Publication - Research and analysis

Coronavirus (COVID-19): international policing responses - part 1 - during lockdown

Published: 27 Jul 2020

This review (part 1) considers international policing approaches and responses to policing the lockdown, up to the 7 May 2020.

53 page PDF

1.1 MB

53 page PDF

1.1 MB

Contents
Coronavirus (COVID-19): international policing responses - part 1 - during lockdown
Footnotes

53 page PDF

1.1 MB

Footnotes

1. Correspondence with Dr Peter Neyroud

2. https://news.stv.tv/scotland/lifting-lockdown-differently-will-make-policing-harder?top

3. VRC - Criminology - University of Cambridge Social Distancing in the Pandemic: Policing and Compliance

4. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/01/policing-under-coronavirus-the-real-test-is-yet-to-come

5. These forces have been working in a similar way and have discussed approach at a Strategic level. These forces were involved in the Society for Evidence Based Policing discussions of COVID policing in March, have exchanged policies and learning on an on-going basis and have held online webinar events on issues such as domestic abuse.

6. This may be when 'policing of what is normal and abnormal, responsible and irresponsible, good freedom and bad freedom will become more complex, chaotic and confrontational',
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/01/policing-under-coronavirus-the-real-test-is-yet-to-come

7. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/transcripts/who-audio-emergencies-coronavirus-press-conference-full-20mar2020.pdf?sfvrsn=1eafbff_0

8. Such as the distinctions between two-metre distancing, exercising, powers of entry, closures of public paths and land and issuing fines - Coronavirus Regulations briefing for Wales.

9. Use of powers under this legislation are public health led. The powers are to support public health officers in the testing and treatment of individuals where needed, to avoid further transmission of the COVID-19 virus.

10. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

11. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

12. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

13. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

14. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

15. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

16. https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130125094331/http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/police/powers/stop-and-search/

17. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/uk-police-use-drones-and-roadblocks-to-enforce-lockdown

18. https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/COVID-19/Pages/COVID-19.aspx
https://www.college.police.uk/Documents/COVID-19-Police-brief-in-response-to-Coronavirus-Government-Legislation.pdf
https://www.college.police.uk/News/College-news/Pages/Health-Protection-Guidelines.aspx

19. https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/COVID-19/Documents/Engage-Explain-Encourage-Enforce-guidance.pdf

20. In line with the Health Protection regulations, enforcement should be the last option.

21. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/procedural-justice

22. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/policing-by-consent/definition-of-policing-by-consent

23. https://soundcloud.com/vrc-cambridge/social-distancing-in-the-pandemic-policing-and-compliance

24. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland these FPNs can be issued to those aged 18 and over; in Scotland they can be issued to those aged 16 and over.

25. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/coronavirus-lockdown-uk-arrest-fine-police-rules-latest-a9428196.html

26. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/coronavirus-uk-lockdown-fines-police-england-cases-guidelines-a9492296.html

27. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/coronavirus-lockdown-uk-arrest-fine-police-rules-latest-a9428196.html

28. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/coronavirus-uk-lockdown-fines-police-england-cases-guidelines-a9492296.html

29. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/coronavirus-uk-lockdown-fines-police-england-cases-guidelines-a9492296.html

30. https://www.vrc.crim.cam.ac.uk/sites/www.vrc.crim.cam.ac.uk/files/pn_policing_the_pandemic.pdf

31. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

32. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

33. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/coronavirus-lockdown-uk-arrest-fine-police-rules-latest-a9428196.html

34. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-police-ppe-postcode-lottery-lockdown-a9458401.html

35. https://www.polfed.org/wilts/news/2020/ppe-and-lack-of-testing-are-critical-concerns-of-officers-pfew-tells-home-affairs-select-committee/

36. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-police-deaths-uk-lockdown-homes-mental-illness-a9459711.html

37. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/07/england-coronavirus-lockdown-police-enforcement

38. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

39. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/18/police-call-for-end-to-lockdown-shaming-as-a-weapon-in-feuds
https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/apr/18/duty-or-score-settling-rights-and-wrongs-of-corona-shaming

40. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

41. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/mar/27/police-acknowledge-confusion-over-uk-lockdown-rules

42. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

43. https://www.yorkpress.co.uk/news/18362119.coronavirus-police-bosses-explain-inconsistencies-lockdown-enforcement/

44. https://www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/coronavirus/2020/03/police-coronavirus-lockdown-government-punishment-advice

45. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-derbyshire-52055201

46. https://www.kent.ac.uk/news/society/24865/expert-comment-police-power-during-COVID-19

47. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/mar/30/uk-police-guidelines-coronavirus-lockdown-enforcement-powers-following-criticism-lord-sumption

48. https://www.vrc.crim.cam.ac.uk/sites/www.vrc.crim.cam.ac.uk/files/pn_policing_the_pandemic.pdf

49. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/07/england-coronavirus-lockdown-police-enforcement

50. https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/politics/coronavirus-covid-19-law-parliament-emergency-powers

51. https://sccjrblog.wordpress.com/2020/04/30/covid-19-implications-for-policing/

52. https://sccjrblog.wordpress.com/2020/04/30/covid-19-implications-for-policing/

53. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/19/coronavirus-suspects-may-be-detained-under-uk-emergency-powers

54. https://ico.org.uk/about-the-ico/news-and-events/news-and-blogs/2020/03/statement-in-response-to-the-use-of-mobile-phone-tracking-data-to-help-during-the-coronavirus-crisis/

55. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2020/apr/28/uk-contact-tracing-plans-an-nhs-app-and-an-army-of-health-staff

56. https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/coronavirus-COVID-19-staying-home-and-self-isolation

57. https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/campaigns/coronavirus-COVID-19

58. https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/coronavirus-COVID-19-staying-home-and-self-isolation

59. https://www.psni.police.uk/advice_information/COVID-19/

60. https://www.psni.police.uk/advice_information/COVID-19/

61. https://www.psni.police.uk/covid19/

62. https://www.itv.com/news/2020-04-21/psni-receive-3-787-reports-in-six-days-over-alleged-social-distancing-breaches/

63. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/many-people-still-not-following-social-distancing-guidelines-say-police-39168856.html

64. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/police-deeply-concerned-people-could-ignore-official-advice-on-coronavirus-39163521.html

65. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/29/concerns-raised-as-covid-19-cases-surge-along-irish-border

66. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52432555

67. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/health/coronavirus/psni-and-garda-to-ensure-coronavirus-restrictions-on-travel-are-adhered-to-over-bank-holidays-39169044.html

68. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52410280

69. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52390373

70. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52468717

71. https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/cf9b0d-new-public-health-measures-effective-now-to-prevent-further-spread-o/

72. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/e9d120-minister-for-health-simon-harris-signs-regulations-to-give-an-garda-/

73. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Use_of_COVID-19_related_powers_by_An_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na

74. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Information_regarding_the_Justice_Sector_COVID-19_plans

75. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/arrests-under-COVID-19-legislation-more-than-quadruple-in-a-week-1.4234307

76. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/arrests-under-COVID-19-legislation-more-than-quadruple-in-a-week-1.4234307

77. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/coronavirus-garda%C3%AD-have-made-76-arrests-for-breaches-of-lockdown-regulations-1.4240136

78. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Information_regarding_the_Justice_Sector_COVID-19_plans

79. https://www.ihrec.ie/statement-from-the-irish-human-rights-and-equality-commission-on-COVID-19-oversight-in-respect-of-human-rights-and-equality/

80. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Information_regarding_the_Justice_Sector_COVID-19_plans

81. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/domestic-violence-reports-up-30-in-some-areas-since-lockdown-says-garda-1.4238362

82. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Information_regarding_the_Justice_Sector_COVID-19_plans

83. https://www.garda.ie/en/about-us/our-departments/office-of-corporate-communications/press-releases/2020/march/COVID-19-%E2%80%93-an-garda-siochana-begins-major-policing-operation-in-support-of-public-compliance-of-public-health-measures.html

84. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Information_regarding_the_Justice_Sector_COVID-19_plans

85. Only cases of actual enforcement of the specified powers are recorded as crime incidents.

86. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/coronavirus-garda%C3%AD-have-made-76-arrests-for-breaches-of-lockdown-regulations-1.4240136

87. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/arrests-under-COVID-19-legislation-more-than-quadruple-in-a-week-1.4234307

88. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/coronavirus-garda%C3%AD-have-made-76-arrests-for-breaches-of-lockdown-regulations-1.4240136

89. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/arrests-under-COVID-19-legislation-more-than-quadruple-in-a-week-1.4234307

90. https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/dd26a8-easing-the-covid-19-restrictions-on-10-august/

91. http://www.governo.it/it/articolo/decreto-iorestoacasa-domande-frequenti-sulle-misure-adottate-dal-governo/14278

92. https://www.esteri.it/mae/it/ministero/normativaonline/decreto-iorestoacasa-domande-frequenti/faqs-on-the-italian-government-s-imstayinghome-decree.html

93. https://www.poliziadistato.it/articolo/165e66704c97dbc404704043

94. https://www.esteri.it/mae/it/ministero/normativaonline/decreto-iorestoacasa-domande-frequenti/faqs-on-the-italian-government-s-imstayinghome-decree.html

95. There are seven national forces and two layers of local force - they have different powers and different ways of operating. Most of the enforcement has been with the municipal police (Dr Peter Neyroud, correspondence).

96. https://www.lavoroediritti.com/governo/coronavirus-sanzioni-regole

97. https://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/coronavirus-pasquetta-droni-e-posti-blocco-stanare-chi-tenta-eludere-controlli-ADN15wJ?refresh_ce=1

98. https://www.interno.gov.it/it/notizie/oltre-15-milioni-controlli-tutto-territorio-nazionale

99. http://www.difesa.it/Primo_Piano/Pagine/Emergenza-Coronavirus-lEsercito-contribuisce-alla-sicurezza-del-Paese.aspx

100. https://www.agendadigitale.eu/cultura-digitale/immuni-come-funziona-lapp-italiana-contro-il-coronavirus/

101. https://www.repubblica.it/politica/2020/04/29/news/coronavirus_fase_due_mozione_della_minoranza_stop_dpcm_ripristinare_liberta_-255175716/

102. https://www.tni.org/en/article/italy-democracy-and-COVID-19

103. https://www.ansa.it/sito/notizie/politica/2020/04/27/coronavirus-litalia-verso-la-fase-2-fra-cautele-e-polemiche_1faa2a81-9e44-4e67-b733-0e0e0dc1177e.html

104. https://mattinopadova.gelocal.it/padova/cronaca/2020/04/30/news/coronavirus-fase-2-maxi-piano-di-controlli-della-polizia-stradale-di-padova-1.38789215

105. https://www.agenzianova.com/a/5eab21432f3234.16256202/2918784/2020-04-30/trasporti-per-fase-2-a-roma-forze-ordine-e-polizia-locale-a-capolinea-e-lungo-itinerari

106. https://napoli.repubblica.it/cronaca/2020/04/30/news/coronavirus_fase_2_a_napoli_droni_alla_polizia_locale_per_evitare_assembramenti-255252531/

107. There are two national police agencies - the Police Nationale are responsible for most urban policing but are supported by Polices Municipales in most cities and towns. Outside the cities the policing is done by the Gendarmerie, who come under the Ministry of Interior. The Police Nationale and Gendarmerie usually operate very differently (Dr Peter Neyroud and Jacques De Maillard, correspondence).

108. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/coronavirus-france-lockdown-cases-update-COVID-19-macron-a9405136.html

109. https://www.gouvernement.fr/info-coronavirus

110. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52202700

111. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/coronavirus-france-fines-update-christophe-castaner-a9440146.html

112. https://www.thelocal.fr/20200423/french-police-hand-out-over-900000-in-lockdown-fines-including-to-holiday-home-owners

113. https://www.interieur.gouv.fr/Actualites/L-actu-du-Ministere/Attestation-de-deplacement-et-de-voyage

114. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/03/coronavirus-not-on-holiday-france-warns-citizens-against-easter-travel

115. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/22/disruption-france-virus-lockdown-tensions-rise-motorbike-police

116. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/26/europe/coronavirus-france-inequality-intl/index.html

117. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-52366129

118. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52459030

119. https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-france-reveals-plans-to-ease-COVID-19-lockdown-measures-11980124

120. https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/faqs/EN/topics/civil-protection/coronavirus/coronavirus-faqs.html

121. https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/faqs/EN/topics/civil-protection/coronavirus/coronavirus-faqs.html

122. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/29/mask-dilemma-for-police-in-germany-as-may-day-activists-cover-up

123. https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-protests/i-want-my-life-back-germans-protest-against-lockdown-idUKKCN2270RD

124. https://www.thelocal.de/20200414/german-police-deploy-drones-to-monitor-coronavirus-restrictions

125. https://www.ft.com/content/32b6a360-3e22-47a3-ace5-60f42cc6b42d

126. https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-germany-tech/germany-launches-smartwatch-app-to-monitor-coronavirus-spread-idUKKBN21P1SN

127. https://www.ft.com/content/fdf893d5-40a0-4645-87fb-471b0f5e7ad0

128. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52439926

129. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/27/germans-could-be-fined-up-to-10000-for-not-wearing-face-masks-coronavirus

130. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/29/mask-dilemma-for-police-in-germany-as-may-day-activists-cover-up

131. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/germans-set-to-be-given-legal-right-to-work-at-home-zrhptx0pm

132. There are different layers of Spanish police, but increasing centralisation during the pandemic

133. https://english.elpais.com/society/2020-03-15/spains-state-of-alarm-the-key-measures-that-are-now-in-place.html

134. https://elpais.com/espana/2020-04-25/tantas-multas-propuestas-en-el-confinamiento-como-impuestas-en-cuatro-anos-de-ley-mordaza.html

135. https://www.politico.eu/article/catalonia-requests-spanish-armys-help-to-fight-coronavirus/

136. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-europe-51900325/coronavirus-please-stay-at-home

137. Serological is the scientific study of serum and other body fluids. Serological testing refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum.

138. https://elpais.com/sociedad/2020/04/28/actualidad/1588099170_587777.html

139. https://elpais.com/sociedad/2020-04-29/ultima-hora-del-coronavirus-en-espana-y-el-mundo-en-directo.html

140. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/the-public-health-agency-of-sweden/communicable-disease-control/COVID-19-new-legislation-for-restaurants-bars-etc/

141. https://www.krisinformation.se/detta-kan-handa/handelser-och-storningar/20192/myndigheterna-om-det-nya-coronaviruset/restriktioner-och-forbud?fbclid=IwAR3A0HcBfl90bAMsHVmkBtS9wGHf9BnP2qb1CfR483PDAcarYYmQyCRWb3M

142. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/29/swedish-city-lund-dump-tonne-chicken-manure-park-deter-visitors-coronavirus-lockdown

143. https://www.thelocal.se/20200417/swedens-coronavirus-restrictions-to-stay-in-place-for-a-long-time

144. https://covid19.govt.nz/assets/resources/tables/COVID-19-alert-levels-summary.pdf

145. https://www.Police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/operational-policing-guidelines-04-04-2020.pdf

146. Based on 27 April 2020 exchange rates.

147. https://www.Police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/operational-scenarios-and-guidelines-for-alert-level-3.pdf

148. Inquiry into the Government response to COVID-19: Epidemic Response Committee 2nd April 2020

149. https://www.Police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/operational-scenarios-and-guidelines-for-alert-level-3.pdf

150. https://www.Police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/operational-scenarios-and-guidelines-for-alert-level-3.pdf

151. Provided by Mark Evans, New Zealand Police.

152. https://www.Police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/news_downloads/alert_level_4_district_enforcement_numbers_0.pdf

