy Behaviours: Key Findings from a Review of Applied Research. The Scottish Government. Edinburgh. www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Research/by-topic/environment/social-research/Behaviour-Change-Research/domesticenergy
87 Southerton. D. et al (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives. The Scottish Government: Edinburgh. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/01104638/0
88 Cox, A. et al. (2012) The Impact of Workplace Initiatives on Low Carbon Behaviours: Case Study Report. The Scottish Government. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/03/2237
89 Southerton. D. et al (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives. The Scottish Government: Edinburgh. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/01104638/0
90 The Scottish Government, National Planning Framework
2: Action Programme:
91 Draft Electricity Generation Policy Statement:
92 The Committee on Climate Change advice to the
93 The Scottish Government: www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Infrastructure/Energy-Consents/Guidance
94 The Scottish Government, Report on the Scottish
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annual Target 2010:
95 The pink line from 'Energy Supply' to 'End User' represents emissions from energy supply in the production of fuels used in international aviation and shipping.
96 'Exports' equates to emissions from international aviation and shipping.
97 Energy imports (0.6 Mt) represents emissions relating to energy imports/exports. Scotland is a net exporter of electricity but the emissions in the diagram arise due to the use of UK emission efficiencies for electricity production. Scotland produces less GHG emissions per unit of electricity than the UK average.
98 Scottish Government, Energy Efficiency Action Plan -
Formal Review and Annual Report 2013:
99 The Scottish Government, 2020 Routemap for Renewable
100 Scottish Government:
101 Scottish Government:
102 Scottish Government:
103 The Scottish Parliament:
104 Renewables Obligation Scotland:
105 Saltire Prize:
106 The Scottish European Green Energy Centre:
107 The European Marine Energy Centre:
108 The Scottish Government:
109 The Scottish Government:
111 The Department for Energy and Climate Change:
112 The Scottish Government (2013) - Scottish National
113 The Scottish Government:
114 The Scottish Government:
UK Energy Security:
116 For more information on the Scottish Government
see our website at
117 The Scottish Parliament:
118 For a copy of the Economy, Energy and Tourism Report
on the Legislative Consent Memorandum on the Energy Bill see:
119 Ofgem, Project Discovery:
120 Committee on Climate Change, Energy prices and bills
- impacts of meeting carbon budgets:
121 Policy impacts on prices and bills:
122 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
123 The Scottish Innovation Foundation Technologies Fund
124 General Register Office for Scotland (2012). Household Projections for Scotland 2010-based.
125 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
126 There were 2,124,000 dwellings in December 1990 and 2,495,000 in March 2011, the latest figure available.
127 Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions in
Scotland - 2013 progress report:
128 Energy Saving Trust,
129 The Scottish Government, Housing and Regeneration Statistics: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Housing-Regeneration
Energy Company Obligation:
Community Energy saving Programme
Community Energy saving Programme:
136 Green Homes Cashback Scheme:
137 Energy Saving Trust, Private Sector Landlord
138 The Scottish Government:
139 The Scottish Government:
140 A Low Carbon Building Standards Strategy For
Scotland, 'The Sullivan Report':
141 The Scottish Government, Housing Market Context
142 Renewable Heat Action Plan:
143 Update to 2020 Routemap for Renewable Energy:
145 District Heating Action Plan:
146 Expert Commission on District Heating:
UK Renewable Heat
148 DECC. Renewable Heat Premium Payment scheme www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/meeting_energy/renewable_ener/premium_pay/rhpp_voucher/rhpp_voucher.aspx
149 District Heating Loan Fund:
150 Home Renewables Loans:
151 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
152 District Heating Loans Scheme:
153 District heating Action Plan:
154 Home Energy Scotland Advice Centres:
155 Energy Performance Certificates:
156 Climate Challenge Fund:
158 Landlords' Energy saving Allowance:
159 Historic Scotland:
161 Aberdeen Heat and Power:
162 Cube Housing:
163 Conserve and Save: Energy Efficiency Action Plan:
164 Guidance to support public bodies in exercising their duties under the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009: www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/01/05153413/1
165 Businesses in Scotland:
166 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
EU Emissions Trading
168 Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency
EU Energy Efficiency
Non-Domestic Green Deal:
Climate Change Levy:
Climate Change Agreements:
174 Home Energy Scotland Advice Centres:
Green Investment Bank:
176 The Scottish Government, District Heating loan
177 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
178 Expert Commission on District Heating:
179 The Scottish Government, District Heating Action
180 The Highland Council, Heat Mapping in Highland
181 The Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases Regulations 2009:
185 The Scottish Government, Building Standards
186 Potential Carbon Abatement from the Scottish Public
Meeting the Challenge: The Future of Heating:
188 The Scottish Government, Heat:
189 The Scottish Government:
190 The Scottish Government, District Heating Action
191 The Scottish Government, Resource Efficient
192 The Scottish Government, Scottish Energy and
Resource Efficiency Service:
193 Further information about Scottish Water and its
subsidiaries is available from:
194 Further information about the water industry in
Scotland, including the regulatory framework, see:
195 Further information about the non-domestic market in
Scotland and the benefits retail competition have brought for
businesses is available from the Water Industry Commission for
196 Meeting the UK climate change challenge: The contribution of resource efficiency: www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/Final%20Report%20EVA128_SEI%20(1)%20JB%20SC%20JB3.pdf
197 Ofgem Renewable Heat Incentive (
198 With the agreement of Scottish Ministers, the Environment Agency operates as UK Administrator for the purpose of allowance sales.
