Publication - Factsheet

Marine science: directory of scientists

Published: 23 Nov 2019

Details of scientists working for the Marine Scotland Directorate, with some supporting documents attached.

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5 page PDF

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Marine science: directory of scientists
Dr Alexander Murray

5 page PDF

54.0 kB

Dr Alexander Murray

Telephone: +44 (0)131 244 4327
Address: Marine Scotland Science, Marine Laboratory, 375 Victoria Road, ABERDEEN, AB11 9DB

Research Interests

My research interest is in the modelling and analysis of processes involved of the spread of aquatic diseases, and identifying ways of minimising these. In particular I work on pathogens of salmonids, such as sea lice, infectious salmon anaemia and bacterial kidney disease and on hydrodynamic and network modelling of pathogen spread and area management strategies.


I collaborate with scientists around the world, particularly Norway and Ireland. I am co-supervising a PhD student with the University of Stirling (and have recently co-supervised two others).

External Committees and Responsibilities

I am involved in the Ministerial Working Group on Aquaculture and have recently been involved in a NERC working group on science priorities.

Most Recent Publications

  • Murray A.G. (2013) Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture. Current Opinions in Virology 3, 74-78
  • Salama N.K.G. and Murray A.G. (2013) A comparison of modelling approaches to assess the transmission of pathogens between Scottish fish farms: The role of hydrodynamics and site biomass. Prev. Vet. Med. 108, 285-293
  • Werkman M., Murray A.G., Munro L.A., Turnbull J.F. and Green D.M. (2014) Seasonality in live fish movements and its effects on epidemic dynamics. Aquacult. 418-419, 72-78
  • Murray A.G. and Hall M. (2014) Treatment rates for sea lice of Scottish inshore marine salmon farms depend on local (sea loch) farmed salmon biomass and oceanography. Aquacult. Envir. Interact. 5, 117-125
  • Murray A.G. (2014) A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming. Prev. Vet. Med. 115, 255-262

Full publications list

Water Quality and Plankton Ecology

D. Prandle, A. Murray and R. Johnson 1990 “Analyses of flux measurements in the River Mersey.” In: R.T. Cheng, Editor, Residual Currents and Long Term Transport. Coastal and Estuarine Studies, 38, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 413–430.

G. Harris, G. Batley, D. Fox, D. Hall, P. Jernakoff, R. Molloy, A. Murray, B. Newell, J. Parslow, G. Skyring, S. and Walker, S. 1996 “Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study Final Report.” CSIRO Press, Canberra, Australia, 240pp  [Presented to the Hon. Jeff Kennett, Premier of Victoria, 30/7/96.

A.G. Murray and J.S. Parslow 1999  “Modelling nutrient impacts in Port Phillip Bay - a semi-enclosed marine Australian ecosystem.”  Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 50, 597-612

J. Parslow and A. Murray 1999 "Introduced marine species and nitrogen cycling in Port Phillip Bay" Chapter 17 of "Marine Biological Invasions of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria" R. Thresher, C. Hewitt, R. Martin and M. Campbell (eds), CSIRO Press, Canberra

A.G. Murray, J.S. Parslow and S.J. Walker 2001 “Modelling treated waste disposal in Port Phillip Bay and Bass Strait: biogeochemical and physical removal” Environment International 27, 249-255

S. Hay and A. Murray 2008. “Jellyfish problems faced by the aquaculture industry” Fish Farmer Magazine October 2008

Marine Algal Virology

A.G. Murray and G.A. Jackson 1992  "Viral dynamics. A model of the effects of size, shape, motion and abundance of singled-celled organisms and other particles" Marine Ecology Progress Series 89,103-116

A.G. Murray and G.A. Jackson 1993 "Viral dynamics II. A model of the effects of ultraviolet light and mixed-layer circulation on virus survival in seawater." Marine Ecology Progress Series 102, 105-114

A.G. Murray and P.M. Eldridge 1994 "Marine viral ecology: Incorporation of bacteriophage into the microbial planktonic food web paradigm." Journal of Plankton Research 16, 627-641

A.G. Murray 1995 "Phytoplankton exudation: exploitation of the microbial loop as a defence against algal viruses." Journal of Plankton Research, 17 (5) 1079-1094

A.G. Murray 1998 “Modelling the interactions of viruses with the plankton” State-of-the-art speech, International Conference on Medical Virology, Beijing, China

Fish Disease Modelling

Pilchard Herpesvirus


  1. G. Murray, M. O'Callaghan and B. Jones 2000 "The development of a model of the spread of the pilchard fish kill event in southern Australian waters" Fisheries Research and Development Corporation Report 99/225 112pp
  2. A.G. Murray, M. O’Callaghan and Jones 2001 “Simple models of massive epidemics of herpesvirus in Australian (and New Zealand) pilchards” Environment International, 27, 243-248

A.G. Murray, M. O'Callaghan and B. Jones 2001 "A model of transmission of a viral epidemic among schools within a shoal of pilchards" Ecological Modelling, 144, 245-251

A.G. Murray and D.J. Gaughan 2003 “Using an age-structured model to simulate the recovery of the Australian pilchard (Sardinops sagax) population following epidemic mass mortality” Fisheries Research, 60, 415-426.

