Publication - Research and analysis

Supporting the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the UK's marine sectors

This research considers barriers to sustainable marine economy growth in Scotland and the rest of the UK with particular regard to cross sectoral barriers and market failures.

113 page PDF

1.1 MB

113 page PDF

1.1 MB

Contents
Supporting the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the UK's marine sectors
Footnotes

113 page PDF

1.1 MB

Footnotes

1 Assessment for Scotland based on Scottish salmon export data only

2 Islands include Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. Other typically includes new vessels, or vessels switching port of administration.

3 Employment refers only to full-time and part-time staff, i.e. excluding contractors

4 ONS, 2018

5 MMO (2018) UK Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2017

6 Ibid., Chapter 3

7 Ibid.

8 MMO (2018) UK Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2017

9 Ibid., Chapter 4

10 Ibid., Chapter 6

11 ONS, 2018

12 MMO (2018) UK Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2017, Chapter 2

13 Statistics Iceland, 2019

14 Assessment for Scotland based on Scottish salmon export data only

15 ONS, 2018

16 https://www.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-marine-economic-statistics/pages/7/

17 ONS, 2019

18 ONS, 2018

19 MMO UK Sea Fisheries (2017)

20 Micro businesses employ nine people or fewer, small businesses employ up to 49 people; medium-sized enterprises employ 50-249 people; large enterprises employ greater than 250 people.

21 UK Business Counts (2018)

22 Ibid.

23 No consistent data for Northern Ireland

24 BRES (2018) and NISRA (2018)

25 ONS (2018) Annual Business Survey

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid.

28 Imani Development, Westbrook Associates for HIE and Marine Scotland (2017) The Value of Aquaculture

To Scotland

29 Food and Drink Scotland (2017) Aquaculture Growth to 2030: A strategic plan for farming Scotland’s seas

30 EY (2019) The Norwegian Aquaculture Analysis 2018

31 Ibid., p.22

32 EY (2018) The Norwegian Aquaculture Analysis 2017

33 Eurofish International Organisation (2019) at: https://www.eurofish.dk/norway

34 Directorate of Fisheries, Norway (2019) Statistics for Aquaculture, at: https://www.fiskeridir.no/English/Aquaculture/ Statistics/Total

35 EY (2019) The Norwegian Aquaculture Analysis 2018

36 Marine Scotland: Scotland’s Marine Economic Statistics (2018)

37 https://www.seafish.org/article/uk-seafood-industry-overview

38 http://scottishsalmon.co.uk/salmon-exports-reach-record-600m/

39 UK Business Counts, 2018

40 Business Register and Employment Survey, 2018

41 https://www.seafish.org/media/2018_seafood_processing_sector_labour_report.pdf

42 Office of National Statistics, 2018

43 Seafish, 2018

44 https://www.seafish.org/media/Publications/Corporate_Plan_18-21_V2.pdf

45 https://seafish.org/media/Seafood%202040%20strategic%20framework.pdf

46 https://www.seafish.org/article/uk-seafood-industry-overview

47 https://drive.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=http://seafoodscotland.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Changing-Tides-_FINAL_PAGES.pdf

48 https://www.seafish.org/media/1659099/wales_seafood_strategy.pdf

49 Statistics Iceland, 2019

50 Norwegian Seafood Council, 2018

51 Norwegian Seafood Council, 2019

52 Cefas (2016) Seaweed in the UK and abroad – status, products, limitations, gaps and Cefas role

53 Ibid.

54 Ibid.

55 For example, through their proposals, Marine Biopolymer consider that the sector in Scotland could be worth as much as £300 million: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-46252427

56 HIE (2018) Wild Seaweed Harvesting as a diversification opportunity for fishermen

57 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00107/full

58 Adapt/Innovate UK, NERC (2013)

59 Cefas (2016) Seaweed in the UK and abroad – status, products, limitations, gaps and Cefas role

60 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00107/full

61 Though companies such as TARI and Ocean Rainforest are expanding their seaweed cultivation and harvesting operations, there is limited statistical information about the Faroese seaweed sector as a whole.

62 Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, 2019

63 The economic contribution of the UK marine industry - Cebr (September 2017)

64 ONS analysis from the Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy Survey provides a 2017 turnover estimate for the offshore wind sector but not the wave and tidal sectors, due to their relatively small contributions to the low carbon energy sector as a whole.

