Publication - Progress report

Low Carbon Scotland - meeting our emissions reduction targets 2013-2027: second report

Published: 27 Jun 2013
Directorate:
Energy and Climate Change Directorate
Part of:
Environment and climate change
ISBN:
9781782566595

This is our second report on proposals and policies (RPP2) for meeting our climate change targets.

335 page PDF

2.5 MB

335 page PDF

2.5 MB

Contents
Low Carbon Scotland - meeting our emissions reduction targets 2013-2027: second report
Footnotes

335 page PDF

2.5 MB

Footnotes

1 Information on our purpose targets and performance indicators, including those relating to sustainability, can be found at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms/glanceperformance

2 http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/weekly.html, accessed on 3 June 2013

3 Etheridge, D. M., L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, and V. I. Morgan, (1996), Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO 2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn ( http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/95JD03410/abstract), J. Geophys. Res., 101(D2), 4115-4128, doi:10.1029/95JD03410.

4 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics for the World Bank, Turn Down the Heat ( http://climatechange.worldbank.org/content/climate-change-report-warns-dramatically-warmer-world-century), p.XIV

5 The World Bank. November 2012:
http://climatechange.worldbank.org/

6 Climate Change Delivery Plan: Meeting Scotland's Statutory Climate Change Targets, 2009:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/06/18103720/0

7 This figure has been adjusted for trading in the EU ETS. Unadjusted emissions have fallen by 29.6% since 1990.

8 Connie Hedegaard, the European Commissioner for Climate Action has stated that the EU is on track to deliver up to a 27% reduction by 2020.

9 European Commission, Green Paper, A 2030 framework for climate and energy policies:
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/green_paper_2030_en.htm

10 World Meteorological Organization. Annual Statement, March 2012:
www.wmo.int/pages/mediacentre/press_releases/pr_943_en.html

11 Met Office. December 2012:
www.metoffice.gov.uk/news/releases/archive/2012/2013-global-forecast

12 Ibid.

13 Met Office. January 2013:
www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/seasonal-to-decadal/long-range/decadal-fc

14 The Stern Review:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/sternreview_index.htm

15 Unadjusted for EU- ETS.

16 EEA Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data Viewer:
http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer. Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 1990-2011:
http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_id=756

Figures contain estimates for emissions from international aviation and shipping and emissions and removals from the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry LULUCF sector as reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They do not include any adjustment for trading in the EU ETS. Latvia is a net source of emissions in 1990 and a net sink in 2011. Therefore, it is not appropriate to show a percentage change. Emissions resulting from offshore operations are not attributed to England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. They are included in the UK figures.

17 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2013/06/greenhousegasemissions07062013

18 Sniffer. An online handbook of climate trends across Scotland:
www.climatetrendshandbook.adaptationscotland.org.uk/index.html

19 UK Climate Projections:
http://ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk/21708

20 The Public Bodies Climate Change Duties:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/04093254/1

21 Procurement Reform Bill:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Government/Procurement/policy/ProcurementReform

22 Scottish Cities Alliance:
http://scottishcities.wordpress.com/

23 For example, many people made significant effort to participate in two RPP2 workshops held in Edinburgh in May and September 2012. At the second workshop, the Director General of Enterprise, Environment and Digital committed to having an annual event to continue this engagement. Individual sectors have also continued to engage and consult with stakeholders on aspects of this RPP2.

24 The basket of Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gases comprises carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4) and nitrous oxide (N 2O), for which the baseline is 1990; and hydrofluorocarbons ( HFCs), perfluorocarbons ( PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6), for which the baseline is 1995.

25 Secondary legislation made under the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/climatechangeact/secondarylegislation

26 The Scottish Government, RPP1, Low Carbon Scotland - Meeting the Emissions Reduction Targets 2010-2022: www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/rpp

27 The large drop in 2013 reflects Phase III of the EU ETS coming into effect, with a corresponding reduction in the available number of emissions allowances.

28 The percentage reductions shown for 2010 and 2011 give the precise figures required by those annual targets against the two versions of the 1990 baseline: from the 2008 and 2011 Greenhouse Gas Inventories. They do not show the reported outturn figures for those years. That information is set out in section 2.7.

29 As discussed in this section of the document, any methodological updates to the Greenhouse Gas Inventory are backdated to 1990 wherever possible. This means that the total estimated level of Scottish emissions in 1990 can change in each edition of the Inventory. Adjusting to include a Scottish share of emissions from international aviation and shipping, the 2008 Inventory estimate for 1990 was 70,201 KtCO 2e. In the 2011 Inventory the estimate for 1990 was revised upwards to 72,974 KtCO 2e.

30 See section 2.8 of the main RPP2 and section 3 of the Technical Appendix for more information about the Business-as-Usual Projection.

