Scottish regional resilience partnerships' framework for exotic notifiable animal diseases contingency plans

Information on how and when operational partners should respond to a suspect or confirmed exotic notifiable animal disease outbreak.

Appendix N: Swine Fever (SF)

N1. Introduction

This appendix covers two separate diseases, Classical Swine Fever ( CSF) and African Swine Fever ( ASF). Both can cause severe illness in pigs and wild boar, but do not infect other animals. The diseases are very similar and will be discussed together. The symptoms of both diseases are almost identical and laboratory diagnosis is necessary to distinguish between them. Disease presentation can vary from pigs dying after a short illness with fever and discoloration of skin, through ill pigs with diarrhoea, respiratory and nervous signs to pigs showing only mild signs. Currently there is no effective vaccine against ASF and EU law therefore prohibits vaccination. Routine vaccination for CSF is prohibited and is unlikely to be considered as an appropriate control measure in the initial stages, or during a controlled CSF outbreak but may be considered during a prolonged epidemic.

The Scottish Government's response to a swine fever outbreak is outlined in the Scottish Government's Exotic Diseases of Animal Generic Contingency Framework Plan. The Disease Control Strategy for African and Classical Swine Fever in GB contains a more detailed response to an outbreak of ASF or CSF and can be found at either or During an outbreak of swine fever in Scotland or elsewhere in GB those web pages will be supplemented with additional information specific to the disease outbreak.

N2. Legislation and National Control Strategy


Disease Orders

Statutory Instrument Number



EU Directive



EU Directive

200260/ EC


The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014



Disease Control Strategy for African and Classical Swine Fever in Great Britain

N3. Possible Impact

The pig sector in Scotland is highly concentrated with around 57% of the total herd located in the North East. There are around 300,000 pigs, which are worth around £63 million to the Scottish economy. Due to the highly concentrated nature of the Scottish pig herd, the impact of either CSF or ASF could be considered high.

N4. Public Health

CSF and ASF do not affect humans.

N5. Risk of Introduction of Infection and Spread of Disease

CSF is endemic in parts of Asia, Central and South America Africa, Sardinia and in wild boar in parts of Europe. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and also in Sardinia, and has spread through wild boar in parts of Eastern Europe. The last outbreak of CSF in GB was in 2000; there has never been an outbreak of ASF in GB. The greatest risk factor for introduction of disease is pigs eating contaminated imported pork products. Disease can also enter the country via imported pigs, contaminated vehicles and personnel. Control measures are in place to prevent introduction of disease by restricting imports from high-risk areas. Smuggled goods may introduce infection.

Spread is often by pigs that are apparently healthy; that is, pigs incubating disease or pigs that have recovered and are now carriers. The viruses can survive for long periods. Pigs can be infected by trucks, lorries, market places, and loading ramps (in or over which infected animals have travelled) or boots, clothing, and hands of a stockperson who has attended diseased pigs.

N6. Lead Responder Control Measures Under Statutory and Regulatory Powers and Responsibilities

N6.1 Local Authority Principal Role

  • Enforcing Animal Health and Welfare Legislation.
  • Enforcing movement restrictions.
  • Enforcing of cleansing and disinfection requirements.
  • Erection of signage and dissemination of guidance and information.
  • Stand down and recovery.

N6.2 Animal and Plant Health Agency ( APHA) Principal Role

  • Respond to and investigate all reports of suspect notifiable disease.
  • Lead agency in the instigation of local response to disease outbreak.
  • Convene the NDCC, LDCC and FOB
  • Supervise the welfare of animals being culled.
  • Surveillance and blood sampling of animals to demonstrate absence of disease and thus gain recognition of disease freedom.

N6.3 Scottish Government Principal Role

  • Ensure necessary legislation is in place.
  • Make and disseminate policy decisions.
  • Make and disseminate guidance and information on disease control.
  • Communicate with field staff and enforcement bodies (such as local authorities).
  • Handle policy issues as well as share disease control developments with SGoR, NDCC, other UK Rural Affairs departments and the EU.

N.6.4 Following Suspicion of Disease

  • A restriction notice is served on the suspect premises while examination of animals is carried out. If veterinary examination cannot rule out Swine Fever, a Temporary Control Zone ( TCZ) of 10 km may be imposed if considered necessary.
  • The TCZ measures would restrict the movement of pigs.

N.6.5 Following Confirmation of Disease

  • There is no requirement under existing legislation for a national movement ban.
  • An Infected Area, consisting of a Protection Zone and Surveillance Zone will be established.
  • The Protection Zone will be at least 3 km from the Infected Premises and the outer boundary of the Surveillance Zone will at least 10 km.
  • The Infected Area measures will include movement restrictions and enhanced biosecurity.
  • Some movements will be allowed under a general or specific movement licence according to risk assessment.
  • A central cleansing and disinfection point would be necessary but the throughput would be much less than that for Foot and Mouth Disease.
  • Public access to land will be prevented only on farms where disease is believed to exist. Footpaths in the Infected Area will remain 'open'.
  • All pigs on Infected Premises and those considered to be Dangerous Contacts will be destroyed. The preferred methods of disposal will by commercial rendering or incineration under official supervision of APHA.

N7. Control Zones which may be declare

Statutory Instrument


Stage Declared



The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Temporary Control Zone

Suspicion (Not mandatory)

Any size considered by Scottish Ministers

Regulation 9

Protection Zone ( PZ)


3 Km (minimum)

Regulation 23

Part I of Schedule 3

Schedule 4

Surveillance Zone ( SZ)


10 Km (minimum)

Regulation 23

Schedule 3 Part 2 (except para 12)

Schedule 4

Feral Pig Investigation Zone

Suspicion in Feral Pigs

Any size considered by Scottish Ministers

Regulation 20

Schedule 2 (some or all measures)

Feral Pig Control Zone

Confirmation in Feral Pigs

Any size considered by Scottish Ministers

Regulation 21

Schedule 2 (some or all measures)



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