65 Cebr (2017) The economic contribution of the UK marine industry

66 Renewables UK (Feb 2017), Ocean Energy Race: The UK’s Inside Track

67 Regensw; Marine Energy Pembrokeshire; HIE (June 2016), Marine Energy - Key Steps to Maintain a Great British Success Story

68 Ibid.

69 Source: Cambridge Econometrics (June 2017) Future UK Employment in the Offshore Wind Industry

70 https://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/business/business-news/north-east-play-leading-role-15939570

71 https://orsted.co.uk/en/Generating-energy/Offshore-wind/Our-wind-farms

72 https://www.winddenmark.dk/sites/windpower.org/files/media/document/Profile_of_the_Danish_Wind_Industry.pdf

73 https://ens.dk/sites/ens.dk/files/Statistik/energyindenmark2017.pdf

74 https://windeurope.org/about-wind/statistics/offshore/

75 Petajoule = 1015 joules

76 Gigawatt hour = 1bn watt hours

77 Primary renewable energy is energy that is harvested directly from natural resources, including energy from wind, tides, coal and oil.

78 Renewable energy in this instance accounts for wind, wood, waste/renewable, straw, biogas, and heat pumps

79 Oil and Gas UK Business Outlook, 2018 – see https://cld.bz/c41vNPt/6/

80 UK Business Counts, 2018

81 Oil & Gas UK, Decommissioning Insight, 2019

82 Wood Mackenzie, US$32bn of decommissioning worldwide over the next five years: is the industry ready?,2017

83 https://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/sites/default/files/North%20Sea%20Oil%20and%20Gas%20Rig%20Decommissioning %20%26%20Re-use%20Opportunity%20Report.pdf

84 Rouse, S., Hayes, P and Wilding, T.A. (2018) “Commercial fisheries loses arising from interactions with offshore pipelines and other oil and gas infrastructure and activities”, ICES Journal of Marine Science

85 https://www.norskpetroleum.no/en/developments-and-operations/cessation-and-decommissioning/

86 https://www.npd.no/en/facts/publications/reports2/resource-report/resource-report-2017/cessation/decommissioning-costs/

87 Using an average exchange rate from between 2010 and 2015

88 Using an average exchange rate from between 2016 and 2018

89 Decommissioning Insight Report, Oil and Gas UK (2018) https://oilandgasuk.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/OGUK-Decommissioning-Insight-Report-2018.pdf

90 Big Lottery Fund (Nov 2016), Coastal Communities Fund Annual Progress Report 2016

91 Beatty, Fothergill and Gore (July 2014), The Seaside Tourist Industry in England and Wales Employment, economic output, location and trends

92 Scottish Government (Oct 2018), Scotland’s Marine Economic Statistics

93 http://www.irishnews.com/business/2018/06/08/news/record-year-for-tourism-in-northern-ireland-as-trips-bed-nights-and-spend-all-increase-1350501/

94 Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Annual Tourism Statistics Publications

95 For example, see: UKCES (2012) Sector Skills Insights: Tourism; Marine Tourism Development Group (2017) Marine Tourism Skills Pathway Plan: Discussion Paper

96 https://www.sailscotland.co.uk/news/posts/2017/sailing-tourism-to-grow-by-37m/

97 https://www.hie.co.uk/our-region/our-growth-sectors/tourism/marine-tourism/

98 https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903042857

99 QYResearch Group (2019) Global Marine Tourism Market Size, Status and Forecast 2019-2025

100 https://www.celestyalcruises.uk/en-uk/cruise-lines-international-association-updates-official-2017-global-passenger-numbers

101 https://www.ibinews.com/market-intelligence/market-overview-europe/33030.article

102 https://www.yachtingmonthly.com/news/future-uk-sailing-68018

103 UN World Tourism Organisation, 2017

104 https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/311951/0098489.pdf

105 ekosgen, Imani Development for HIE (2018) MAXiMAR: Maximising the Marine Economy in the Highlands and Islands

106 https://www.politico.eu/article/fishermen-offshore-wind-farms-struggle-to-share-sea/

107 For example, see: https://www.hw.ac.uk/news/articles/2019/mussels-stressed-out-by-underwater-noise.htm

108 e.g. ekosgen, Imani Development for HIE (2018) Skills Review for the Aquaculture sector; ekosgen, Imani Development for HIE (2018) MAXiMAR: Maximising the Marine Economy in the Highlands and Islands; Marine Scotland Science (2014) An Assessment of the Conditions Affecting Entry into the Scottish Fishing Industry and Potential Policy Responses

109 Ibid.

110 e.g. Ipsos MORI and Indigo Housing for HIE (2017) Stimulating Housing Development in the Highlands and Islands, at: https://www.hie.co.uk/media/3033/stimulatingplushousingplusdevelopmentplus-plusreport.pdf

111 https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/17845218.new-homes-ensure-salmon-farms-catch-keep-staff/