31 Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions in Scotland - 2013 progress report:
www.theccc.org.uk/publication/reducing-emissions-in-scotland-2013-progress-report

32 Committee on Climate Change, Welsh Progress Report 2013:
http://www.theccc.org.uk/news-stories/ccc-reports-on-progress-made-on-wales-climate-change-strategy/

33 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory 2011
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2013/06/greenhousegasemissions07062013

34 The Scottish Government, Scottish greenhouse gas emissions annual target:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/climatechangeact/reporting

35 Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions in Scotland - 2013 progress report:
www.theccc.org.uk/publication/reducing-emissions-in-scotland-2013-progress-report

36 The Committee on Climate Change advice to the Scottish Ministers:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/what-is/expertadvice/advisorybody

37 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2008:
www.naei.org.uk/report_link.php?report_id=620

38 The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Regulations 2010, SSI 2010 no. 216:
www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/ssi2010/ssi_20100216_en_1

39 As part of an EU wide process to develop the EU ETS in phase 3 (2013-2020), official submission of public sector 'opt-outs' have been made to the European Commissions for consideration. These are due to be resolved later in the year and as such have not been incorporated into this document.

40 European Commission, The state of the European carbon market in 2012:
http://ec.europa.eu/clima/news/articles/news_2012111401_en.htm

41 Committee on Climate Change, Scotland's path to a low carbon economy:
http://downloads.theccc.org.uk/Scottish%20report/ CCC-Scottish-Report-web-version.pdf

42 The Scottish Government, Draft Budget 2013-14, Details of funding for climate change mitigation measures: www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0040/00408239.pdf

43 Scottish Consumption-based emission reports:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/ExpStats

44 Production of a Time Series of Scotland's Ecological and Greenhouse Gas Footprints:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/10/28101012/0

45 Greenhouse Gas Footprint 2009:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/ExpStats

46 Scotland's Climate Change Declaration:
http://www.keepscotlandbeautiful.org/sustainability-climate-change/sustainable-scotland-network/climate-change/scotlands-climate-change-declaration/

47 Scotland's 2020 Climate Group:
www.2020climategroup.org.uk/

48 Scotland's 2020 Climate Group:
www.2020climategroup.org.uk/about-2020/13-for-2013/

49 IEA World Energy Outlook 2012:
www.worldenergyoutlook.org/

50 Ibid.

51 Ibid.

52 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/11/15085756/0

53 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:

www.scottish-enterprise.com/news/2012/10/renewable-energy-investment-fund-open-for-business.aspx

54 DECC. UK Electricity Market Reform:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/meeting_energy/markets/electricity/electricity.aspx

55 BIS. UK Green Investment Bank:
www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank

56 DECC. Green Deal:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/tackling/green_deal/green_deal.aspx

57 Scottish Government, Extending the Challenge:
www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2012/11/climatechallenge27112012

58 DECC, Energy Efficiency Strategy: The Energy Efficiency Opportunity in the UK:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/energy-efficiency-opportunities-in-the-uk

59 The Scottish Government, Draft Budget 2013-14, Details of funding for climate change mitigation measures:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/climatechangefundingdocument

60 The Scottish Government, Infrastructure Investment Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Government/Finance/18232/IIP

61 BIS. Green Investment Bank:
www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank

62 Transport Scotland. Scottish Green Bus Fund:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/public-transport/Buses/Bus-Fund

63 Central Energy Efficiency Fund:
www.energy-efficiency.org/ceef/CCC_FirstPage.jsp

64 Salix Finance:
www.salixfinance.co.uk/

65 Scottish Futures Trust:
www.scottishfuturestrust.org.uk

66 Scottish Futures Trust. Scotland-wide hub initiative:
www.scottishfuturestrust.org.uk/our-work/hub/

67 BREEAM:
www.breeam.org/about.jsp?id=66

68 Energy Performance Certificates:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/BuyingSelling/Home-Report/epcs

69 Scottish Investment Bank:
www.scottish-enterprise.com/fund-your-business/scottish-investment-bank.aspx

70 Scottish Government News Release:
www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2011/11/08113629

71 The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Technical Guidance:
www.cibseknowledgeportal.co.uk/cibse-guides

72 The Carbon Trust Scotland:
www.carbontrust.com/client-services/scotland

73 Scottish Enterprise. Fund Your Business guidance:
www.scottish-enterprise.com/fund-your-business.aspx

74 Knowledge Transfer Network. Low Carbon Funding Landscape Navigator:
www.lowcarbonfunding.org.uk

75 The Scottish Partnership for Regeneration in Urban Centres:
www.ambergreenspruce.co.uk/

76 European Commission, LIFE Programme:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/about/beyond2013.htm

77 Scottish Co-investment Fund:
www.scottish-enterprise.com/fund-your-business/scottish-investment-bank/sib-equity-funding/scif.aspx