A.G. Murray, M. O'Callaghan and B. Jones 2003. “A Model of Spatially-Evolving Herpesvirus Epidemics Causing Mass Mortality in Australian Pilchards (Sardinops sagax).” Disease of Aquatic Organisms 54, 1-14

A.G. Murray 2004 “Managing harvesting to minimise the impact of epidemics on wild fish stocks.” Natural Resources Modelling 17(2) 103-121

Infectious Salmon Anaemia

R.M. Stagg, D.W. Bruno, C.O. Cunningham, R.S. Raynard, P.D. Munro, A.G. Murray, C.E.T. Allen, D.A. Smail, A.H. McVicar and T.S. Hastings 2001 “Epizootiological investigations of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Scotland.” FRS Marine Laboratory Report 13/01

R. Raynard, A.G. Murray and A Gregory 2001 “Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus from wild fish in Scotland” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 46, 93-100

A.G. Murray, R.J. Smith and R. M. Stagg 2002 “Shipping and the Spread of Infectious Salmon Anemia in Scottish Aquaculture.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 1-5.

P.D. Munro, A.G. Murray, D.I. Fraser and E. J. Peeler 2003. “An evaluation of the risks of infectious salmon anaemia transmission associated with different salmon harvesting methods in Scotland.” Ocean and Coastal Management 46, 157-174.

M. Snow, R.S. Raynard, A.G. Murray, D.W. Bruno, J.A. King, R. Grant, I.R. Bricknell, N. Bain and A. Gregory 2003. “An evaluation of the current diagnostic tests for the detection of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) following experimental water-borne infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)”.  Journal of Fish Diseases 26, 135-145

A.G. Murray 2003. The epidemiology of infectious salmon anemia in Scotland. pp55-62 In: Miller, Otis; Cipriano, Rocco C., tech. coords. International response to infectious salmon anemia: prevention, control, and eradication: symposium proceedings; 3-4 September 2002; New Orleans, LA. Tech. Bull.  1902. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service

A.Gregory, L.A. Munro, M. Snow, K.L. Urquhart, A.G. Murray, R.S. Raynard 2009. “An experimental investigation on aspects of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection dynamics in seawater Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L..” Journal of Fish Diseases, 32, 481-489

A.G. Murray, L.A. Munro, I.S. Wallace, B. Berx, D. Pendrey, D. Fraser, R.S. Raynard 2010. “Epidemiological factors in the re-emergence and control of an outbreak of infectious salmon anaemia in the Shetland Islands, Scotland.” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 91, 189-200

M Hall, I.S. Wallace, L.A. Munro, E.S. Munro, R. McIntosh, P. Cook, C.E.T. Allen, A.G. Murray 2013. Reliability of individual and pooled test procedures for detecting the pathogenic agent for clinical salmon anaemia. Journal of Fish Diseases 36, 741-745

        Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

A.G. Murray, C.D. Busby and D. Bruno 2003 “Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Scottish Atlantic salmon farms, 1996-2001” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9, 455-460

Anon. 2003 “Final report of the aquaculture health joint working group on infectious pancreatic necrosis in Scotland.” Fisheries Research Service, Aberdeen 90pp

A.G. Murray, W.A. Lechen, R. Kilburn and R.S. Raynard 2004, “A case-control study for the identification of risk factors behind clinical outbreaks of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN).” FRS Marine Laboratory Report 06/04

A.G. Murray 2006 “Persistence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Scottish salmon farms” Preventive Veterinary Medicine 76, 97-106

A.G. Murray 2006 “A model of the spread of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Scottish salmon farms 1996-2003” Ecological Modelling 199, 64-72

I.S. Wallace, A.Gregory, A.G Murray, E.S. Munro, R.S. Raynard 2008. “Distribution of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in wild marine fish from Scottish waters with respect to clinically infected aquaculture sites producing Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.” Journal of Fish Diseases, 31, 177-186

K. Urquhart, Murray, A.G., Gregory, A., O’Dea, M., Munro, L.A., Smail, D.A., Shanks, A.M. and Raynard, R.S. 2008 “Estimation of infectious dose and viral shedding rates for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts”. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 879-887