112 https://www.pressandjournal.co.uk/fp/news/highlands/1676921/steps-under-way-to-boost-rums-population-after-application-lodged-for-homes/

113 https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-sea-fisheries-employment-2015/pages/4/

114 Seafish (2019) 2018 Employment in the UK Fishing Fleet

115 Seafish (2017) Seafish Economic Analysis: UK seafood processing sector labour 2017

116 See for example: IPCC (2014) Fifth Assessment Report, at: https://www.ipcc.ch/assessment-report/ar5/; also Cheng, L. et al. (2020) Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 37, pp.137-142

117 Committee on Climate Change (2020) How a changing climate affects us, at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/tackling-climate-change/the-science-of-climate-change/how-a-changing-climate-affects-us/; Met Office (2019) UK Climate Projections 2018, at: https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/approach/collaboration/ukcp/index

118 https://www.hie.co.uk/latest-news/2019/february/14/funding-boost-for-stornoway-port-developments/

119 https://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/192487/royal-caribbean-chooses-southampton-as-its-uk-home/

120 https://www.cruiseandferry.net/articles/brittany-ferries-extends-partnership-with-portsmouth

121 https://www.ross-shirejournal.co.uk/news/invergordon-25m-investment-plan-amidst-cruise-business-shake-up-147845/

122 http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/globalassets/documents/raise/knowledge_exchange/briefing_papers/series4/2015-04-15-kess-shoreline-management-planning-in-northern-ireland1.pdf

123 https://www.eastsuffolk.gov.uk/news/help-develop-east-anglias-fishing-strategy/

124 https://www.poole.gov.uk/streets-and-travel/transport-policy/dorset-growth-deal/

125 https://www.cumbria.gov.uk/business/ecodev/growthdeal.asp

126 https://www.deliveringforscotland.gov.uk/ayrshire-growth-deal/

127 For example, Scottish salmon currently takes as little as three days from farm to end consumer in international export markets: https://www.scotsman.com/business/how-scottish-salmon-exports-its-way-around-the-world-and-maintains-its-reputation-1-4950692

128 MMO (2018) UK Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2017

129 For example, see: Seafarers UK (2018) Fishing for a Future: An Analysis of Need, Challenges and Opportunities in UK Fishing Communities. Evidence from Marine Scotland, Seafish and MMO also indicates that the age profile of the workforce is older than many parts of the wider economy, and that it is ageing

130 https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/17859495.immigrations-rules-putting-scots-fishing-industry-risk/

131 See: Seafish (2019) 2018 Employment in the UK Fishing Fleet report; and Marine Scotland, (2015) Scottish Sea Fisheries Employment 2015 https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-sea-fisheries-employment-2015/pages/5/

132 e.g. https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/17859495.immigrations-rules-putting-scots-fishing-industry-risk/

133 https://ukandeu.ac.uk/governments-fisheries-white-paper-what-it-does-and-doesnt-say/

134 MMO (2018) UK Sea Fisheries Statistics, 2017

135 e.g.: https://www.thenational.scot/news/17657381.whitelink-seafoods-invests-in-new-scallop-vessel-with-rbs-funding/

136 https://www.masts.ac.uk/research/emff-sifids-project/

137 ekosgen, Imani Development for HIE (2018) Skills Review for the Aquaculture sector

138 Ibid.

139 https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/aug/12/proposed-salmon-farm-raises-environmental-concerns-in-hebrides

140 Imani Development, SRSL/HIE, SAIC (2017) Scottish aquaculture: a view towards 2030

141 https://www.parliament.scot/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/107588.aspx

142 This views appears to be supported by recent media reports on the matter, e.g.: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/07/farmer-produces-ethical-king-prawns-in-a-lincolnshire-field

143 The level of acceptance or approval by local communities and stakeholders of businesses and their operations

144 https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/oct/29/campaigners-call-for-temporary-ban-on-new-scottish-fish-farms

145 https://www.scotsman.com/news/environment/fish-farms-kill-more-seals-as-industry-tries-to-save-salmon-1-4593698

146 http://scottishsalmon.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/community_charter_2016_digital.pdf

147 e.g. Boyd Food Machinery in Buckie: http://www.boydfoodmachinery.com/

148 For example, see: http://www.nordiclabourjournal.org/i-fokus/in-focus-2018/the-future-of-work/article.2018-05-14.2432920898

149 Social licence, or social licence to operate, is the ongoing acceptance of a company or industry's standard business practices and operating procedures by its employees, stakeholders, and the general public.