78EWGECO:
www.ewgeco.com/blog/energy-display-pioneer-embarks-on-non-domestic-expansion-drive/

79 The Scottish Government, Low Carbon Scotland Behaviours Framework:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/03/8172

80 Scotland's Census, 2011:
www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/en/

81 Scotland's greenhouse gas emission reduction targets do not change with changing demographics.

82 Climate Change Behaviours Research Programme - Update Report:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Research/by-topic/environment/social-research/Behaviour-Change-Research/CCBRPupdatereport

83 The Scottish Government: Influencing Behaviours - Moving Beyond the Individual - A User Guide to the ISM Tool : www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/8511

84 Tipping or Turning point. Social Marketing and Climate Change, 2007.

www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/publications/publication.aspx?oItemId=1174

85 Southerton. D. et al (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives. The Scottish Government: Edinburgh. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/01104638/0

86 Changing Household Energy Behaviours: Key Findings from a Review of Applied Research. The Scottish Government. Edinburgh. www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Research/by-topic/environment/social-research/Behaviour-Change-Research/domesticenergy

87 Southerton. D. et al (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives. The Scottish Government: Edinburgh. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/01104638/0

88 Cox, A. et al. (2012) The Impact of Workplace Initiatives on Low Carbon Behaviours: Case Study Report. The Scottish Government. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/03/2237

89 Southerton. D. et al (2011) International Review of Behaviour Change Initiatives. The Scottish Government: Edinburgh. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/02/01104638/0

90 The Scottish Government, National Planning Framework 2: Action Programme:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/planning/National-Planning-Policy/npf/NPF3

91 Draft Electricity Generation Policy Statement:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/EGPS2012

92 The Committee on Climate Change advice to the Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/what-is/expertadvice/advisorybody

93 The Scottish Government: www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Infrastructure/Energy-Consents/Guidance

94 The Scottish Government, Report on the Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annual Target 2010:
www.scotland.gov.uk/resource/0040/00405463.pdf

95 The pink line from 'Energy Supply' to 'End User' represents emissions from energy supply in the production of fuels used in international aviation and shipping.

96 'Exports' equates to emissions from international aviation and shipping.

97 Energy imports (0.6 Mt) represents emissions relating to energy imports/exports. Scotland is a net exporter of electricity but the emissions in the diagram arise due to the use of UK emission efficiencies for electricity production. Scotland produces less GHG emissions per unit of electricity than the UK average.

98 Scottish Government, Energy Efficiency Action Plan - Formal Review and Annual Report 2013:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/05/2162

99 The Scottish Government, 2020 Routemap for Renewable Energy:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0040/00406958.pdf

100 Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Business/TrenRenEnergy

101 Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0041/00417390.pdf

102 Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2013/03/Energy-figures-28032013

103 The Scottish Parliament:
www.scottish.parliament.uk/S4_EconomyEnergyandTourismCommittee/eeR12-07.pdf

104 Renewables Obligation Scotland:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Obligation-12-13

105 Saltire Prize:
www.saltireprize.com/

106 The Scottish European Green Energy Centre:
www.segec.org.uk/

107 The European Marine Energy Centre:
www.emec.org.uk/

108 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/11/15085756/0

109 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Infrastructure/Energy-Consents/Thermal-Guidance/CCS-roadmap

110 Scottish Enterprise:
www.scottish-enterprise.presscentre.com/Media-library/Central-North-Sea-CCS-Storage-Hub-report-3dd.aspx

111 The Department for Energy and Climate Change:
www.gov.uk/government/policy-advisory-groups/ccs-cost-reduction-task-force

112 The Scottish Government (2013) - Scottish National Accounts Project:
http://scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy/SNAP

113 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Infrastructure/Energy-Consents/Guidance

114 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/planning/National-Planning-Policy/themes/renewables

115 DECC, Maintaining UK Energy Security:
www.gov.uk/government/policies/maintaining-uk-energy-security--2/supporting-pages/electricity-market-reform

116 For more information on the Scottish Government position on EMR, please see our website at
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Infrastructure/Grid-Connections/EMR-consultation-UK

117 The Scottish Parliament:
www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/28862.aspx?r=8147

118 For a copy of the Economy, Energy and Tourism Report on the Legislative Consent Memorandum on the Energy Bill see:
www.scottish.parliament.uk/S4_EconomyEnergyandTourismCommittee/Reports/eeR-12-07w.pdf

119 Ofgem, Project Discovery:
www.ofgem.gov.uk/Markets/WhlMkts/monitoring-energy-security/Discovery/Pages/ProjectDiscovery.aspx