199 Based on the current fleet size (2.3 million) and new car sales of 168,000, these percentages equate to new sales of 100,000 cars and a low carbon car fleet of around 710,000.
200 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
201The transport estimate includes emissions from international aviation and shipping, but the aggregate Scottish emissions estimate used here does not take account of the EU ETS.
202 This is an internal calculation using Scottish Transport Statistics figure for vehicle kilometres and Scottish emissions data from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory ( NAEI).
Average new car CO
204 Reducing CO
2 emissions from vehicles:
Transport Fuel Obligation:
206 Assuming new car sales and fleet size on a par with 2011 figures. In practice, new car sales and fleet size are likely to be marginally above the 2011 level so absolute sales are likely to be higher.
207 Plugged in Places:
208 Charge Place Scotland:
209 Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme:
210 Scottish Green Bus Fund:
211 Transport Scotland, Bus Service Operators Grant:
212 The Scottish Government, Air Quality:
213 Transport Scotland, Ferries Plan:
214 Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd:
215 Clean Sky partnership:
216 Transport Scotland. Intelligent Transport Systems :
217 Transport Scotland. Smarter Choices Smarter Places:
218 Changeworks, Energy Saving Scotland Advice Centres:
219 Transport Scotland. Bus Policy:
220 Transport Scotland. Rail Policy:
221 Transport Scotland, Cycling Action Plan for
222 National Walking Strategy:
223 Car Clubs in Scotland:
224 This excluding commuting which accounts for an further 20% of annual individual travel.
225 Fuel Efficient Driving:
226 Workplace Travel Planning:
227 Choose Another Way:
228 Worksmart initiative:
229 Transport Scotland. Freight Grants:
230 Transport Scotland: www.transportscotland.gov.uk/road/policy/freight
231 Scotland's Digital Future: A Strategy for Scotland:
232 Department for Transport. High Speed Rail:
233Scottish Transport Emissions Partnership: www.scottishairquality.co.uk/documents/reports/4_Scottish_AQD_and_Website_Annual_Seminar_18_March_2013_STEP_Presentation.pdf
234 Mitigating Transport's Climate Change Impacts:
235Committee on Climate Change. Fourth Carbon Budget:
236 Allied Vehicles Ltd:
238 Alexander Dennis Ltd:
239 Ferguson Group:
240 Transport Scotland:
241Scottish Government, Zero Waste Plan:
242 Scottish Government, Safeguarding Scotland's
243 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
244 The Waste (Scotland) Regulations 2012:
245EEF: The Manufacturers' Organisation (2012) Executive Survey 2012.
246 Renewables Obligations:
247 Zero Waste Scotland:
248 Sustainable Development Commission. Energy from
Waste Potential in Scotland, 2010:
249 Greener Scotland:
250 See subsection 6.6 for further detail on Resource Efficient Scotland.
251 Zero Waste Scotland, Carbon Metric:
UK Climate Challenge: The
contribution of resource efficiency:
253 The Scottish Government, Economic Report on Scottish
Agriculture 2012, Table C2:
254 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
255 Once wetland management activities are incorporated into greenhouse gas emissions reporting.
257The Scottish Government, Land Use Strategy:
For a Better Climate:
259 ADAS, RMP/5142 Analysis of Policy Instruments forReducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from
Agriculture, Forestry and Land Management:
260Soil Association, Futureproofing Scotland's Farming:
261 The Scottish Government: Agriculture and Climate Change: Evidence on Influencing Farmer Behaviours - Research Findings: www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/10/8893
262 The Scottish Government, Land Use Strategy:
263 Forestry Commission, Woodland Carbon Code:
264 Committee on Climate Change, Bioenergy Review:
266 Forestry Commission Scotland, The right tree
in the right place : www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/fcfc129.pdf/$FILE/fcfc129.pdf
267 Forestry Commission, Biosecurity Strategy: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/infd-8gykba
268 Forestry Commission Scotland, Woodland Expansion
269 European Science Foundation: European Nitrogen
270 Forest Carbon:
271 Scotland's Rural College:
272 Forestry Commission:
275 The Scottish Government, Climate Change Delivery
276Scottish Government, Carbon Reduction Activity
277 Audit Scotland, Reducing Scotland's Greenhouse Gas
278 The Scottish Government, Climate Change Delivery
279Committee on Climate Change, 1
st Scottish Progress Report:
280 Committee on Climate Change, 2
nd Scottish Progress Report:
281 Scottish Parliament, Rural Affairs, Climate Change
and Environment Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on
Proposals and Policies (
SP Paper 289,
282 Scottish Parliament, Economy, Energy and Tourism
Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on Proposals and
SP Paper 288,
283 Scottish Parliament, Infrastructure and Capital
Investment Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on Proposals
and Policies (
SP Paper 291,
284 Scottish Parliament, Local Government and
Regeneration Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on
Proposals and Policies (
SP Paper 292,
285 The Scottish Government,
287 Scottish Government,
Environmental Report for
288 The percentage change shown for the Business, Industry and Public Sector includes emissions from the traded sector as it has not been possible to split emissions into 'traded' and 'non-traded' prior to the start of the EU Emissions Trading System in 2005.
