We are testing a new beta website for gov.scot go to new site

Changing Scotland's relationship with alcohol: a discussion paper on our strategic approach



1 Costs of Alcohol Use and Misuse in Scotland, Scottish Government, May 2008

2 Alcohol Statistics Scotland 2007, Information Services Division, 2007

3 10 th Prisoner Survey 2007, Scottish Prison Service, 2007

4 Harmful Drinking Two: Alcohol and Assaults, NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2006

5 2006 Scottish Crime and Victimisation Survey: Main Findings, Scottish Government, 2007

6 Homicide in Scotland 2006-7, Scottish Government, 2007

7 Road Accidents Scotland 2006, Scottish Government, 2007

8 Alcohol and intimate partner violence: key findings from the research, Home Office, 2004

9 Unpublished data supplied by the Office for National Statistics. Data derived from ONS, General Registrar Office for Scotland ( GROS) and Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency ( NISRA).

10 Alcohol-related hospital statistics, Information Services Division, December 2007

11 See, for example, Bosetti C. et al. Worldwide mortality from cirrhosis: An update to 2002, Journal of Hepatology Vol. 46, Issue 5, May 2007 and The Scotland and European Health for All (HfA) Database 2007, Scottish Public Health Observatory (Scot PHO)

12 Delivering for Mental Health and Substance Misuse: Consultation Draft, Scottish Executive, 2007

13 Global Burden of Disease Project, World Health Organisation

14 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey ( SALSUS) 2006: National Report, Information Services Division, 2007

15 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey ( SALSUS) 2006: National Report, Information Services Division . The 'unprotected sex' figure comes from the SALSUS 2002.

16 The estimate was derived using alcohol consumption prevalence data from the SHeS 2003 and population estimates from the GROS. 'Problematic drinking' is defined as two or more positive responses on the CAGE questionnaire. The CAGE questionnaire is a validated screening tool commonly used to measure potential problematic drinking patterns

17 Hidden Harm: Responding to the needs of children of problem drug users, Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2003

18 Alcohol Harm Reduction project: Interim Analytical Report, Prime Minister's Strategy Unit, 2003

19 Tighe A. (ed) (2007) Statistical Handbook 2007, Brewing Publications Limited

20 The Scottish Health Survey 2003 estimated that 34% of men and 23% of women drank over weekly guidelines but Scottish sales data suggest that the SHeS may only be capturing approximately two-thirds of total consumption. On this basis, Health Scotland has estimated that around 50% of men and 30% of women are drinking over weekly limits.

21 Data supplied to the Scottish Government by The Nielsen Company (formerly AC Nielsen)

22 The Scottish Health Survey Volume 2: Adults, Scottish Executive, 2005

23 Understanding Alcohol Misuse in Scotland - Harmful Drinking Final Report, NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2008

24 European health for all database ( HFA- DB), World Health Organisation

25 Loi no. 91-32 du 10 janvier 1991. Loi relative à la lutte contre le tabagisme et l'alcoolisme. NOR: SPSX9000097L

26 Corraro et al (2002). Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Italy: A balance in 1983 and 1996, European Journal of Public Health Vol. 12

27 Heeb J L et al. Changes in alcohol consumption following a reduction in the price of spirits: a natural experiment in Switzerland. Addiction 98:1443-1446, 2003

28 Koski, A et al. Alcohol tax cuts and increase in alcohol-positive sudden deaths - a time-series intervention analysis, Addiction, 102, 2007

29 Tighe, A. (ed.) (2003) Statistical Handbook 2003, Brewing Publications Limited

30 RPI detailed annual average indices: 1988 to 2007, Office for National Statistics 2008

31 The Nicholson Committee: Review of Liquor Licensing Law in Scotland, Scottish Executive, 2003; Scottish Liquor Licensing Statistics 2006, Scottish Government, 2007

32 See Room R (ed.) (2002) The effects of Nordic Alcohol Policies: What happens to drinking and harm when control systems change? Helsinki: Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research; Grunewald PJ, et al. (1993) T he relationship of outlet density to alcohol consumption: a time series cross sectional analysis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 17, 38-47.

33 See, for example, Alcohol in Europe: A Public Health Perspective, Institute of Alcohol Studies, 2006

34 Something to be ashamed of or part of our way of life? Attitudes towards alcohol in Scotland, Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2007, Scottish Government (forthcoming)

35 Alcohol Policy in the WHO European Region: current status and the way forward, World Health Organisation Fact Sheet EURO/10/05, September 2005

36 Inequalities in health in Scotland: what are they and what can we do about them?, Occasional Paper No. 17, Medical Research Council ( MRC), October 2007

37 Early Years and Early Intervention: A Joint Scottish Government and COSLA Policy Statement, March 2008

38 Equally Well: The Report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Health Inequalities, Scottish Government, 2008

39 Taking Forward the Government Economic Strategy: A Discussion Paper on Tackling Poverty, Inequality and Deprivation in Scotland, Scottish Government, February 2008

40 The Road to Recovery: A Programme of Action to Tackle Drug Misuse in Scotland, Scottish Government, 2008

41 Price, Policy and Public Health Scottish Health Action on Alcohol Problems ( SHAAP), 2007

42 Pricing Practice Working Paper Competition Commission, 2007

43 The relationship between off-sales and problem drinking in Scotland, Scottish Executive, 2007

44 Annual Report 2006/7, Scottish Children's Reporter Administration, 2007

45 Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004, World Health Organisation, 2004

46 Harmful Drinking Two: Alcohol and Assaults, NHS Quality Improvement Scotland; Road Casualties Great Britain: 2005, Department of Transport, 2006

47 Wagenaar A.C. and Toomey T.L. (2000) Alcohol policy: gaps between legislative action and current research. Contemporary Drug Problems 27

48 See, for example, Klepp, K.I.; Schmid, L.A.; Murray, D.M. (1996) Effects of the increased minimum drinking age law on drinking and driving behavior among adolescents. Addiction Research and Theory, 2006

49 Grant, B. F., & Dawson, D. A. (1997). Age At Onset Of Alcohol Use And Its Association With DSM- IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9.