120 Committee on Climate Change, Energy prices and bills - impacts of meeting carbon budgets:
www.theccc.org.uk/publication/energy-prices-and-bills-impacts-of-meeting-carbon-budgets/

121 Policy impacts on prices and bills:
www.gov.uk/policy-impacts-on-prices-and-bills

122 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
www.scottish-enterprise.com/news/2012/10/renewable-energy-investment-fund-open-for-business.aspx

123 The Scottish Innovation Foundation Technologies Fund
http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/your-sector/energy/energy-how-we-can-help/energy-funding/innovative-foundations-fund.aspx

124 General Register Office for Scotland (2012). Household Projections for Scotland 2010-based.

125 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/1558

126 There were 2,124,000 dwellings in December 1990 and 2,495,000 in March 2011, the latest figure available.

127 Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions in Scotland - 2013 progress report:
www.theccc.org.uk/publication/reducing-emissions-in-scotland-2013-progress-report/

128 Energy Saving Trust, CERT Reports:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Organisations/Government-and-local-programmes/Free-resources-for-local-authorities/Homes-Energy-Efficiency-Database/CERT-reports-from-HEED

129 The Scottish Government, Housing and Regeneration Statistics: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Housing-Regeneration

131 Warm Homes Fund:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Take-action/Get-business-funding/Warm-Homes-Fund

132 DECC. Green Deal:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/tackling/green_deal/green_deal.aspx

133 DECC. Energy Company Obligation:
www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48086/1732-extra-help-where-it-is-needed-a-new-energy-compan.pdf

134 DECC. Community Energy saving Programme
www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48210/3342-evaluation-of-the-community-energy-saving-programm.pdf

135 DECC. Community Energy saving Programme:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/funding/funding_ops/cesp/cesp.aspx

136 Green Homes Cashback Scheme:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Take-action/Find-a-grant/Green-Homes-Cashback-Scheme

137 Energy Saving Trust, Private Sector Landlord Cashback:
http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Organisations/Innovation/Free-resources-for-housing-professionals/Private-Sector-Landlords

138 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/sustainable/largescale/GreenerHomesProspectus

139 The Scottish Government:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/sustainable/standard

140 A Low Carbon Building Standards Strategy For Scotland, 'The Sullivan Report':
www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/217736/0092637.pdf

141 The Scottish Government, Housing Market Context Materials:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/supply-demand/chma/marketcontextmaterials

142 Renewable Heat Action Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Energy-sources/19185/Heat/RHUpdate11

143 Update to 2020 Routemap for Renewable Energy:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/UpdateRenewableRoutemap

144 Outline Heat Vision:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Energy-sources/19185/Heat/DraftHeatDeployment

145 District Heating Action Plan:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/7473

146 Expert Commission on District Heating:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Energy-sources/19185/Heat/ExpertCommission

147 UK Renewable Heat Incentive:
https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/increasing-the-use-of-low-carbon-technologies/supporting-pages/renewable-heat-incentive-rhi

148 DECC. Renewable Heat Premium Payment scheme www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/meeting_energy/renewable_ener/premium_pay/rhpp_voucher/rhpp_voucher.aspx

149 District Heating Loan Fund:

www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Take-action/Get-business-funding/District-heating-loan-fund2

150 Home Renewables Loans:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Take-action/Find-a-grant/Home-renewables-loan-scheme

151 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
www.scottish-enterprise.com/fund-your-business/scottish-investment-bank/renewable-energy-investment-fund.aspx

152 District Heating Loans Scheme:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Take-action/Get-business-funding/District-heating-loan-fund2

153 District heating Action Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/7473

154 Home Energy Scotland Advice Centres:
www.changeworks.org.uk/householders/essacs-landing-page/408/#householder

155 Energy Performance Certificates:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/BuyingSelling/Home-Report/epcs

156 Climate Challenge Fund:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/howyoucanhelp/communities/ClimateChallengeFund

157 Small business loans:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Organisations/Innovation/In-depth-energy-advice/Small-business-loans

158 Landlords' Energy saving Allowance:
http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/content/view/full/30143

159 Historic Scotland:
www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/technicalpapers

160 BRE:
www.bre.co.uk/

161 Aberdeen Heat and Power:
www.aberdeenheatandpower.co.uk/

162 Cube Housing:
www.cubehousing.co.uk/WhatsNew/November_2012.asp

163 Conserve and Save: Energy Efficiency Action Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/10/07142301/0

164 Guidance to support public bodies in exercising their duties under the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009: www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/01/05153413/1

165 Businesses in Scotland:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Business/TrendBusinesses

166 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/1558

167 EU Emissions Trading System:
http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/index_en.htm

168 Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/crc_efficiency/crc_efficiency.aspx

169 EU Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/ EU:
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/eed/eed_en.htm

170 With the agreement of Scottish Ministers, the Environment Agency operates as UK Administrator for the purpose of allowance sales.

