Avian influenza: Surveillance Zone, in Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire

Declaration of Infected Premises and Surveillance Zone, in Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire.

Risk assessment: infected premises in Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire

A 3km Surveillance Zone (SZ) was declared, taking effect from 24 January 2023. This followed a risk assessment of the infected premises by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). This is below.

Rapid risk assessment: summary

There are 8 registered premises within 3km of this IP. Feed has been changed on 18 January 2023 when duck necks were given, this feed had been purchased from a local shop on 13 January 23. Due to the lack of biosecurity on the infected premises (IP) there is a risk of direct and indirect transmission from kept birds to wild birds; however the owner of the IP has CCTV in the hawks shed and reported that he has never seen wild birds around the shed. The background risk from wild birds is very high and so the additional risk to poultry posed by this IP is assessed to be very low.


The IP is a residential property, located in mid Scotland, north-west of Edinburgh, in very close proximity to the river Forth and to Gartmorn Dam country park and nature reserve. Prior to suspicion of notifiable avian disease there were two ten month old Harris Hawks 10 months-old kept in a wooden converted shed in the back garden, the windows were taken out and replaced with vertical bars, also there are 3 bird cage in the house. There was a risk of direct contact with wild birds however they would put themselves at danger of being eaten. There was a risk of indirect contact though.

Both hawks were found dead, with no signs of diseases on Sunday 22 January 2023. A visit was carried out by APHA on Monday 23 January 2023, notifiable avian disease could not be ruled out, and samples were taken.

Hazard identification

The hazard being assessed is highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

Risk question

What is the likelihood of spread from this IP (AIV 2023) to other establishments with poultry within 1km, 3km and 10km, compared to the background level of risk in wild birds?

This risk assessment will be used to support decisions around derogating from requirements to implement a 3km Protection Zone and a 10km Surveillance Zone

Entry assessment

The investigation is on-going, but given the abundance of wild birds in the area, and the fact that the hawks could have direct/indirect contact with wild birds is a likely source. For first time, frozen duck necks were supplied to the hawks on 18 January 2023, an investigation of the source is on-going.

Exposure assessment

This section considers the potential risk of spread from the affected establishment to other poultry premises.

According to the APHA SAM database there are 8 registered premises with poultry within 3km of the infected premises. There are 25 premises between 3km and 10km away, 10 of which have less than 50 birds. There is no requirement for premises with less than 50 birds to register, so it is possible that premises do exist in the area that are not registered.

Routes of transmission for the spread of HPAI from this IP

Direct or indirect contact with wild birds


  • there is a risk of direct and indirect transmission from kept birds to wild birds; however the owner of the IP has CCTV in the hawks shed and he has never seen wild birds around the shed
  • high wild bird abundance in the area


Due to the limited biosecurity there is a high risk of transmission to wild birds; however, the background risk in wild birds is very high.

Given the abundance of wild birds in the area, this IP does not pose a significant additional risk to wild birds. The additional risk to poultry as a result of this IP is very low.

Movement of personnel


  • nobody visited the premises within the HR tracing window
  • people living in the house do not have contact with other poultry/captive birds


Very low.

Direct movements of birds or products


  • none in the last 15 days



Animal by-products


  • no recent disposal of animal by-products such as carcases and manure – nothing within last 30 days



Equipment shared with other properties


  • no equipment shared with other properties



Other mammalian species


  • two pet dogs


Very low.

Other comments

Both Harris Hawks had been kept housed since the beginning of winter 2022, no immediate contact with other persons (other than the owner) or animals have been reported or noticed by the owner over the past few weeks.

Cockatiels were kept in a commercial bird cage in the house with feed/mains water being topped up daily, they’re allowed to fly within the house at least once a day for some time. Cage and house consisted of the usual barriers.

The premises is in close proximity to the river Forth (less than 3km) and to the Gartmorn Dam country park and nature reserve (less than 2km) where there is a large abundance of wild birds and waterfowl. 


The national risk level for HPAI H5N1 in wilds birds is currently very high, so although there is scope for transmission to wild birds the additional risk to poultry in 1km, 3km and 10km is assessed as being very low. 


Email: Animal.Health@gov.scot 

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