Publication - Advice and guidance

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Phase 3: staying safe and protecting others

Rules on staying safe and protecting others to help suppress coronavirus (COVID-19).

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Phase 3: staying safe and protecting others
Face coverings

Face coverings

Physical distancing, hand hygiene and respiratory hygiene are the most important and effective things we can all do to prevent the spread of coronavirus. The wearing of face coverings must not be used as an alternative to any of these other precautions.

There is evidence that face coverings have some additional value, especially in crowded and less well ventilated spaces, and where 2m distancing is not possible. 

In indoor places and where physical distancing is difficult and where there is a risk of contact within 2m with people who are not members of your household, you are expected to wear a face covering.

This includes when visiting or attending an appointment at any healthcare setting such as GPs' surgeries, dentists, optometrists and hospitals.

People must by law wear a face covering in shops, on public transport and public transport premises such as railway and bus stations and airports, and in certain other indoor public places such as shops, restaurants (when not seated), libraries and places of worship.

There is no evidence to suggest there might be a benefit outdoors from wearing a face covering unless in a crowded situation.

What is a face covering?

A face covering can be a covering of any type, except a face shield, that covers the mouth and nose. It is recommended that it be made of cloth or other textiles and should be two, and preferably three layers thick, and through which you can breathe. Religious face coverings that cover the mouth and the nose count as face coverings for these purposes. Transparent face coverings which assist communication for those who rely on lip reading and facial expressions can also be worn.

Face shields may be used, but only if they are worn in addition to a face covering underneath, as the evidence shows that they do not provide adequate protection.

If you are unable to wear a face covering, a face visor or face shield can be worn as it does provide a limited level of protection.

Every time you apply or remove a covering, it is important that you wash or sanitise your hands first and avoid touching your face. When temporarily storing a face covering, such as in a pocket when moving between spaces, it should be placed in a washable bag or container and you should avoid placing it on surfaces, due to the possibility of contamination.

If a face covering becomes wet or soiled when you are using it, it should be replaced immediately with a clean one. Re-usable face coverings should be washed after use, for example after a school day, or a trip to the supermarket.

If your face covering is reusable, after each use machine wash it on the highest setting suitable for the fabric, preferably 60 degrees centigrade. Face coverings should only be hand washed if a washing machine is unavailable.  For hand washing, lather face coverings for at least 20 seconds using warm to hot water before drying ideally putting in a dryer.  Iron face coverings on the cotton or linen setting to kill any remaining germs.

If your face covering is not reusable, you should dispose of it safely in the general waste bin. Disposable face coverings and gloves cannot be recycled .

Don’t create litter. Littering is a criminal offence and you can receive a fixed penalty of up to £80.  Please respect our communities, wildlife and countryside and put disposable face coverings or gloves in the litter bin, or take them home to dispose of safely.

If you have coronavirus or live with someone who does, you need to take extra precautions before throwing away disposable face coverings. Double bag personal waste items that have been in contact with the person (including face covering or gloves), store the waste safely for 72 hours, then throw it in the bin.

Mandatory face coverings

Certain indoor public places

A face covering must be worn by all people in the settings listed below, except where an exemption applies (as defined in the regulations).

  • any premises which open to members of the public and are used for the retail sale or hire of goods or services, such as shops, takeaway restaurants, pharmacies, estate agents, beauty parlours. This includes hospitality premises such as bars and pubs and cafes and restaurants except when an exemption applies.
  • aquariums, indoor zoos or visitor farms, and any other indoor tourist, heritage or cultural site
  • banks, building societies and credit unions
  • cinemas
  • community centres
  • crematoriums and funeral directors' premises
  • libraries and public reading rooms
  • museums and galleries
  • places of worship
  • post offices
  • storage and distribution facilities, including collection and drop off points
  • bingo halls
  • casinos
  • bowling alleys
  • amusement arcades and other leisure facilities (such as snooker and pool halls)
  • indoor funfairs
  • indoor fitness studios, gyms, swimming pools or other indoor leisure centres
  • indoor skating rinks

We advise the use of face coverings in public toilets as they are often crowded and less ventilated spaces.