171 DECC. Non-Domestic Green Deal:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/tackling/green_deal/gd_customer/gd_nondomcust/gd_nondomcust.aspx

172 DECC. Climate Change Levy:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccas/cc_levy/cc_levy.aspx

173 DECC. Climate Change Agreements:
www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccas/ccas.aspx

174 Home Energy Scotland Advice Centres:
www.changeworks.org.uk/householders/essacs-landing-page/408/#householder

175 BIS. Green Investment Bank:
www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank

176 The Scottish Government, District Heating loan scheme:
www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2012/10/districtheating1102012

177 Renewable Energy Investment Fund:
www.scottish-enterprise.com/news/2012/10/renewable-energy-investment-fund-open-for-business.aspx

178 Expert Commission on District Heating:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Energy-sources/19185/Heat/ExpertCommission

179 The Scottish Government, District Heating Action Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/resources/Publications/DHAP

180 The Highland Council, Heat Mapping in Highland Region:
www.highland.gov.uk/yourenvironment/planning/energyplanning/renewbleenergy/HighlandHeatMappingProject

181 The Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases Regulations 2009:

www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2009/261/pdfs/uksi_20090261_en.pdf

182 www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2009/261/pdfs/uksi_20090261_en.pdf

183 European Commission:
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sustainable-business/documents/eco-design/legislation/framework-directive/

184 Ibid.

185 The Scottish Government, Building Standards Consultation:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Building/Building-standards/publications/pubconsult/S63SGR

186 Potential Carbon Abatement from the Scottish Public Sector:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/12/3885

187 DECC, Meeting the Challenge: The Future of Heating:
www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/190149/16_04-DECC-The_Future_of_Heating_Accessible-10.pdf

188 The Scottish Government, Heat:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Energy-sources/19185/Heat

189 The Scottish Government:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Energy-sources/19185/Heat/ExpertCommission

190 The Scottish Government, District Heating Action Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/resources/Publications/DHAP

191 The Scottish Government, Resource Efficient Scotland:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Action/energy-efficiency-policy/ResourceEfficientScotland; www.resourceefficientscotland.com

192 The Scottish Government, Scottish Energy and Resource Efficiency Service:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Economy/EconomicStrategy/SERES

193 Further information about Scottish Water and its subsidiaries is available from:
www.scottishwater.co.uk

194 Further information about the water industry in Scotland, including the regulatory framework, see:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/waterindustryscot

195 Further information about the non-domestic market in Scotland and the benefits retail competition have brought for businesses is available from the Water Industry Commission for Scotland:
www.watercommission.co.uk/

196 Meeting the UK climate change challenge: The contribution of resource efficiency: www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/Final%20Report%20EVA128_SEI%20(1)%20JB%20SC%20JB3.pdf

197 Ofgem Renewable Heat Incentive ( RHI) Register:
https://rhi.ofgem.gov.uk/Default.aspx

198 With the agreement of Scottish Ministers, the Environment Agency operates as UK Administrator for the purpose of allowance sales.

199 Based on the current fleet size (2.3 million) and new car sales of 168,000, these percentages equate to new sales of 100,000 cars and a low carbon car fleet of around 710,000.

200 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/1558

201The transport estimate includes emissions from international aviation and shipping, but the aggregate Scottish emissions estimate used here does not take account of the EU ETS.

202 This is an internal calculation using Scottish Transport Statistics figure for vehicle kilometres and Scottish emissions data from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory ( NAEI).

203 SMMT. Average new car CO 2 emissions:
www.smmt.co.uk/co2report/#

204 Reducing CO 2 emissions from vehicles:
http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/index_en.htm

205 EC Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation:
https://www.gov.uk/renewable-transport-fuels-obligation

206 Assuming new car sales and fleet size on a par with 2011 figures. In practice, new car sales and fleet size are likely to be marginally above the 2011 level so absolute sales are likely to be higher.

