Publication - Independent report

Policing - complaints handling, investigations and misconduct issues: independent review

Published: 11 Nov 2020

First independent review of complaint handling, misconduct and investigations since the creation of new policing structures in 2013. Dame Elish Angiolini reviewed the effectiveness of the new systems for dealing with complaints against the police, how well complaints are investigated and the processes involved.

490 page PDF

2.5 MB

490 page PDF

2.5 MB

Contents
Policing - complaints handling, investigations and misconduct issues: independent review
Footnotes

490 page PDF

2.5 MB

Footnotes

1. https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

2. Harris, O'Boyle and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights, (4th edition)

3. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

4. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/385911/An_Independent_Review_of_the_Police_Disciplinary_System_-_Report_-_Final....pdf

5. https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/Ethics-home/Documents/Code_of_Ethics_ReadingList.pdf

6. Independent Review of Deaths and Serious Incidents in Police Custody, Home Office: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

7. https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra-2013-fundamental-rights-based-police-training_en_0.pdf

8. https://fra.europa.eu/en/about-fra

9. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/385911/An_Independent_Review_of_the_Police_Disciplinary_System_-_Report_-_Final....pdf

10. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2012/8/section/5

11. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1999/1074/regulation/5/made

12. Police Scotland has 14 senior officers who hold the office of constable: one Chief Constable, 3 Deputy Chief Constables and 10 Assistant Chief Constables.

13. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/18/section/200

14. https://www.supremecourt.uk/cases/docs/uksc-2016-0041-judgment.pdf

15. https://www.scotland.police.uk/about-us/code-of-ethics-for-policing-in-scotland/

16. The Police Service of Scotland (Conduct) Regulations 2014 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/schedule/1/made

17. https://www.parliament.scot/S5_JusticeCommittee/Inquiries/PFR-SHRC.pdf

18. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/16/section/39A

19. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2014/12/contents/enacted

20. https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/Documents/Code_of_Ethics.pdf

21. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/pdfs/uksi_20200004_en.pdf

22. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nisr/2016/41/schedule/made/data.xht?view=snippet&wrap=true

23. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2000/32/contents

24. An Garda Síochána is the Irish Gaelic name for the Republic of Ireland's police service.

25. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Code-of-Ethics-for-the-Garda-Sochna_1.pdf

26. https://www.spa.police.uk/about-us/complaints/how-to-make-a-complaint/

27. Police Scotland's online complaints page and guide: https://www.scotland.police.uk/about-us/police-scotland/complaints-about-the-police/how-to-make-a-complaint/

28. SPA's complaints guide: https://www.spa.police.uk/about-us/complaints/how-to-make-a-complaint/

29. https://sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/published/J/2019/3/25/Report-on-post-legislative-scrutiny-of-the-Police-and-Fire-Reform--Scotland--Act-2012---The-Police-Service-of-Scotland/JS052019R9.pdf

30. Treaty ETS No. 005, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/005

31. Treaty ETS No. 005, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/005

32. PIRC received 258 applications for complaint handling reviews in 2018-19 and 291 applications in 2017-18.

33. https://policeconduct.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Documents/statistics/IOPC_public_perceptions_tracker_annual_report_summary_201819.pdf

34. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/863820/Home_Office_Statutory_Guidance_0502.pdf

35. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

36. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/regulation/9/made

37. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/5bvdee2w/repc-20200105-item-8-police-scotland-professional-standards-quarterly-performance-rpt.pdf

38. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/obva4ntn/annual-policing-plan-2020-21.pdf

39. An Garda Síochána is the Irish Gaelic name for the Republic of Ireland's police service.

40. https://www.gardaombudsman.ie/publications/statutory-reports/?download=file&file=3161

41. ECHR - Treaty ETS No. 005, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/005

42. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

43. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/fifhh5vo/complaints-about-the-police-sop.pdf

44. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/5bvdee2w/repc-20200105-item-8-police-scotland-professional-standards-quarterly-performance-rpt.pdf

45. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/32/section/53

46. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/fifhh5vo/complaints-about-the-police-sop.pdf

47. https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

48. https://www.scotcourts.gov.uk/search-judgments/judgment?id=e3b186a6-8980-69d2-b500-ff0000d74aa7

49. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-police-disciplinary-system-in-england-and-wales

50. Treaty ETS No. 005, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/005

51. http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/p/f/11287_CoP1_Disciplinary_Procedures_v1__Accessible.pdf

52. SPA/Police Scotland Grievance Procedure, April 2019 https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/mgadb0uj/grievance-sop.pdf

53. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

54. Independent Review of Deaths and Serious Incidents in Police Custody, Home Office: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

55. https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

56. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

57. https://www.policeconduct.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Documents/statutoryguidance/statutory-guidance-section-22-guidance.pdf

58. https://www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/death-or-serious-injury/?s

59. The constable's declaration is prescribed in Section 10 of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2012/8/section/10

60. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

61. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/schedule/2/made

62. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/oslldmae/unacceptable-actions-by-complainers-sop.pdf

63. https://pirc.scot/media/5194/unacceptable-actions-policy.pdf

64. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/385911/An_Independent_Review_of_the_Police_Disciplinary_System_-_Report_-_Final....pdf

65. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/contents

66. https://www.scotland.police.uk/about-us/code-of-ethics-for-policing-in-scotland/

67. https://bemis.org.uk/ BEMIS is an umbrella body supporting the development of the ethnic minorities voluntary sector in Scotland and the communities that this sector represents.

68. https://www.crer.scot/ CRER is a Scottish strategic racial equality charity focused on working to eliminate racial discrimination and harassment and promoting racial justice.

69. The SWDF's aim is to assist and support Police Scotland and the Scottish Police Authority to provide a positive working environment which enables everyone to reach their full potential.

70. https://www.lgbtipolice.scot/ The Scottish LGBTI Police Association exists to advance LGBTI equality, inclusion and support throughout policing in Scotland and within the communities Police Scotland serves.

71. http://www.semperscotland.org.uk/ SEMPER Scotland is the primary staff association that exists to support and represent all minority ethnic employees on issues of equality in race. SEMPER stands for Supporting Ethnic Minority Police employees for Equality in Race.

72. NISAG is comprised of Community Advisors who have an in-depth knowledge of a specific diversity area, or a number of areas, and who provide independent advice and guidance at a strategic level on those areas to Police Scotland.

73. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/277111/4262.pdf

74. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

75. https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/Ethics-home/Documents/Code_of_Ethics_ReadingList.pdf

76. BME - Police Scotland use terminology based on Equality and Human Rights Commission guidance.

77. Cambridge English Dictionary

78. Paragraph 36.20 of the Macpherson Report https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/277111/4262.pdf

79. Ewart, D H, 'The enduring quality of police canteen culture/subculture in a changing police landscape'

80. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/HMICS%20Thematic%20Inspection%20of%20Police%20Scotland%20Training%20and%20Development%20-%20Phase%201_0.pdf

81. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

82. An Garda Síochána is the Irish Gaelic name for the Republic of Ireland's police service.

83. https://www.gardaombudsman.ie/publications/statutory-reports/?download=file&file=3161

84. The Strategic Oversight Group brings together senior leaders from COPFS, the SPA, the PIRC and Police Scotland.

85. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

86. https://www.policeconduct.gov.uk/research-and-learning/key-areas-work/discrimination

87. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/3lka0za4/equality-diversity-and-dignity-sop.pdf

88. https://news.npcc.police.uk/releases/update-on-the-plan-of-action-for-inclusion-and-race-equality-in-policing

89. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/c4kin05m/rep-b-20200813-item-5-workforce-diversity-inclusion-and-equality-in-policing.pdf

90. https://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/home/david-olusoga-mactaggart-lecture-in-full/5152544.article

91. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/18/contents

92. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/23/contents

93. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/blowing-the-whistle-list-of-prescribed-people-and-bodies--2/whistleblowing-list-of-prescribed-people-and-bodies