150 For example, Marine Biopolymer Ltd., based in Ayrshire

151 ekosgen, Imani Development for HIE (2018) MAXiMAR: Maximising the Marine Economy in the Highlands and Islands

152 https://www.swansea.ac.uk/bioscience/research-and-impact/algal/

153 http://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/featurednews/title_714511_en.html

154 https://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/QueensUniversityMarineLaboratory/research/SeaweedResearch/

155 Campbell, I. et al. (2019) the environmental risks associated with the development of seaweed farming in Europe – prioritising key knowledge gaps, Frontiers in Marine Science, Volume 6 Article 107, pp.1-22

156 https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/marine/seamanagement/seaweedrev

157 https://www.scotlink.org/files/documents/SE_LINK_Response_Marine-Biopolymers-Scoping-Report_2018.pdf

158 UKCES (2015) Reviewing the requirement for high level STEM skills

159 RenewableUK (2017) Ocean Energy Race: The UK’s Inside Track

160 https://www.ncl.ac.uk/media/wwwnclacuk/business/files/sia-report-offshore-energy.pdf

161 http://www.emec.org.uk/

162 e.g. Gray, A. et al. (2017) Reliability and O&M sensitivity analysis as a consequence of site specific characteristics for wave energy converters, Ocean Engineering, 141, pp.493-511; at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2017.06.043

164 https://www.seafish.org/media/Publications/10517_Seafish_aquaculture_windfarms.pdf

165 https://www.westofmorecambe.com/co-existence/

166 Neill, S.P. et al. (2017) The wave and tidal resource of Scotland, Renewable Energy, 144(A), pp.3-17; at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.03.027

167 https://www.scottish-enterprise.com/support-for-businesses/funding-and-grants/accessing-finance-and-attracting-investment/energy-investment-fund

168 e.g. previous ORE Catapult estimates

169 ekosgen, Imani Development for HIE (2018) MAXiMAR: Maximising the Marine Economy in the Highlands and Islands

170 For example, see: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/608930/first-evidence-that-offshore-wind-farms-are-changing-the-oceans/

171 HIE/SE (2016) Oil & Gas Decommissioning Action Plan

172 Oil & Gas UK (2018) Decommissioning Insight 2018

173 https://www.theguardian.com/business/2019/sep/04/uk-facing-eu-outrage-over-timebomb-of-north-sea-oil-rigs

174 https://scottishwildlifetrust.org.uk/our-work/our-projects/living-seas/decommissioning/

175 HIE/SE (2016) Oil & Gas Decommissioning Action Plan

176 http://news.hie.co.uk/all-news/scottish-energy-ports-capability-directory-is-launched/

177 For example, see: UKCES (2012) Sector Skills Insights: Tourism; Cebr (2014) Understanding the travel and tourism labour market: A report for ABTA

178 ekosgen for HIE (2018) Young people in the Highlands and Islands: Maximising Opportunities; see also ekosgen for HIE (2015) Young People in the Highlands and Islands: Attitudes and Aspirations

179 ekosgen/Reference Economics for HIE (2017) Orkney Volume Tourism Management Study

180 ekosgen for HIE (2019) Review of support to tourism destinations

181 Great Britain Tourism Survey and International Passenger Survey data

182 https://www.gov.uk/guidance/european-maritime-and-fisheries-fund-emff-before-you-apply

183 https://ec.europa.eu/easme/en/life

184 https://fundingfish.eu/

185 https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/

186 https://irelandwales.eu/

187 http://bluefishproject.com/

188 https://www.interreg2seas.eu/en/sustainable-and-resilient-coastal-cities

189 https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/coastal-communities

190 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldseaside/320/32009.htm

191 https://www.seafish.org/

192 https://www.cefas.co.uk

193 https://www.noc.ac.uk/about-us

194 https://www.gov.scot/publications/saltire-tidal-energy-challenge-fund/pages/eligibility-criteria/

195 https://www.scottishaquaculture.com/apply-for-funding/

196 Stirling and Clackmannanshire City Region Deal, Heads of Terms Agreement (2018)

197 Argyll Rural Growth Deal (2018)

198 https://www.southeastlep.com/project/dover-western-dock-revival/

199 https://www.gov.uk/business-finance-support/horizon-2020-business-grants-uk

200 https://www.clientearth.org/eu-fund-proposal-would-artificially-keep-unsustainable-fisheries-afloat/

201 http://archive.interreg4a-2mers.eu/approved_project_161222456.pdf?id=16122

202 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldseaside/320/32009.htm

203 Co-operation between competing companies to secure a market advantage for both individual businesses and sectors within a particular region or country, without engaging in anti-competition practices or behaviour.


Contact

Email: Amy.McQueen@gov.scot