2.7 Spread on external walls
There is a risk of fire spread on the external walls of a building. Fire could break-out through a window or door opening and spread onto the external walls. External walls close to the boundary are also at risk as they may be exposed to direct flame impingement or radiant heat flux from a fire in an adjoining building or other external source.
Residential care buildings and hospitals also present a greater risk because the mobility, awareness and understanding of the occupants could be impaired and as a consequence, full evacuation immediately a fire is discovered may not be the most appropriate course of action.
Fire-fighters may not be able to apply a water jet from a fire-fighting hose directly onto a fire that has spread onto or within an external wall high above the ground. This is because the external wall is either inaccessible or is out with the reach capability of fire-fighting equipment. Therefore, the construction of external walls in taller buildings should not contribute to the development of fire or contribute to vertical fire spread up the facade of the building. The 11m storey height in clause 2.7.1 and clause 2.7.2 is based on the reach capability of a fire and rescue service ground mounted water jet where there is sufficient pressure and flow in the water main. Designers are encouraged to seek early advice from the fire and rescue service if they wish to vary from the guidance where, for example, the façade is accessible to high reach appliances. Also, see annex 2.B for exceptions.
The guidance for fire spread on external walls of buildings should not be assessed in isolation and reference should be made to the guidance to Standard 2.4 for fire spread in cavities and the guidance to Standard 2.6 for fire spread to neighbouring buildings.
Green walls (also called living walls) have become popular in recent years. Best practice guidance can be found in ‘Fire Performance of Green Roofs and Walls’ published by the Department of Communities and Local Government.
Scottish Advice Note: External Wall Systems – draft guidance on the risk assessment and remediation of cladding on existing buildings is available online and will be published in summer 2021. Following consultation on the Scottish Advice Note, the document recommends that:
“any building extensively clad with EWS incorporating Category 3 MCM should have the MCM removed without delay. Interim measures may need to be put in place until this is done. Buildings that are partially clad in Category 3 MCM may also require remediation. Any decision not to remove Category 3 MCM from a partially clad building must be robustly justified in the fire safety risk assessment and any accompanying appraisal report”.
To align with the advice above, guidance to this standard is amended, recommending that Category 3 Metal Composite Material (MCM) cladding should not be used in any situation. For this purpose, Category 3 MCM cladding is defined as two thin metal skins bonded together using a core material, typically 3 to 7 mm thick, with a calorific value of more than 35 MJ/Kg.
As a further interim measure, citation of BS 8414/BR135 tests is removed as ‘Alternative Guidance’. Verifiers are requested to notify Building Standards Division of any building warrant applications made citing BS 8414 as a route to compliance.
Conversions - in the case of conversions, as specified in regulation 4, the building as converted shall meet the requirements of this standard in so far as is reasonably practicable, and in no case be worse than before the conversion (regulation 12, schedule 6).
External wall cladding includes non load-bearing external wall cladding systems attached to the structure, for example, composite panels, clay or concrete tiles, slates, pre-cast concrete panels, stone panels, masonry, profiled metal sheeting including sandwich panels, timber panels, weather boarding, thermally insulated external wall rendered systems, and other ventilated cladding systems. For the purposes of compliance with Standard 2.7, external wall cladding includes spandrel panels and infill panels.
A cavity formed by external wall cladding should be protected in accordance with the guidance to Standard 2.4 and fire spread to neighbouring buildings in accordance with the guidance to Standard 2.6.
All situations – Category 3 Metal Composite Material (MCM) should not be used as a component of external wall cladding (see note in 2.7.0).
Where the cladding is more than 1m from the boundary and is constructed from combustible products more than 1mm thick, that has a European Classification B, C, D or E (as described in annex 2.E), the cladding should be constructed from products with a reaction to fire in accordance with the following table:
Table 2.9. Reaction to fire of external wall cladding more than 1m from boundary
|Building Use||Topmost storey height above ground ||European Classification |
|Entertainment and Assembly Building||Any||A1 or A2|
|Entertainment and Assembly Building with a total storey area not more than 500 m2||11m||B, C, D or E|
|Hospital and residential care building||Any||A1 or A2|
|Hospital and residential care building with a total storey area not exceeding 200 m2||11m||B, C, D or E|
|Any other building||More than 11m||A1 or A2|
|Not more than 11m||B, C, D or E|
Includes single-storey buildings
See exemptions in annex 2.E
There is a risk of vertical fire spread from specified attachments to an external wall including balconies, solar panels and solar shading. Solar shading are devices attached to an external wall to reduce heat gain within a building by deflecting sunlight. Fire-fighters may not be able to apply a water jet from a fire-fighting hose directly onto a fire that has spread onto specified attachments high above the ground.
Where the building has a storey at a height of more than 11m above the ground, specified attachments should be constructed of products achieving European Classification A1 or A2.