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Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance for museums, galleries and heritage attractions

Good practice guidelines for museums, galleries and heritage attractions

Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance for museums, galleries and heritage attractions
Assessing risk

Assessing risk

Information about involving the workforce, including volunteers, in a risk-based approach. 

As a minimum we expect:

  • an equality human rights and risk-based approach to be followed to protect health and safety of the workforce and ensure the longer-term economic viability of the organisation
  • the workforce to be fully engaged in that process, through trade union or workforce representatives 

Organisations must take reasonable steps to identify and mitigate against risks in the workplace. To do this they must think about what might cause harm to people and decide whether they are taking reasonable steps to prevent that harm.

This is known as a risk assessment and is something that organisations are required to do by law. If you have fewer than five employees you don’t have to write anything down. Although it may be helpful to do so.

A risk assessment for all pregnant workers and new and breastfeeding mothers should take into account:

  • their job
  • any pre-existing health conditions
  • use of public transport
  • physical distancing guidance relating to coronavirus (COVID-19)
  • whether the workplace risk is greater than in everyday life outside the workplace, including getting to and from work

HSE’s short guide can help to support employers with what they need to do to comply with the law. 

The Scottish Government’s safer workplaces joint statement with Police Scotland, Health and Safety Executive and local authorities makes clear that it is essential that organisations also carry out a COVID-19 risk assessment. These should be developed with trade union health and safety or workforce representatives.

For workplaces without union representation, union health and safety representatives are available upon request to support the development of workplace risk assessments.

Joint working

This guidance has been developed in collaboration with sector leaders and trade unions on the basis that both have essential roles to play in planning for restart. Protecting the health of the workforce has been at the heart of this joint approach which is fundamental to establishing shared confidence around the safety of returning to places of work and for visitors to feel assured it is safe for them to return.

Implementation phases 

Carrying out a robust risk assessment with full workforce involvement will identify the practical measures that can be put in place to minimise the spread of the virus at a workplace level and in public areas. The assessment should include a phased implementation timetable, structured broadly as follows:


Plans to re-open a workplace and public areas should be developed in consultation with the workforce and updated on an ongoing basis. That planning must be based around risk assessments and safe systems of work physical distancing, hand washing and surface cleaning, and fair work principles and be designed to enable a restart that allows the organisation to trade while protecting employee health and well-being, and allows the organisation to fulfil its public purpose, should it have one.


Physical distancing, hygiene measures and risk assessment require work to be carried out before a restart – for example screens, one-way systems, canteen re-arrangement, PPE provision if appropriate, hand sanitisers etc. Then briefings and inductions into the new ways of working. These all take time and require resourcing and commitment.

Where premises have been empty due to lockdown and/or furlough thorough safety checks should be conducted on gas and electrical installations, water cooler and ventilation checks particularly regarding Legionella risks and pest control checks should be conducted to avoid infestation problems.


Experience confirms the value of trialling the new way of working before a fuller restart is attempted, so a limited-scale pilot to test systems, find weaknesses and make improvements before a fuller restart is essential. Pilots could include messaging to the public advising them that returning to a pre-COVID visitor experience will take time, or limited re-openings with very reduced numbers of visitors.

Dynamic assessment

A risk assessment or adoption of mitigation measures should not be a one off exercise. Rather it should be part of a regular and ongoing dialogue and feedback loop between organisations and their workforce, and with the public. It should identify what measures are working, where refinements are possible and any gaps remaining. Reviews of measures and risks should be frequent, with daily assessments of progress initially not unusual. The open and ongoing engagement between organisations and their workforce should enable adjustments to be made quickly and smoothly at the relevant stage. This may include potentially tightening restrictions in workplaces or public areas, or reducing numbers onsite if the dynamic risk assessments indicate this is necessary. HSE has an example COVID-19 risk assessment which provides a general framework for all business sectors. HPS have provided additional guidance for general (non-healthcare) settings.

Utilising expertise

Organisations should ensure their health and safety professionals and representatives have the skills, training and knowledge to understand the risks associated with COVID-19. Where organisations and their workforce do not have access to these skills in-house they should together explore external support options to put in place appropriate mitigation measures, for example through their trade association, health and safety consultancies or trade union health and safety representatives. For workplaces without union representation, union health and safety representatives will be available upon request to support the development of workplace risk assessments. Further information is provided in the Coronavirus (COVID-19): safer work places joint statement. All can help organisations understand the risks associated with different activities and situations within individual organisations and offer the support managers and the workforce may require. 

First published: 6 Jul 2020 Last updated: 19 Jul 2021 -