National guidance for child protection in Scotland 2021

This guidance describes the responsibilities and expectations for all involved in protecting children and will support the care and protection of children.

This document is part of a collection

Appendix F: Resources and references

References: Introduction and Part 1

(*) Contributions from individual parents, Children 1st Support Groups, Scottish Commission for Learning Disabilities, People First Scotland and Scottish Women's Aid Groups are acknowledged with thanks.

References: Part 2A

References: Part 2B

References: Part 3

References: Part 4


When services find it hard to engage

Disabled children

Parents with learning disabilities

Legal and policy references

Children experiencing and affected by mental health problems

Suicide and self-harm

Helpful links

Neglect and emotional abuse

Domestic abuse

Parental alcohol and drugs

Physical abuse, equal protection and restraint

Severe obesity

Child sexual abuse

Child sexual exploitation

A child concerned about risk of sexual abuse or exploitation should consider contacting:

Advice and support for parents, carers and professionals:

Internet enabled sexual offending

  • Bentley, H., O'Hagan, O., Raff, A., & Bhatti, I. (2016). How safe are our children? NSPCC. London
  • Brennan, M., Perkins, D., Merdian, H., Tyrrell, E., Babchishin, K., McCartan, K., & Kelly, R. (2019) Best practice in the management of online sex offending UK.
  • DeMarco J, Sharrock S, Crowther T and Barnard M (2018) Behaviour and Characteristics of Perpetrators of Online-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
  • May-Chahal C, Palmer E, Dodds S, Milan S (2018) Characteristics and vulnerabilities of victims of online-facilitated child sexual abuse and exploitation. Rapid Evidence Assessment. University of Lancaster
  • Independent Inquiry in to Sexual Abuse: will report (2020) on internet service providers, online platforms, relevant ICT companies and regulatory framework
  • UK Government (2019) Online harms research publications
  • Wager N, Armitage R et al (2018) Quantifying the extent of online sexual abuse. University of Huddersfield
  • What works for children's social care: evidence review (2019). Therapeutic interventions for children who have experienced trauma through abuse and neglect.
  • Rape Crisis: Deaf Access to Support.
  • Police Scotland/Social Work Scotland (2020); Joint Investigative Interviewing: trauma informed practice training materials
  • Scottish Government (forthcoming) Revised Guidance for Joint Investigative Interviews


Harmful sexual behaviour by children

See also references on Serious harmful behaviour by children above and below aged 12

  • Allardyce S, Yates P (2021) Sibling sexual abuse: A knowledge and practice overview (
  • Allardyce, S. and Yates, P. (2018) Working With Children and Young People who Have Displayed Harmful Sexual Behaviours, Dunedin Press, Edinburgh
  • Chaffin, M., Letourneau, E. & Silovsky, J. F. 2002. Adults, adolescents, and children who sexually abuse children: A developmental perspective. (2nd ed.). In: Myers, J. E. B., L. Berliner, J
  • Briere, C.T. Hendrix, C. Jenny & Reid, T. A. (eds.) The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
  • Firmin C. 2017. Abuse between Young People: A Contextual Account.Routledge. London.
  • Hackett, S. 2010. Children, young people and sexual violence. In: Barter, C. & Berridge, D. (eds.) Children Behaving Badly. West Sussex: Wiley
  • Hackett, S. 2014. Children and Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours, Dartington, Research in Practice
  • Hackett, S., Branigan, P. and Holmes, D. (2019) Harmful sexual behaviour framework: an evidence-informed operational framework for children and young people displaying harmful sexual behaviours. 2nd ed. London: NSPCC
  • Hallett S, Deerfield K, Hudson K (2020) The Same but Different? Exploring the Links between Gender, Trauma, Sexual Exploitation and Harmful Sexual Behaviours. Child Abuse Review 28.6.
  • Hollis, V., Belton, E. & Team, N. E. 2017. Children and Young People who Engage in Technology- Assisted Harmful Sexual Behaviour. London: NSPCC
  • Scottish Government/C Dyer (2020) Report of an Independent Expert Group on Preventing Sexually Harmful Behaviour by Children and Young People
  • Scottish Government/Social Work Scotland/Police Scotland (2020) Joint statement: Early andeffective intervention (EEI) - Social Work Scotland
  • Simpson S,Vaswani (2015) The use of Safer Lives in Scotland with young people displaying sexually harmful behaviours. CYCJ