N.M. Ruane, A.G. Murray, F. Geoghan and R.S. Raynard 2009 “Modelling the spread of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in the Irish salmon farming industry: the role of inputs.” Ecological Modelling 220, 1369-1374

        Sea lice and hydrodynamics

A.G. Murray 2002 “Using observed load distributions and simple models to analyse the epidemiology of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on sea trout (Salmo trutta). Pest Management Science 58, 585-594

P. Gillibrand, D. Hay, M. Penston and A. Murray 2005 “Are salmon farms causing increased parasitism on wild salmonids in Scotland?” Ocean Challenge 14, 28-34

A.G. Murray, T.L. Amundrud and P.A. Gillibrand 2005 “Models of hydrodynamic pathogen dispersal affecting Scottish salmon production: Modelling shows how Scotland eradicated ISA, but not IPN.”  Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada 105-1 80-87

A.G.Murray and P.A. Gillibrand 2006 “Modelling dispersal of larval salmon lice in Loch Torridon, Scotland.”  Marine Pollution Bulletin 53, 128-135

T.L. Amundrud and A.G. Murray 2007 “Validating particle tracking models of sea lice dispersion in Scottish sea lochs”. ICES CM2007/B:05

T.L. Amundrud and A.G. Murray 2009 “Modelling sea lice dispersal under varying environmental forcing in a Scottish sea loch.” Journal of Fish Diseases, 32, 27-44

A.G. Murray 2011 “A simple model to assess selection of treatment-resistant sea lice.” Ecological Modelling 222, 1854-1862

A.G. Murray, T.L. Amundrud, M.J. Penston, C.C. Pert and S.J. Middlemas 2011 “Abundance and distribution of larval sea lice in Scottish waters.” Chapter 2 in (eds) S. Jones and R. Beamish “Salmon Lice” Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 978-0-8138-1362-2

N.K.G. Salama and A.G. Murray 2011 “Farm size as a factor in hydrodynamic transmission of pathogens in aquacultural fish production” Aquaculture Environment Interaction 3, 61-74

N.K.G. Salma, C.M. Collins, J.G. Fraser, J. Dunn, C.C. Pert, A.G. Murray and B. Rabe 2013 Development of a biophysical dispersal model for sea lice. Journal of Fish Diseases 36, 223-237

N.K.G. Salama and A.G. Murray 2013 A comparison of modelling approaches to assess the transmission of pathogens between Scottish fish farms: The rol of hydrodynamics and site biomass. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 108, 285-293

A.G. Murray and M. Hall 2014 Treatment rates for sea lice of Scottish inshore marine salmon farms depend on local (sea loch) farmed salmon biomass and oceanography. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 5, 117-125

        Bacterial Kidney Disease

A.G. Murray, L.A. Munro, I..S. Wallace, E.J. Peeler and M.A. Thrush 2011.: Bacterial Kidney Disease: Assessment of Risk to Atlantic Salmon Farms from Infection in Trout Farms and Other Sources, Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 2 No 3 Edinburgh, UK

I S Wallace, L A Munro, R Kilburn, M Hall, J Black, R S Raynard and A G Murray 2011. A report on the effectiveness of cage-level and farm level fallowing for the control of diseases (BKD and sleeping disease) on large cage-based trout farms in Scotland Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 2 No 10, Edinburgh, UK

A.G. Murray, M. Hall, L.A. Munro, I.S. Wallace (2011) Modelling management strategies for a disease including undetected sub-clinical infection: Bacterial kidney disease in Scottish salmon and trout farms, Epidemics 3, 171-182

A.G. Murray, L.A. Munro, I.S. Wallace, C.E.T. Allan, E.J. Peeler, M.A. Thrush (2012) Epidemiology of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Scotland and the potential for compartmentalised management of salmon and trout farming areas. Aquaculture, 324-5, 1-13

A.G. Murray and J. Soje. 2012 Epidemiology and economics of bacterial kidney disease to inform control policy. Fish Veterinary Journal 13, 30-34

A.G. Murray 2013 Implications of leaky boundaries for compartmentalized control of pathogens: a modeling case study for bacterial kidney disease in Scottish salmon aquaculture. Ecological Modelling 250, 177-182 


A.G. Murray and E.J. Peeler 2005 “A framework for understanding the potential for emerging diseases in aquaculture.” Preventative Veterinary Medicine 67 (2/3) 223-235

Anon 2005 “Final report of the Aquaculture Health Joint Working Group sub-group on disease risks and interactions between farmed salmonids and emerging marine aquaculture species.” Fisheries Research Services, Aberdeen

E.J. Peeler, A.G.Murray, Thebault A., Brun, E., Giovaninni, A. and Thrush M.A. 2007 “The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management” Preventive Veterinary Medicine 81 (3) 3-20 (Special Issue ISVEE XI)