2 Scotland's targets use the level of emissions in 1990 (for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and 1995 (for fluorine-based gases) as the baseline from which reductions are calculated.
7 Non-Traded sector estimate for Business, Industry and Public Sector post 2004 is based on 2011 EU ETS verified emissions.
8 2011 Scottish data was not available at the time the analysis was undertaken. http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/climate_stats/gg_emissions/uk_emissions/uk_emissions.aspx
11 "Non-CO 2 Greenhouse Gas Projections for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland", October 2009, http://www.naei.org.uk/reports.php
12 The LULUCF sector is divided into six land use types for reporting of emissions/removals: 5A Forest Land, 5B Cropland, 5C Grassland, 5D Wetlands, 5E Settlements, 5F Other Land.
14 Emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are expressed as positive quantities, and removals of carbon dioxide as negative quantities. The net LULUCF emission is the balance of emissions and removals.
16 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0042/00424034.pdf (pages 6 and 7)
20 This is where households install an energy efficiency measure without any policy inducement. For example boilers tend to have a life span of 8-10 years so it would be reasonable to expect households to replace their boilers after this period.
23 For further information, see http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/sustainable/standard
24 Scottish Government, 2009, Modelling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Scottish Housing: Final Report, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/10/08143041/0
25 The DEMScot model along with relevant reports and manuals are available to download at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/supply-demand/chma/marketcontextmaterials
26 Financial figures presented in 2011 prices unless otherwise stated.
27 Ofgem, Household energy bills explained, (updated), Jan 2008 ( www.ofgem.gov.uk/Pages/MoreInformation.aspx?docid=73&refer=Media/FactSheets ).
28 Figure 6.10, http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/building-a-low-carbon-economy
29 See "A Select Review of Literature on the Relationship between Housing and Health", available at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/supply-demand/chma/marketcontextmaterials under the Research category
32 Costs for the RHI have not been included since insufficient detail is available to estimate these.
39 Table 6, NCM Modelling Guide (Scotland) - http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/217736/0117285.pdf
46 Further recent work carried out on existing non-domestic buildings indicates that emission abatement could be greater than that shown in the table.
48 Own calculation for car fleet as a whole using total car emissions from NAEI and total car kilometres from Scottish Transport Statistics.
49 Research work [by Element Energy - http://hmccc.s3.amazonaws.com/Element_Energy_-_EV_infrastructure_report_for_CCC_2009_final.pdf ] indicates that 96% of car trips and 73% of total car distance travelled are covered by individuals travelling less than 160 kilometres a day - the range of current batteries.
50 The latest projections estimate there are 29 such towns in Scotland currently, although this is likely to change out to 2022.
52 These emissions are not captured in the BAU profile.
54 Zero Waste Scotland/Eunomia Economic Assessment of
the Zero Waste Plan For Scotland
55 The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy
56 Does not include the change in environmental costs, or the effect of related measures enacted before the Zero Waste Plan came into effect.
57 SAC is now known as Scotland's Rural College ( SRUC)
58 Scottish Government Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services division
59 SAC (2008) - UK Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for the Agriculture and Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Sectors out to 2022, with Qualitative Analysis of Options to 2050. Report to the CCC: http://hmccc.s3.amazonaws.com/pdfs/SAC-CCC;%20UK%20MACC%20for%20ALULUCF;%20Final%20Report%202008-11.pdf
60 SAC (2010) - Review and update of UK marginal abatement cost curves for agriculture. http://downloads.theccc.org.uk.s3.amazonaws.com/0610/pr_supporting_research_SAC_agriculture.pdf
61 For a list of members of expert group see Appendix A of ' SAC 2010 - Review and update of UK marginal abatement cost curves for agriculture'
62 Membership of the stakeholder group is representative of the various industry and environmental stakeholder bodies in Scotland.
63 ADAS (2009) RMP/5142 Analysis of Policy Instruments for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Land Management. Report to DEFRA: http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/landmanage/climate/documents/climate-ag-instruments.pdf
64 Maximum technical potential refers to the level of abatement that would be achieved if all farmers who could technically implement a given measure did so fully.
65 See http://www.sac.ac.uk/climatechange/farmingforabetterclimate/ for more details.
66 '*' indicate measures targeted by both FFBC and proposed for inclusion in mandatory requirements.