Longitudinal Educational Outcomes (LEO) from Univerisities: 2016/17: Scotland

This Official Statistics release presents employment and earnings outcomes for graduates of higher education five years after graduation.

This document is part of a collection


Academic year: Runs from 1 August to 31 July. For example, the 2012/13 academic year ran from 1 August 2012 to 31 July 2013.

The Customer Information System (CIS): A computer system used by the Department for Work and Pensions that contains a record for all individuals that have been issued with a National Insurance (NINO) number. It contains basic identifying information such as name, address, date of birth and NINO.

First degree qualification: This covers qualifications commonly known as bachelor’s degrees and also includes postgraduate bachelor’s degrees at H level. Not all undergraduate courses are included: for example, the Professional Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE), foundation degrees and Higher National Diplomas (HND) are excluded. Note that it does not necessarily mean that the degree is the first higher education qualification undertaken by the student.

Further study: The HESA Student Record is used to identify instances of further study in higher education, Students enrolled on further education courses, on some initial teacher training enhancement, booster and extension courses, or whose study status is dormant or who were on sabbatical are excluded from this indicator. Each tax year spans two academic years; therefore, graduates will be flagged as being in further study if they have a HESA record in one of these two academic years.

HEI: Higher Education Institution.

Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA): HESA collect data from universities, higher education colleges and other specialist providers of higher education. In this publication we have used the HESA Student Record to identify our graduate base population and higher education further study instances.

Common Aggregation Hierarchy (CAH): A standardised way of classifying academic subjects and modules that allows for consistent analysis across the HECoS and JACS coding frames. CAH has been designed to act as a bridge between an upcoming coding frame (HECoS) and the old coding frame (JACS). In this publication we group subjects using CAH2 subject groupings.

Nominal earnings: Nominal earnings represent the cash amount an individual was paid. They are not adjusted for inflation (the general increase in the price of goods and services).

PAYE: HMRC’s system to collect Income Tax and National Insurance from employment. The LEO project uses information from the P45 to ascertain employment spell length and from the P14 (P60) to determine annual earnings.

Self-assessment: Self-assessment data captures the activity of individuals with income that is not taxed through PAYE, such as income from self-employment, savings and investments, property rental, and shares.

Sustained annualised earnings: The calculated average daily wage across the tax year grossed up to the equivalent annual figure.

Total earnings: The total of annualised PAYE earnings and raw Self-assessed earnings.


Email: FHEstatistics@gov.scot

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