207 Plugged in Places:
www.gov.uk/government/publications/plugged-in-places

208 Charge Place Scotland:
www.greenerscotland.org/greener-travel/electric-vehicles/chargeplace-scotland

209 Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/road/sustainability/low-carbon-vehicles

210 Scottish Green Bus Fund:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/public-transport/Buses/Bus-Fund

211 Transport Scotland, Bus Service Operators Grant:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/public-transport/Buses/bus-service-operators-grant

212 The Scottish Government, Air Quality:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/waste-and-pollution/Pollution-1/16215

213 Transport Scotland, Ferries Plan:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/strategy-and-research/publications-and-consultations/j254579-00.htm

214 Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd:
www.cmassets.co.uk/en/home.html

215 Clean Sky partnership:
www.cleansky.eu/

216 Transport Scotland. Intelligent Transport Systems :
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/road/technology/intelligent-transport-systems

217 Transport Scotland. Smarter Choices Smarter Places:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/roads/sustainable-transport/funding-for-projects/smarter-choices-smarter-places

218 Changeworks, Energy Saving Scotland Advice Centres:
http://www.changeworks.org.uk/householders/essacs-landing-page/408/#householder

219 Transport Scotland. Bus Policy:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/public-transport/Buses/Policy

220 Transport Scotland. Rail Policy:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/rail

221 Transport Scotland, Cycling Action Plan for Scotland:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/news/cycling-action-plan-scotland-relaunch.

222 National Walking Strategy:

www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2012/05/walkingstrategy17052012

223 Car Clubs in Scotland:
www.carplus.org.uk/our-work/car-clubs-in-scotland/

224 This excluding commuting which accounts for an further 20% of annual individual travel.

225 Fuel Efficient Driving:
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Travel/Driving/Fuel-Efficient-Driver-training

226 Workplace Travel Planning:
www.chooseanotherway.com/

227 Choose Another Way:
www.chooseanotherway.com/index.php

228 Worksmart initiative:
www.flexibility.co.uk/cases/Aberdeenshire-Council-Worksmart.htm

229 Transport Scotland. Freight Grants:

www.transportscotland.gov.uk/road/policy/freight/Freight-Grants

230 Transport Scotland: www.transportscotland.gov.uk/road/policy/freight

231 Scotland's Digital Future: A Strategy for Scotland:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/08/26141950/0

232 Department for Transport. High Speed Rail:
http://highspeedrail.dft.gov.uk/

233Scottish Transport Emissions Partnership: www.scottishairquality.co.uk/documents/reports/4_Scottish_AQD_and_Website_Annual_Seminar_18_March_2013_STEP_Presentation.pdf

234 Mitigating Transport's Climate Change Impacts:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/08/26141950/0

235Committee on Climate Change. Fourth Carbon Budget:
www.theccc.org.uk/publication/the-fourth-carbon-budget-reducing-emissions-through-the-2020s-2/

236 Allied Vehicles Ltd:
www.alliedelectric.co.uk

237 Axeon:
www.axeon.com

238 Alexander Dennis Ltd:
www.alexander-dennis.com/alexander-dennis-limited.php

239 Ferguson Group:
www.fergusongroup.co.uk/shipbuilding/profile.aspx

240 Transport Scotland:
www.transportscotland.gov.uk/road/policy/freight/best-practice

241Scottish Government, Zero Waste Plan:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/06/08092645/0

242 Scottish Government, Safeguarding Scotland's Resources:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/waste-and-pollution/Waste-1/latest/ssrsea

243 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/1558

244 The Waste (Scotland) Regulations 2012:
www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2012/148/contents/made

245EEF: The Manufacturers' Organisation (2012) Executive Survey 2012.

246 Renewables Obligations:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Obligation-12-13

247 Zero Waste Scotland:
www.zerowastescotland.org.uk

248 Sustainable Development Commission. Energy from Waste Potential in Scotland, 2010:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/311011/0098129.pdf

249 Greener Scotland:
www.greenerscotland.org/

250 See subsection 6.6 for further detail on Resource Efficient Scotland.

251 Zero Waste Scotland, Carbon Metric:
www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/carbonmetric

252 WRAP: Meeting the UK Climate Challenge: The contribution of resource efficiency:
www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/Final%20Report%20EVA128_SEI%20(1)%20JB%20SC%20JB3.pdf

253 The Scottish Government, Economic Report on Scottish Agriculture 2012, Table C2:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/06/6894/102

254 Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/1558

255 Once wetland management activities are incorporated into greenhouse gas emissions reporting.

256 Ibid

257The Scottish Government, Land Use Strategy:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/Countryside/Landusestrategy

258 SRUC, Farming For a Better Climate:
www.sruc.ac.uk/climatechange/farmingforabetterclimate/

259 ADAS, RMP/5142 Analysis of Policy Instruments forReducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from

Agriculture, Forestry and Land Management:
http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/landmanage/climate/documents/climate-ag-instruments.pdf

260Soil Association, Futureproofing Scotland's Farming:
www.soilassociation.org/innovativefarming/futureproofingscotlandsfarming

261 The Scottish Government: Agriculture and Climate Change: Evidence on Influencing Farmer Behaviours - Research Findings: www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/10/8893

262 The Scottish Government, Land Use Strategy:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/Countryside/Landusestrategy

263 Forestry Commission, Woodland Carbon Code:
http://www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/INFD-863FFL