50 Hingson R, et al (2000) Age of Drinking Onset and Unintentional Injury Involvement After Drinking, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 284, 12.

51 Forsyth, A. J. M. & Barnard, M. (2000) Preferred Drinking Locations of Scottish Adolescents, Health And Place, 6, 105 - 115.

52 Data supplied by Scottish Ambulance Service

53 Combating drink driving, Department of Transport Consultation Paper, 1998

54 Reducing the BAC limit to 50mg - what can we expect to gain? Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety ( PACTS), January 2005

55 Drink Driving: Prevalence, Decision Making and Attitudes, Scottish Government, 2008

56 Safe & Healthy Working, Alcohol policies, NHS Health Scotland

57 Alcohol Misuse: tackling the UK Epidemic, BMA Board of Science Report, February 2008

58 Alcohol and Accidents, Institute of Alcohol Studies Factsheet, July 2007

59 "Number of claimants of IB/ SDA whose main medical reason is alcoholism, as a % of the working age population", Information Directorate mid 2005 population estimates. IAS Factsheet, Alcohol and the Workplace, July 2007

60 A Review of Research into the Impacts of Alcohol Warning Labels on Attitudes and Behaviour, Centre for Addictions Research of BC, February 2006

61 Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers, Commission of the European Communities, 2008/0028 ( COD)

62 Strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, World Health Organisation, January 2008

63 The effect of alcohol advertising and marketing on drinking behaviour in young people: A systematic review. Alcohol Education and Research Council, November 2007

64 The Drinks Pocket Book 2006, AC Nielsen, 2005

65 Alcohol Harm Reduction Project: Interim Analytical Report, Strategy Unit, 2003

66 The Impact of Alcohol Advertising: ELSA project report on the evidence to strengthen regulation to protect young people, National Foundation for Alcohol Prevention ( STAP), 2007

67 Young People and Alcohol Advertising, Ofcom/ ASA, November 2007

68 See http://www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/swa/files/ScottishSocialRespStandards.pdf

69 Seehttp://www.portman-group.org.uk/?pid=26&level=2&nid=306

70 Not in front of the children: An investigation by Alcohol Concern, Alcohol Concern, 2007

71 Better Health, Better Care: Action Plan, Scottish Government, 2007

72 See, for example, Review of the effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems, NHS National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, 2006; Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care populations, Cochrane Review, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2007

73 The Management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence in primary care, The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network ( SIGN) published guideline 74, September 2003

74 See http://www.keepwellscotland.com/

75 The study Problematic drinking in Scotland: Estimating the size of the problem and charting service capacity is due to report in October 2008.

76 Houchin, R (2005) Social Exclusion and Imprisonment in Scotland, Glasgow Caledonian University

77 Sensible drinking: Report of an inter-departmental working group, Department of Health, 1995

78 Scotland's Global Connections Survey 2006, Scottish Government, 2007

79 Annual Business Inquiry, Office for National Statistics, 2006

80 Unpublished data supplied by Strathclyde Police.

81 Alcohol and intimate partner violence: key findings from the research, Home Office, 2004

82 Data from police reports; unpublished analysis by Strathclyde Police

83 Recorded Crime In Scotland, 2006/07, Scottish Government, 2007

84 Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Fire and Rescue Services Annual Report 2006-7, Scottish Government, 2007

85 Scottish Crime and Victimisation Survey 2004:Research Findings, Scottish Executive, 2006

86 Figures from Alcohol Harm Reduction project: Interim Analytical Report, Prime Minister's Strategy Unit, 2003

87 The percentage of all chronic liver disease and cirrhosis deaths in Scotland that are specifically alcoholic liver disease has risen from 37% in 1982 to 86% in 2006 (General Registrar for Scotland) ). Even in those cases where liver disease deaths are not directly attributed to alcohol misuse, alcohol has been found to be a contributory factor. For example, a study found that of deaths from liver disease of unspecified cause, 67 per cent were judged to be the result of alcohol misuse (M ortality from liver disease in the West Midlands, 1993-2000: observational study British Medical Journal 325, 2002, pp 312-313)

88 Graphs based on Liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Britain from 1950 to 2002: an analysis of routine data, The Lancet, Vol. 367, January 2007. Rates for England and Wales (to 2004) and Scotland (to 2006) subsequently updated by Prof. David Leon and General Registrar for Scotland

89 Harmful Drinking One: The Size of the Problem,NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2006

90 Data from the Continuous Morbidity Register ( CMR)

91 Looking Beyond Risk: Parental Substance Misuse: Scoping Study, Scottish Executive, 2006

92 Children's concerns about the health and well-being of their parents and significant others, Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, 2005

93 For a discussion on under-reporting of alcohol consumption in national surveys see How much are people in Scotland really drinking?NHS Health Scotland, May 2008

94 Revised Alcohol Consumption Estimates from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, Scottish Government, May 2008

95 2007 Scottish sales data estimates per capita consumption in Scotland to be around 23 units per week, compared with only around 15 units in the SHeS 2003. Alcohol sales data is itself an estimate. It does not, for example, take account of alcohol that is home brewed, bought abroad but consumed in Scotland or bought on the black market. It does include alcohol bought but not consumed and alcohol bought in Scotland but consumed abroad.

96 Alcohol in Europe: A Public Health Perspective, Institute of Alcohol Studies, 2006