153. https://www.Police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/news_downloads/alert_level_4_district_enforcement_numbers_0.pdf

154. https://www.Police.govt.nz/news/release/public-urged-continuing-following-rules-alert-level-3?ref=/news&search=&cmin=&cmax

155. https://www.Police.govt.nz/news/release/Police-urge-public-maintain-alert-level-4-anzac-weekend?ref=/news&search=&cmin=&cmax

156. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12326199

157. Prior to the boarder closing, New Zealanders returning from overseas were required to enter quarantine, managed self-isolation or non-managed self-isolation

158. Inquiry into the Government response to COVID-19: Epidemic Response Committee 2nd April 2020

159. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/30/new-zealand-site-to-report-covid-19-rule-breakers-crashes-amid-spike-in-lockdown-anger

160. https://www.police.govt.nz/about-us/publications-statistics/data-and-statistics/policedatanz

161. https://covid19.govt.nz/covid-19/restrictions/alert-system-overview/

162. https://www.vox.com/COVID-19-coronavirus-world-international-response/2020/4/19/21226931/coronavirus-south-korea-new-infections-single-digits-relax-social-distancing

163. ibid

164. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-south-korea-controlled-its-coronavirus-outbreak-2020-4?r=US&IR=T

165. https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-south-koreas-success-in-controlling-disease-is-due-to-its-acceptance-of-surveillance-134068

166. https://www.vox.com/COVID-19-coronavirus-world-international-response/2020/4/19/21226931/coronavirus-south-korea-new-infections-single-digits-relax-social-distancing

167. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-south-korea-controlled-its-coronavirus-outbreak-2020-4?r=US&IR=T

168. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-51733145

169. http://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/policies/view?articleId=184842

170. https://www.vox.com/COVID-19-coronavirus-world-international-response/2020/4/19/21226931/coronavirus-south-korea-new-infections-single-digits-relax-social-distancing

171. https://www.justice.gov/doj/page/file/1258516/download

172. https://www.kff.org/health-costs/issue-brief/state-data-and-policy-actions-to-address-coronavirus/

173. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/02/world/australia/coronavirus-police-lockdowns.html

174. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/22/us/coronavirus-police.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article

175. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/22/us/coronavirus-police.html?action=click&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article

176. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/27/opinion/coronavirus-police.html

177. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/07/criminal-justice-system-us-coronavirus-shown-possible-to-change

178. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/26/politics/law-enforcement-politicians-coronavirus/index.html

179. https://www.wusa9.com/article/news/health/coronavirus/coronavirus-maryland-stay-at-home-police-orders/65-06e76484-553c-4a7c-8cdc-b759eeb1e1ac

180. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/27/opinion/coronavirus-police.html

181. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/26/politics/law-enforcement-politicians-coronavirus/index.html

182. https://www.policeone.com/coronavirus-COVID-19/articles/COVID-19-law-enforcement-deaths-3ftkdPnVffq55iHU/

183. https://www.policefoundation.org/COVID-19/?fbclid=IwAR3KKo1EVUeve0zzUbeeu_fezYOXgB1L3DrZVUgo4Zgm-qomyLdD5U0ZyVc

184. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/guidance-law-enforcement.html

185. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/criminal-justice/news/2020/04/14/483165/policing-coronavirus-pandemic/

186. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/police-get-creative-stay-safe-keep-order-coronavirus-spreads-n1176211

187. https://time.com/5812833/coronavirus-police-departments/

188. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-52417610

189. https://www.ft.com/content/c8f6f413-39c4-47ce-b1ff-0e02969cb612

190. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/30/us/coronavirus-updates.html

191. https://www.whitehouse.gov/openingamerica/

192. https://www.kff.org/health-costs/issue-brief/state-data-and-policy-actions-to-address-coronavirus/

193. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/27/us/coronavirus-governors-states-reopening.html

194. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/30/us/coronavirus-updates.html


Contact

Email: socialresearch@gov.scot