Online safety/child protection in the digital environment

Under-age sexual activity

Pre-birth assessment and support

  • Barlow, J., Ward, H. and Rayns, G. (2020) 'Risk assessment during the prenatal period' in Howarth J. and Platt, D. The Child's World (Third Edition), London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
  • Barlow J, Rayns G, Lushey C, Ward, H (2014). Risk assessment pre-birth: a practice model. NSPCC/Department for Education
  • Biehal N, Cusworth L, Hooper J, Whincup H, Shapira M (2019). Permanently Progressing? Building secure futures for children in Scotland. University of Stirling
  • Critchley A (2018) Key Issues in Pre-birth Child Protection: What can be done to strengthen policy and practice? Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
  • Critchley, A. (2019). Jumping Through Hoops: Families' Experiences of Pre-birth Child Protection. Chapter 8 in Murray, L, McDonnell, L., Hinton-Smith, T., Ferreira, N. and Walsh, K. (Eds.) (2019). Families in Motion: Ebbing and Flowing Through Space and Time, pp. 135 – 154
  • Critchley, A. (2018) Pre-birth Child Protection. Insight 42. Glasgow: Iriss.
  • Henderson, G & Hanson, L (2015) SCRA Research report: Child protection orders, Stirling: SCRA
  • National Health Education Scotland ( 2021) Foetal Alcohol Spectrum interactive training aid. Register at Home | Turas | Learn (
  • Raab M, McIntyre C,McGhee J(2020) Infants born into care in Scotland: initial findings. Scottish Centre for Administrative Data Research
  • Rose S, Hampson S. (2019) Safe to Say: time to respond. Support to survivors of childhood sexual abuse with perinatal Health problems. Scottish Government/Open Hand Productions
  • Scottish Government (2011) Pathway to Care for Vulnerable Families (0-3)
  • Scottish Government (2016) Pregnancy and Parenthood in Young People Strategy 2016-2026
  • Scottish Government (2019) Perinatal infant mental Health delivery plan 2019-2021.
  • Scottish Government (2020) "Someone to talk to and Someone to listen": supporting young pregnant women and young parents to remain in school
  • Scottish Government (2019) Becoming breast feeding friendly Scotland
  • UNICEF (2017) Breastfeeding in Scotland/Baby friendly standards:
  • NHS Scotland / Scottish Government (2021) Getting maternity services right for young parents Maternity services for young parents | Turas | Learn (

Children looked after away from home

Reunification/return home

  • Wilkins M. Farmer E. (2015a) An Evidence-Informed Framework for Return Home Practice. NSPCC/University of Bristol
  • Wilkins M. Farmer E. (2015b) How to Implement the Reunification Practice Framework. NSPCC/ University of Bristol
  • Taking Care: Practice Framework for Reunification Evaluation report. Hyde-Dryden G, Holmes L, Lawson D and Blackmore J (2015), Loughborough University Centre for Child and Family Research

Preventing repeat removal

Children missing

Children abducted across borders – legal references

  • The Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, 1996 (Hague 1996)
  • The Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility, 2003 (Brussels II or BIIa)
  • Under the Hague and European Conventions the Minister for Justice acts as the Central Authority, supported by Scottish Government. The Central Authority for Scotland's role is that of a facilitator and information point between Contracting States, legal representatives and members of the public
  • Children and Families Across Borders (CFAB), UK branch of the International Social Service (ISS) network, with partners in 120 countries.

Unaccompanied children and children who may be trafficked

Child protection in transitional phases


Hate Crime

Serious harmful behaviour by children above and below aged 12

See also references on Harmful sexual behaviour by children

Vulnerability to being drawn in to terrorism

Complex investigations

Female genital mutilation

Support and advice

Forced marriage

Fabricated and induced illness

The documents referenced below, while providing useful guidance on how agencies should respond when concerns are raised about fabricated or induced illness, are written for practitioners in England and Wales and would need to be considered within a context of Scottish legislation and processes.

Sudden unexpected child death

Cultural and faith communities

Defence community

See Appendix G for armed forces key contacts.

Child protection in the context of disasters and public emergencies



Back to top