264 Committee on Climate Change, Bioenergy Review:
www.theccc.org.uk/publication/bioenergy-review

265 Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform: www.ghgplatform.org.uk/Home.aspx

266 Forestry Commission Scotland, The right tree
in the right place : www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/fcfc129.pdf/$FILE/fcfc129.pdf

267 Forestry Commission, Biosecurity Strategy: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/infd-8gykba

268 Forestry Commission Scotland, Woodland Expansion Advisory Group:
www.forestry.gov.uk/weag

269 European Science Foundation: European Nitrogen Assessment:
www.nine-esf.org/ENA

270 Forest Carbon:
www.forestcarbon.co.uk/

271 Scotland's Rural College:
www.sruc.ac.uk/

272 Forestry Commission:
www.forestry.gov.uk/website/carbonregistry.nsf/byprojectid

273 www.soilassociation.org/innovativefarming/futurefarminginscotland/futureproofingscotlandsfarming

274 www.soilassociation.org/innovativefarming/futurefarminginscotland/scotlandsfarminginnovationnetwork

275 The Scottish Government, Climate Change Delivery Board:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/EmissionReduction

276Scottish Government, Carbon Reduction Activity Reports:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/EmissionReduction/ActivityReports

277 Audit Scotland, Reducing Scotland's Greenhouse Gas Emissions:
www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/docs/central/2011/nr_111208_greenhouse_gases.pdf

278 The Scottish Government, Climate Change Delivery Board:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/EmissionReduction

279Committee on Climate Change, 1 st Scottish Progress Report:
http://downloads.theccc.org.uk.s3.amazonaws.com/1552_CCC_Scotland%20report.pdf

280 Committee on Climate Change, 2 nd Scottish Progress Report:
www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/1674_CCC_Scots-Report_bookmarked_2.pdf

281 Scottish Parliament, Rural Affairs, Climate Change and Environment Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on Proposals and Policies ( SP Paper 289, RACCE/S4/13/R2):
www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/61495.aspx

282 Scottish Parliament, Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on Proposals and Policies ( SP Paper 288, EET/S4/13/R4):
www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/61496.aspx

283 Scottish Parliament, Infrastructure and Capital Investment Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on Proposals and Policies ( SP Paper 291, ICI/S4/13/R3):
www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/61494.aspx

284 Scottish Parliament, Local Government and Regeneration Committee Report on the Draft Second Report on Proposals and Policies ( SP Paper 292, LGR/S4/13/R6):
www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/61493.aspx

285 The Scottish Government, RPP Parliamentary Consideration:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/meetingthetargets/parliamentaryconsideration

286 ibid

287 Scottish Government, SEA Environmental Report for RPP2:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/meetingthetargets/SEAEnvironmentalReport

288 The percentage change shown for the Business, Industry and Public Sector includes emissions from the traded sector as it has not been possible to split emissions into 'traded' and 'non-traded' prior to the start of the EU Emissions Trading System in 2005.

Technical Appendix

1 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/rpp

2 Scotland's targets use the level of emissions in 1990 (for carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and 1995 (for fluorine-based gases) as the baseline from which reductions are calculated.

3 http://theccc.org.uk/topics/uk-and-regions/scotland/beyond-2020

4 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/06/1558/downloads#res-1

5 http://naei.defra.gov.uk/index.php

6 http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_id=756

7 Non-Traded sector estimate for Business, Industry and Public Sector post 2004 is based on 2011 EU ETS verified emissions.

8 2011 Scottish data was not available at the time the analysis was undertaken. http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/climate_stats/gg_emissions/uk_emissions/uk_emissions.aspx

9 http://downloads.theccc.org.uk.s3.amazonaws.com/ScotlandLetter/STEPS%20update%20-%20final%20report%20-%20march%202011.pdf

10 http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/aviation/index_en.htm

11 "Non-CO 2 Greenhouse Gas Projections for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland", October 2009, http://www.naei.org.uk/reports.php

12 The LULUCF sector is divided into six land use types for reporting of emissions/removals: 5A Forest Land, 5B Cropland, 5C Grassland, 5D Wetlands, 5E Settlements, 5F Other Land.

13 http://naei.defra.gov.uk/report_link.php?report_id=713

14 Emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are expressed as positive quantities, and removals of carbon dioxide as negative quantities. The net LULUCF emission is the balance of emissions and removals.

15 http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&Completed=0&ProjectID=17569

16 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0042/00424034.pdf (pages 6 and 7)

17 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/EGPS2012

18 http://www.theccc.org.uk/topics/uk-and-regions/scotland

19 http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/green_deal/green_deal.aspx

20 This is where households install an energy efficiency measure without any policy inducement. For example boilers tend to have a life span of 8-10 years so it would be reasonable to expect households to replace their boilers after this period.