A face covering must be worn by all passengers and staff or operators in the following settings:

  • train services including the Glasgow subway
  • bus services and the Edinburgh tram
  • taxi and private hire vehicles
  • bus stations, railway stations (including open air stations) and airports
  • ferry services (unless the ferry is open to the elements and physical distancing can be achieved, or the vessel is large enough that physical distancing can be achieved)
  • airline services

Face covering exemptions

Some people are not required to wear a face covering.

These include:

  • babies, toddlers and children under 5 years of age, due to the possibility of overheating, suffocation and strangulation and they are safe without one
  • police constables or emergency response workers such as paramedics acting in the course of their duty 
  • owners, managers, members of staff, or volunteers, of indoor premises where it is mandatory to wear a face covering who are physically separated, by means of, for example, partition screens, from passengers or customers or if they maintain a 2 metre distance from customers or members of the public
  • a person leading an act of worship, service, ceremony or registration in a place of worship, or at a funeral, marriage ceremony or civil partnership, where there is a partition screen or a distance of 2 metres is maintained 
  • people who have a health condition or who are disabled, including hidden disabilities, for example, autism, dementia or a learning disability, or are providing care for someone with a health condition or disability, and a face covering would be inappropriate because it would cause difficulty, pain or severe distress or anxiety to the wearer or the person in the care of the wearer. This includes children with breathing difficulties and disabled children who would struggle to wear a face covering.
  • you cannot apply a covering and wear it in the proper manner safely and consistently
  • anyone who is eating, drinking or exercising
  • anyone who needs to take medication and cannot do so whilst wearing a face covering
  • a person who is communicating with someone else who relies on lip reading and facial expressions to communicate. Such people should remove the face covering only temporarily whilst communicating and replace it immediately afterwards.
  • anyone who is seeking medical assistance, or acting to avoid injury, illness or harm, and where wearing a face covering would make this more difficult. This also applies if someone needs emergency assistance and they don’t have a face covering with them or there is not time to put one on.
  • a person who is providing care or assistance to a vulnerable person and where wearing a face covering would make this more difficult. This also applies if someone needs emergency assistance and they don’t have a face covering with them or there is not time to put one on.
  • when a relevant person, such as a police officer, asks you to remove your face covering
  • in a restaurant, bar or other hospitality setting, a person who is seated at a table.

If there is a need to temporarily remove a face covering you should, where possible, maintain 2 metres distance as physical distancing is one of the most effective methods of preventing the spread of the virus and removing your face covering places others at an increased risk.

Those exempt under the guidance and regulations do not have to prove their exemption and should not be made to wear a face covering or denied access to public transport, shops or public places. We ask for people to be aware of the exemptions and to treat each other with kindness.

We will continue to keep this guidance under ongoing review as we move through the phases of the route map out of lockdown.

Helping others

Some people will struggle to hear or understand people wearing a face covering because they can’t see their mouth or facial expression, such as, people who rely on lip reading or who use British Sign Language. Others will be unable to wear a face covering or to do so safely due to a disability or a medical condition

You can help by being patient and by:

1. Being aware that if someone is deaf they cannot hear you and may not know you are talking to them so –

  • making sure you have their attention by waving, and using gestures and pointing
  • trying to reduce any background noise (where possible)
  • speaking slowly, asking if the person can hear you, and using signs and body language to emphasise what you are saying
  • taking off your own face covering where necessary - if you are communicating with someone who needs to see your face or has difficulty understanding you. (Please remember to stay at least 2 metres apart when removing your face covering and replace your face covering once you’ve finished speaking)

2. Being aware that there are many good reasons why someone might not be wearing a face covering. Please be kind and don’t challenge them, Some people may be wearing a lanyard or badge to show they are exempt or carry an exemption card, but some may not.

3. Being aware that some people may need more time at the counter, as they may need to write down their enquiries or use other communication aids.

4. Being aware and considerate of others and remain 2 metres apart.

Enforcement measures for failing to comply

Where face coverings are required, persons responsible for relevant premises should take reasonable steps to promote compliance with the law.

If necessary, the police have enforcement powers including issuing fines of £60 (halving to £30 if paid within 28 days) if members of the public do not comply with this law without a reasonable excuse.

First published: 14 Sep 2020 Last updated: 14 Sep 2020 -