2. Marine Economy Overview
2.1 Marine economic key points
In 2018, the Scottish marine economy generated £4.3 billion in GVA: accounting for 3.0% of the overall Scottish economy. The Scottish marine economy provided employment for 74,200 people (headcount), contributing 2.8% of the total Scottish employment.
The oil and gas services sector is the biggest contributor to the marine economy in terms of turnover and GVA. However, marine tourism employs the most people of all the sectors covered in this report. Oil and gas services provide 42% of the marine economy GVA and 22% of the employment while marine tourism provides 13% of the GVA and 40% of the employment (see Table 1 and Figure 1).
There are considerable variations in labour productivity (GVA per worker) across the marine economy, with freight water transport having the highest GVA per worker in 2018 (£235,000), and marine tourism producing the lowest at £19,000. In 2017, aquaculture had produced the highest GVA per employee.
Oil and gas extraction is not included in these figures, although support services for oil and gas are included. This broadly aligns the figures with those provided by the onshore values in the National Accounts for Scotland.
|GVA Per Head|
|Support for oil & gas||1,798||4,006||16.6||108,295|
|Construction & water transport services||557||625||4.0||139,275|
|Passenger water transport||83||305||1.5||55,467|
|Freight water transport||94||300||0.4||235,000|
|Renting & leasing of water transport equipment||16||26||0.2||79,000|
Sectors ranked in order of size (GVA). Sea and coastal freight and passenger transport and Renting and leasing of water transport equipment have been combined to make the chart more readable.
2.2 Marine economy trends
Between 2017 and 2018, the marine economy's GVA decreased by 17% from £5.2 billion to £4.3 billion (2018 prices). Employment fell by 0.5%.
* SABS categories for oil and gas services changed in 2011 see Annex B section 17.7.
The longer term trend shows that between 2009 and 2018 the marine economy GVA (adjusted to 2018 prices) fell by 19% while employment increased by 5%.
2.3 Marine economy by geography
The values presented at local authority level are mostly based on SABS data. Most values can be provided by local authority, though some become disclosive at this level and are aggregated into the 'unallocated' category. The methodology for combining values from the different sources is detailed in Annex B: Methodology and source data.
Aberdeen City accounted for £1.7 billion (39%) of the marine economy's GVA for 2018, with Aberdeenshire the next highest with £949 million (22%) (Table 3). Glasgow City contributed 6% of the marine GVA and employment in 2018. While Highland contributed 5% of the marine GVA and 12% of the employment.
The biggest change in GVA (value not percentage) from 2017 to 2018 was in the Aberdeen City local authority (Table 22). This is due to changes in oil prices causing a reduction in turnover for the for oil and gas support services. The second biggest change was in Fife local authority and is likely due to ship building. This is discussed in more detail in the Shipbuilding chapter.
|% of Scotland|
|Argyll & Bute||131||349||5.2||3%||3%||7%|
|City Of Edinburgh||35||119||1.5||1%||1%||2%|
|Dumfries & Galloway||84||258||2.7||2%||2%||4%|
|Na H-Eileanan Siar||49||123||1.4||1%||1%||2%|
|Perth & Kinross||2||24||0.4||0%||0%||1%|
* Denotes disclosive data
GVA and employment in the marine sector is particularly important to rural economies. Figure 4 shows the proportion that the marine sector contributes to each local authority's GVA and employment. The marine sector contributes most to the Shetland Islands, accounting for 18% of the total GVA in Shetland and 16% of employment in 2018.
Scottish Government (Marine Scotland) 2020. Contains National Statistics data © Crown copyright and database right