94. Protect is a registered charity. It is also registered as a company limited by guarantee in England https://protect-advice.org.uk/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIzrbtuNjS7AIVwevtCh3AfAR7EAAYASAAEgLAl_D_BwE

95. https://www.parliament.scot/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/108179.aspx

96. https://www.parliament.scot/S5_JusticeCommittee/Inquiries/PFR-UPSS.pdf

97. https://www.parliament.scot/S5_JusticeCommittee/Inquiries/PFR-UPSSsupplementary.pdf

98. http://www.parliament.scot/parliamentarybusiness/report.aspx?r=11762&mode=pdf

99. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/gvclkohi/rep-b-20200318-item-10a-spa-whistleblowing-policy.pdf

100. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2017/3/contents/enacted

101. https://www.college.police.uk/News/College-news/Pages/reporting_concerns.aspx

https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/Documents/ReportingConcerns.pdf#search=reporting%20concerns

102. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/2418/pdfs/uksi_20142418_en.pdf

103. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2017/3/contents

104. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/16/contents

105. https://www.college.police.uk/News/Newsletter/January-2018/Pages/Barred-and-Advisory-lists.aspx

https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/integrity-and-transparency/Barred-List/Pages/Barred-List.aspx

106. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/863820/Home_Office_Statutory_Guidance_0502.pdf

107. A record showing that a person is subject to the barred or advisory lists.

108. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/62/contents/made

109. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/bx4fk234/doc-20160323-af-review-of-governance-in-policing-final.pdf

110. https://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/uploads/docs/report/2019/aar_1819_spa.pdf

111. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/62/regulation/8/made

112. https://pirc.scot/media/4447/spa-audit-report-2017.pdf

113. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/section/34

114. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/regulation/10/made

115. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/62/contents/made

116. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/nuidfvh0/doc-20200325-spa-our-structure-and-governance-v6-updated-march-2020.pdf

117. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/439208/Tone_from_the_top_-_CSPL.pdf

118. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/wolhp43j/rep-c-20191311-item-8-dip-sampling-report-ccc-v6.pdf

119. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2012/8/section/45

120. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/0vkfhhi4/item-5-la-scrutiny-arrangements.pdf

121. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/4fhkaaao/rep-c-20200820-item-8-police-scotland-professional-standards-quarterly-performance-re.pdf

122. https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

123. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/section/45

124. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

125. Section 33A(b) of the Police, Public Order and Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2006, as amended by the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012, is not clear on whether that provision encompasses the death of a serving police officer. The Legislative changes chapter deals with this need to clarify the primary legislation.

126. Firearms for this purpose includes Taser® weapons and PAVA sprays.

127. https://www.gov.scot/publications/police-investigations-review-commissioner-governance-accountability-framework-document-2019/

128. CommDH(2009)4 https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

129. The ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures defines grievances as concerns, problems or complaints that employees raise with their employers. http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/p/f/11287_CoP1_Disciplinary_Procedures_v1__Accessible.pdf

130. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/regulation/11

131. Treaty ETS No. 005, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/005

132. https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

133. Police (Northern Ireland) Act 1998, https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/32/contents

134. https://www.policeombudsman.org/PONI/files/0a/0a274df0-07a3-4cee-b131-b13847a566d9.pdf

135. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/18/contents

136. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/23/contents

137. https://www.policeconduct.gov.uk/research-and-learning/key-areas-work/discrimination

138. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

139. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

140. https://pirc.scot/media/5160/pirc_-business_plan_2020-21.pdf

141. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1981/49#:~:text=In%20this%20Act%20%E2%80%9Cthe%20strict,of%20intent%20to%20do%20so.

142. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332368088_The_Police_Media_and_Popular_Culture

143. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/leveson-inquiry-report-into-the-culture-practices-and-ethics-of-the-press

144. https://www.copfs.gov.uk/images/Documents/Prosecution_Policy_Guidance/Lord_Advocates_Guidelines/LAG%20-%20JANUARY%202018/2018%2001%2019%20Lord%20Advocates%20Guidance%20on%20Police%20and%20the%20Media%20v2.0.pdf

145. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

146. Thorgeirson v Iceland (1992) 14 EHRR 843 at §63. http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57795

147. Handyside v United Kingdom (1979-80) 1 EHRR 737 at §49. http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57499

148. https://www.ipso.co.uk/editors-code-of-practice/

149. https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/cliff-richard-v-bbc-judgment.pdf Ch169 at §248.

150. Murray v Express Newspapers plc and another [2009] Ch, per Sir Anthony Clarke MR (delivering the judgment of the Court of Appeal) at §36.

151. Thorgeirson v Iceland (1992) 14 EHRR 843. http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57795

152. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/contents/made

153. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/62/contents/made

154. Together, the Lord Advocate, Solicitor General and the Advocate Deputes are known as 'Crown Counsel'.

155. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prosecution in Scotland is an independent scrutiny body whose role is to inspect the operation of the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service.

156. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

157. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/385911/An_Independent_Review_of_the_Police_Disciplinary_System_-_Report_-_Final....pdf

158. https://www.scotland.police.uk/youth-hub/rights/know-your-rights/

159. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/qomdikgi/complaints-about-the-police-guide.pdf?view=Standard

160. https://www.gov.scot/publications/principles-inclusive-communication-information-self-assessment-tool-public-authorities/pages/0/

161. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/obva4ntn/annual-policing-plan-2020-21.pdf

162. https://www.scottishwomensrightscentre.org.uk/

163. ACPOS, the Association of Chief Police Officers (Scotland) ceased to exist after police reform in 2013.

164. http://www.sikhsanjog.com/

165. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/qomdikgi/complaints-about-the-police-guide.pdf?view=Standard

166. https://pirc.scot/media/4905/pirc_a_guide_for_the_public_web.pdf

167. https://www.spso.org.uk/how-we-offer-support-and-guidance

168. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

169. https://www.scotland.police.uk/youth-hub/rights/know-your-rights/

170. An Garda Síochána is the Irish Gaelic name for the Republic of Ireland's police service.

171. https://www.gardaombudsman.ie/news-room/archive/gsocs-2018-annual-report-has-been-published/

172. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2014/act/14/enacted/en/html

173. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2005/act/20/enacted/en/print (s. 117, Garda Síochána Act, 2005)

174. http://www.policereform.ie/

175. https://www.gardaombudsman.ie/publications/statutory-reports/?download=file&file=3161

176. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/nisr/2016/41/pdfs/nisr_20160041_en.pdf

177. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/32/contents

178. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/32/contents

179. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nisr/2016/41/schedule/made/data.xht?view=snippet&wrap=true

180. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/47/contents

181. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/47/section/75

182. CEPS Conference, 2012 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBr35EjVLCE

183. https://cain.ulster.ac.uk/issues/police/patten/patten99.pdf

184. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/police-workforce-england-and-wales-30-september-2019

185. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/made

186. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/2/made

187. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/863820/Home_Office_Statutory_Guidance_0502.pdf

188. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/contents/made

189. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/35/regulation/9/made

190. https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/factsheet/2018/04/conduct-and-performance-procedures-police-guidance/documents/police-guidance-conduct-procedures/police-guidance-conduct-procedures/govscot%3Adocument/Police%2BService%2Bof%2BScotland%2B%2528conduct%2529%2Bregulations%2B2014.pdf

191. https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/factsheet/2018/04/conduct-and-performance-procedures-police-guidance/documents/police-guidance-conduct-procedures/police-guidance-conduct-procedures/govscot%3Adocument/Police%2BService%2Bof%2BScotland%2B%2528conduct%2529%2Bregulations%2B2014.pdf

192. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/contents/made

193. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/regulation/11

194. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/35/contents/made

195. https://www.gov.scot/publications/principles-inclusive-communication-information-self-assessment-tool-public-authorities/pages/0/

196. ACPOS, which represented the views of the chief constables and developed national policing policy, ceased to exist after 2013.

197. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/section/45

198. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

199. https://pirc.scot/media/4905/pirc_a_guide_for_the_public_web.pdf

200. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/qomdikgi/complaints-about-the-police-guide.pdf?view=Standard

201. https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/factsheet/2018/04/conduct-and-performance-procedures-police-guidance/documents/police-guidance-conduct-procedures/police-guidance-conduct-procedures/govscot%3Adocument/Police%2BService%2Bof%2BScotland%2B%2528conduct%2529%2Bregulations%2B2014.pdf

202. https://pirc.scot/media/1277/mou_audit_scotland.pdf

203. https://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/work/scrutiny/docs/as_140925_hmics_memorandum.pdf

204. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/PIRC%20and%20HMICS%20MoU%20-%202019.pdf

205. https://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/report/the-201819-audit-of-the-scottish-police-authority

206. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/HMICS20190606PUB.pdf

207. A caveat to this statement is that the Auditor General has a statutory role as regards complaints about fraud, corruption or wrongdoing from employees who have the status of whistleblowers.

208. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/section/33A

209. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

210. https://pirc.scot/media/4447/spa-audit-report-2017.pdf

211. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2014/68/contents/made

212. C3 stands for Contact, Command and Control, the division within Police Scotland which deals with calls from the public.

213. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents/enacted

214. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

215. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

216. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf The 6 stages of the complaints handling process set out in the PIRC's statutory guidance, 'From sanctions to solutions' are 1) notification, 2) allocation, 3) determination, 4) identifying learning, 5) notification to complainers and 6) review by the PIRC.

217. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/HMICS20191210TOR.pdf

218. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

219. https://www.scottishmediation.org.uk/

220. https://www.scottishlegalcomplaints.org.uk/media/1222/new-mediation-brochure-compressed.pdf

221. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

222. https://www.spso.org.uk/the-model-complaints-handling-procedures

223. https://inwo.spso.org.uk/nhs-organisations

224. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/qomdikgi/complaints-about-the-police-guide.pdf?view=Standard

225. https://www.spso.org.uk/how-we-offer-support-and-guidance

226. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/HMICS20190606PUB.pdf

227. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

228. There are 4 designated police stations in Scotland where cells have been 'legalised'. Prisoners (rather than individuals taken into custody by the police) can be held in these cells for up to 30 days. The cells are in stations which are not near to prisons. HM Chief Inspector of Prisons has a duty to inspect these cells and report on the conditions and treatment of prisoners in them.

229. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/sg5ijvgo/icvs-annaul-review-2018-19.pdf

230. https://www.spa.police.uk/spa-media/sg5ijvgo/icvs-annaul-review-2018-19.pdf

231. https://rm.coe.int/0900001680982a3e

232. https://rm.coe.int/1680982a02

233. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/OPCAT.aspx

234. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/basic_page_attachments/HMICS20190904MoU.pdf

235. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/HMICS20191107PUB.pdf

236. https://www.hmics.scot/sites/default/files/publications/HMICS20190606PUB.pdf

237. https://www.spso.org.uk/how-we-offer-support-and-guidance

238. https://rm.coe.int/0900001680982a3e

239. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/0mfjn3pa/care-and-welfare-of-persons-in-police-custody-sop.pdf

240. https://rm.coe.int/1680982a02

241. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

242. https://www.scotland.police.uk/media/lijn5tz2/annual-policing-plan-2020-21-signoff.pdf

243. https://www.policeconduct.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Documents/research-learning/Research_into_Public_Confidence_of_People_with_Mental_Health_Concerns_in_the_Police_Complaints_System_Nov2018.pdf

244. https://mentalhealthpartnerships.com/resource/independent-commission-on-mental-health-and-policing-report/

245. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2003/13/section/297 Section 297 provides that where a constable reasonably suspects that a person who is in a public place has a mental disorder and that the relevant person is in immediate need of care or treatment in order to protect them or others, the constable may remove them to a place of safety.

246. https://www.mentalhealthlawreview.scot/about Mental health legislation is currently the subject of the independent Scottish Mental Health Law Review chaired by John Scott QC.