A. Thebault, E.J. Peeler, A.G.Murray, E. Brun, A. Giovaninni, and M.A. Thrush 2007 “Application de la modélisation en santé des espèces aquacoles” Productions Animales 20, 223-226

A.G. Murray and R.S. Raynard 2007 “Modelling for disease preparedness and response.” Developments in Biologicals 129, 41-51

A.G. Murray 2008 “Existing and potential use of models in the control and prevention of diseases affecting aquatic animals” in E.-M. Bernoth (ed) Changing trends in managing aquatic animal disease emergencies OIE Sci Tech Rev 27(1), 211-228

A.G. Murray 2009 “Using simple models to review the application and implications of different approaches used to simulate transmission of pathogens among aquatic animals.” Preventive Veterinary Medicine 88, 167-177

M. Werkman, D.M. Green, A.G. Murray and J.F. Turnbull 2011. “The effectiveness of fallowing strategies in disease control in salmon aquaculture assessed with an SIS model” Preventive Veterinary Medicine 98, 64-73

J.F. Turnbull, I.K. Berrill, D. Green, R. Kaye, D. Morris, A.G. Murray, J. del-Pozo and Shinn A. 2011. “Applied epidemiology with examples from UK Aquaculture.” Aquaculture Research 42, 21-27

M.A. Thrush, E.J. Peeler, A.G. Murray, E. Brun, I.S. Wallace 2011 “The application of risk and disease modelling to emerging freshwater diseases in wild aquatic animals.” Freshwater Biology 56, 658-675

R. Kilburn, A. Gregory, A.G. Murray 2012. “Using a Marcov-Chain Monte-Carlo modeling approach to identify the relative risk to farmed Scottish Rainbow Trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) in a multi-sector industry of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Viruses from introduction and emergent sources.” Ecological Modelling 237-238, 34-42

R.Kilburn, A.G. Murray, M., Hall, D.W.., Bruno, D, Cockerill and R.S., Raynard 2012 Analysis of a company’s production data to describe the epidemiology and persistence of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.) farms of Western Scotland. Aquaculture 368-369, 89-94

A.G. Murray, M. Marcos-Lopez, B. Collet, L.A. Munro 2012. A review of the risk posed to Scottish mollusk aquaculture from Bonamia, Maretillia and oyster herpesvirus. Aquaculture 370-371, 7-13

A.G. Murray 2013 Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture. Current Opinions in Virology 3 (1) 74-78

A.G. Murray 2014 A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 115, 255-262

Computing and Data Analysis

A.G. Murray. 1990. "Ada tasking as a tool for ecological modelling" Ada Letters 10, pp85-90.

A.G. Murray and J.S. Parslow 1999 “The behaviour of a semi-enclosed bay in response to nutrient loading Dynamical and analytical models”. Ecological Modelling 119, 149-166.

A.G. Murray, J.S. Parslow, S.J. Walker and J.R. Waring 2000 “Implementation of the ecosystem module of a coastal environmental model: Port Phillip Bay, Australia” Environmental Modelling and Software 15, 357-372

A.G. Murray 2001 “The use of simple models in the design and calibration of a dynamic 2 D model of a semi-enclosed Australian bay.” Ecological Modelling 136, 15-30

M. O’Callaghan and A.G. Murray 2002  “A tractable deterministic model with a realistic latent period for an epidemic in a linear habitat.” Journal of Mathematical Biology 44, 227-251

A.G. Murray and M. O’Callaghan. 2005 “The numerical and computing methods used to implement models of the spread and impact a major epidemic disease: pilchard herpesvirus, Australia 1995 and 1998/9.”  Environmental Modelling and Software 20, 575-585

S. Soares, J.F. Turnbull, D.M. Green, M. Crumlish and A.G. Murray 2011. A baseline method for benchmarking mortality losses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) production. Aquaculture 314, 7-12

M. Werkman, D.M. Green, L.A. Munro, A.G. Murray and J.F. Turnbull 2011. Seasonality and heterogeneity of live fish movements in Scottish fish farms. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96, 69-82

S. Soares, A.G. Murray, M. Crumlish, J.F. Turnbull and D.M. Green 2012. Evaluating abnormal mortality as an indicator of disease presence in the Atlantic salmon industry using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Aquaculture 370-371, 136-143

S. Soares, A.G. Murray, M. Crumlish, J.F. Turnbull and D.M. Green 2013. Factors affecting variation in mortality of marine Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from Scotland.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 103, 101-109

M. Werkman, A.G. Murray, L.A. Munro, J.F. Turnbull and D.M. Green 2014 Seasonality in live fish movements and its effects on epidemic dynamics. Aquaculture 418-419, 72-78


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