21 http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/funding/funding_ops/cert/cert.aspx

22 http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/consultation/green-deal/5533-final-stage-impact-assessment-for-the-green-deal-a.pdf

http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/consultation/green-deal/3603-green-deal-eco-ia.pdf

23 For further information, see http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/sustainable/standard

24 Scottish Government, 2009, Modelling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Scottish Housing: Final Report, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/10/08143041/0

25 The DEMScot model along with relevant reports and manuals are available to download at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/supply-demand/chma/marketcontextmaterials

26 Financial figures presented in 2011 prices unless otherwise stated.

27 Ofgem, Household energy bills explained, (updated), Jan 2008 ( www.ofgem.gov.uk/Pages/MoreInformation.aspx?docid=73&refer=Media/FactSheets ).

28 Figure 6.10, http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/building-a-low-carbon-economy

29 See "A Select Review of Literature on the Relationship between Housing and Health", available at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/Housing/supply-demand/chma/marketcontextmaterials under the Research category

30 http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/consultation/smart-metering-imp-prog/4907-smart-meter-rollout-non-domestic-ia-resp.pdf

31 http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121205174605/http://decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/what%20we%20do/uk%20energy%20supply/energy%20mix/distributed%20energy%20heat/1467-potential-costs-district-heating-network.pdf

32 Costs for the RHI have not been included since insufficient detail is available to estimate these.

33 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/917/0098823.pdf

34 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/917/0098823.pdf

35 http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/consultation/smart-metering-imp-prog/4907-smart-meter-rollout-non-domestic-ia-resp.pdf

36 http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/meeting-energy-demand/renewable-energy/3775-renewable-heat-incentive-impact-assessment-dec-20.pdf

37 http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/consultation/CRC/4758-ia-simp-crc-energy-efficiency-scheme.pdf

38 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/217736/0092637.pdf

39 Table 6, NCM Modelling Guide (Scotland) - http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/217736/0117285.pdf

40 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/917/0098823.pdf

41 http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/green_deal/green_deal.aspx

42 http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/carbon_budgets/carbon_budgets.aspx

43 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/12/3885

44 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/08/15155233/0

45 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2008/08/15155233/11

46 Further recent work carried out on existing non-domestic buildings indicates that emission abatement could be greater than that shown in the table.

47 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/08/26141950/0

48 Own calculation for car fleet as a whole using total car emissions from NAEI and total car kilometres from Scottish Transport Statistics.

49 Research work [by Element Energy - http://hmccc.s3.amazonaws.com/Element_Energy_-_EV_infrastructure_report_for_CCC_2009_final.pdf ] indicates that 96% of car trips and 73% of total car distance travelled are covered by individuals travelling less than 160 kilometres a day - the range of current batteries.

50 The latest projections estimate there are 29 such towns in Scotland currently, although this is likely to change out to 2022.

51 http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol5.html

52 These emissions are not captured in the BAU profile.

53 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Environment/waste-and-pollution/Waste-1/wastestrategy

54 Zero Waste Scotland/Eunomia Economic Assessment of the Zero Waste Plan For Scotland
http://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/ZWPcostbenefit

55 The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy

56 Does not include the change in environmental costs, or the effect of related measures enacted before the Zero Waste Plan came into effect.

57 SAC is now known as Scotland's Rural College ( SRUC)

58 Scottish Government Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services division

59 SAC (2008) - UK Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for the Agriculture and Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Sectors out to 2022, with Qualitative Analysis of Options to 2050. Report to the CCC: http://hmccc.s3.amazonaws.com/pdfs/SAC-CCC;%20UK%20MACC%20for%20ALULUCF;%20Final%20Report%202008-11.pdf

60 SAC (2010) - Review and update of UK marginal abatement cost curves for agriculture. http://downloads.theccc.org.uk.s3.amazonaws.com/0610/pr_supporting_research_SAC_agriculture.pdf

61 For a list of members of expert group see Appendix A of ' SAC 2010 - Review and update of UK marginal abatement cost curves for agriculture'

62 Membership of the stakeholder group is representative of the various industry and environmental stakeholder bodies in Scotland.

63 ADAS (2009) RMP/5142 Analysis of Policy Instruments for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Land Management. Report to DEFRA: http://archive.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/landmanage/climate/documents/climate-ag-instruments.pdf

64 Maximum technical potential refers to the level of abatement that would be achieved if all farmers who could technically implement a given measure did so fully.

65 See http://www.sac.ac.uk/climatechange/farmingforabetterclimate/ for more details.

66 '*' indicate measures targeted by both FFBC and proposed for inclusion in mandatory requirements.

67 http://www.forestry.gov.uk/scotland


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