247. Treaty ETS No. 005, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/005

248. (CommDH9(2009)4) https://rm.coe.int/opinion-of-the-commissioner-for-human-rights-thomas-hammarberg-concern/16806daa54

249. (CommDH9(2009)4, page 3)

250. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2016/2/contents

251. Together, the Lord Advocate, Solicitor General and the Advocate Deputes are known as "Crown Counsel".

252. https://www.scotcourts.gov.uk/search-judgments/fatal-accident-inquiries

253. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

254. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2016/2/contents

255. https://www.copfs.gov.uk/images/Documents/Deaths/COPFS%20Family%20Liaison%20Charter%20September%202016.pdf

256. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

257. https://www.inquest.org.uk/about-us

258. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655401/Report_of_Angiolini_Review_ISBN_Accessible.pdf

259. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/deaths-and-serious-incidents-in-police-custody

260. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1974/37/contents

261. https://www.spso.org.uk/news-and-media/making-complaints-work-for-everyone-report

262. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/863820/Home_Office_Statutory_Guidance_0502.pdf

263. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/721646/common-goal-for-wellbeing-version-3.pdf

264. https://www.scotland.police.uk/media/lijn5tz2/annual-policing-plan-2020-21-signoff.pdf

265. https://www.scotland.police.uk/wellbeing/

266. Approximately 2,300 interactions per annum i.e. the equivalent of 10% of all officers and staff, although some will use the service more than once.

267. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/pv1hlvdi/trim-sop.pdf

268. https://www.cps.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/publications/dame_elish_angiolini_rape_review_2015.pdf

269. http://lifelinesscotland.org/

270. https://www.thepolicetreatmentcentres.org/

271. http://www.semperscotland.org.uk/ SEMPER Scotland is the primary staff association that exists to support and represent all minority ethnic employees on issues of equality in race.

272. https://www.lgbtipolice.scot/ The Scottish LGBTI Police Association exists to advance LGBTI equality, inclusion and support throughout policing in Scotland and within the communities Police Scotland serves.

273. The SWDF's aim is to assist and support Police Scotland and the Scottish Police Authority to provide a positive working environment which enables everyone to reach their full potential.

274. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15614263.2020.1772782?needAccess=true Demou, Hale and Hunt include "cupboarding" as one of the common operational and organisational stressors among officers and staff in Police Scotland. Over the course of the Review a small number of witnesses used the term "cupboarding" for a process whereby an officer is moved to another location, role or duties to be out of the way.

275. https://www.scotland.police.uk/spa-media/jjkpn4et/policing-2026-strategy.pdf?view=Standard

276. Ariel B, Farrar W, Sutherland A (2014) The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens' Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, September 2015, Volume 31, Issue 3 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277597837_The_Effect_of_Police_Body-Worn_Cameras_on_Use_of_Force_and_Citizens%27_Complaints_Against_the_Police_A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial

277. https://www.policeombudsman.org/PONI/files/0b/0b46b087-1f7f-4366-8b82-6dab63c0ccce.pdf

278. https://pirc.scot/media/1211/pccs_statutory_guidance_web.pdf

279. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/contents/made

280. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/2/contents/made

281. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/16/section/98

282. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2013/602/article/3/made

283. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/contents

284. The constable's declaration on appointment is prescribed in Section 10 of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2012/8/section/10

285. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/regulation/1/made

286. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/regulation/11

287. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/regulation/1/made

288. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2020/4/regulation/1/made

289. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/61/contents/made

290. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2016/51/contents/made

291. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2006/10/contents

292. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/35/contents/made

293. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/43/made

294. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2013/63/made#:~:text=The%20Police%20Appeals%20Tribunals%20%28Scotland%29%20Rules%202013.%20The,all%20other%20powers%20enabling%20them%20to%20do%20so.

295. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2014/2418/pdfs/uksi_20142418_en.pdf

296. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2017/1135/made


Contact

Email: ian.kernohan@gov.scot