Publication - Research and analysis

Scottish Government Equality Outcomes: Pregnancy and Maternity Evidence Review

Published: 30 Apr 2013
Part of:
Research
ISBN:
9781782565147

This evidence review was prepared to support the production of the Scottish Government's Equality Outcomes, with regard to pregnancy and maternity.

41 page PDF

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41 page PDF

571.5 kB

Contents
Scottish Government Equality Outcomes: Pregnancy and Maternity Evidence Review
18 References

41 page PDF

571.5 kB

18 References

1. These are age, disability, gender, gender reassignment, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation.

2. Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) (2011a) Protected characteristics: definitions,
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/advice-and-guidance/new-equality-act-guidance/protected-characteristics-definitions.

3. ISD Scotland (2012) Births in Scotland.
http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Maternity-and-Births/Births/
(Accessed 12 December 2012).

4. NHS National Services/ISD, 27 November 2012. Births in Scottish Hospitals.
Available at: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Maternity-and-Births/Publications/2012-11-27/2012-11-27-Births-Summary.pdf?44106692076
(Accessed 13 December 2012).

5. Ibid.

6. Note: The Socio-Economic Duty option has been 'scrapped' by the UK Government. For more details see pages 16 and 17 of: SPICe (2011) SPICe Briefing: Equality Act 2010.
Available at: http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S4/SB_11-50.pdf

7. ISD Scotland (2012) Teenage Pregnancy: year ending 31st December 2010.
Available at: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Sexual-Health/Publications/2012-06-26/2012-06-26-TeenPreg-Summary.pdf

8. Harden, A., Brunton, G., Fletcher, A., Oakley, A., Burchett, H., Backhans, M. (2006), Young people, pregnancy and social exclusion: A systematic synthesis of research evidence to identify effective, appropriate and promising approaches for prevention and support. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.
Available at: http://eprints.ioe.ac.uk/5927/1/Harden2006Youngpeople.pdf.

9. Highland Children's Forum (2012) Recipe for Young Parenthood: Views from Young Parents 2011.
Available at: http://www.highlandchildrensforum.org/userfiles/file/Recipe%20for%20Young%20Parenthood.pdf.

10. Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS, functions now part of Education Scotland) (2009) Reducing teenage pregnancy: Guidance and self-assessment tool.
Available at: http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/teenage%20pregnancy%20web_tcm4-593480.pdf.

11. Harden, A., Brunton, G., Fletcher, A., and Oakley, A. (2009) 'Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies', BMJ 2009; 339:b4254.
Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776931/pdf/bmj.b4254.pdf.

12. Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) (2011b) Equality Act 2010. Draft Code of Practice: Schools in Scotland. For Consultation January 2011. Glasgow: EHRC.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/EqualityAct/draft_code_of_practice_schools_scotland.pdf.

13. National Union of Students (NUS) (2009) Meet the Parents: The experience of students with children in further and higher education.
Available at: http://www.nus.org.uk/PageFiles/5386/NUS_SP_report_web.pdf.

14. Times Higher Education (2010) Equality Challenge Unit: motherhood issues in News in Brief.
Available at: http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=414466&sectioncode=26.

15. Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) (2010) Student pregnancy and maternity: implications for higher education institutions.
Available at: http://www.ecu.ac.uk/publications/files/student-pregnancy-and-maternity-implications-for-heis.pdf.

16. Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) (2012a) The public sector equality duty: specific duties for Scotland. Implications for colleges and HEIs.
Available at: http://www.ecu.ac.uk/publications/the-public-sector-equality-duty-specific-duties-for-scotland.

Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) (2012b). Mainstreaming: equality at the heart of higher education. Final Report.
Available at: http://www.ecu.ac.uk/publications/files/mainstreaming-equality-at-the-heart-of-he-final-report.pdf/view.

Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) (2012c) Mainstreaming: equality at the heart of further education. Final Report.
Available at: http://www.ecu.ac.uk/publications/mainstreaming-equality-at-the-heart-of-further-education-final-report.

17. Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) (2012) What equality law means for you as a student in further or higher education: Equality Act 2010 Guidance for Students. Manchester: EHRC. Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/EqualityAct/fehe_user_guide.pdf

18. Khadjooi, K., Scott, P., and Jones, L. (2012) 'What is the impact of pregnancy and parenthood on studying medicine? Exploring attitudes and experiences of medical students', Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 42(2): 106-110.
Available at: http://www.rcpe.ac.uk/journal/issue/journal_42_2/khadjooi.pdf

19. See latest Scottish Funding Council's update. Scottish Funding Council (SFC 2012) Learning for All: sixth update report on measures of success 2012.
Available at: http://www.sfc.ac.uk/web/FILES/Access/Learning_for_All_sixth_update_report_on_measures_of_success.pdf.

20. Equal Opportunities Commission (2005) Greater Expectations, Equal Opportunities Commission, Manchester: EOC.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/eoc_pregnancygfi_summary_report.pdf.
(Accessed 12 December 2012).

21. Ibid

22. International Labour Organisation (ILO), (2012) Maternity protection: Not just a personal issue.
Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/features/WCMS_193975/lang--en/index.htm?shared_from=media-mail.
(Accessed 26 November 2012)

23. Equal Opportunities Commission (2005) Greater Expectations, Equal Opportunities Commission, Manchester: EOC.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/eoc_pregnancygfi_summary_report.pdf.
(Accessed 12 December 2012).

24. Equal Opportunities Commission (2005) Greater Expectations, Equal Opportunities Commission, Manchester: EOC.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/eoc_pregnancygfi_summary_report.pdf.
(Accessed 12 December 2012).

25. Ministry of Justice (2012). Employment Tribunals and EAT Statistics, 2011-2012. London: Ministry of Justice.
Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/statistics/tribs-stats/employment-trib-stats-april-march-2011-12.pdf.
(Accessed 15 January 2013).

26. Ministry of Justice (2012). Employment Tribunals and EAT Statistics, 2011-2012. London: Ministry of Justice.
Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/statistics/tribs-stats/employment-trib-stats-april-march-2011-12.pdf.
(Accessed 15 January 2013).

27. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2009) Financial Services Inquiry. Manchester: EHRC.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/financial_services_inquiry_report.pdf.
(Accessed 15 January 2013).

28. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2009) Financial Services Inquiry, EHRC: Manchester.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/financial_services_inquiry_report.pdf.
(Accessed 15 January 2013).

29. Reeves, R. (2008). 'Work isn't working', New Statesman.
Available at: www.newstatesman.com/print/life-and-society/2008/03/women-work-children-mothers.
(Accessed 2 February 2013).

30. Long, V. (2012) 'Statutory Parental Leave and Pay in the UK: Stereotypes and Discrimination', Equal Rights Review (9), pp.52-64.

31. Neuberger, J., Joshi, H. And Dex, S. (2011) 'Part-time working and pay amongst Millennium Cohort Study mothers', GeNet Working Paper No. 38, Gender Equality Network,
http://www.genet.ac.uk/workpapers/GeNet2010p38.pdf.
(Accessed 3 February 2013)

32. La Valle, I., Cleary, E. and Huerta, M.C. (2008) 'Maternity Rights and Mothers' Employment Decisions', Research Report 496. Department for Work and Pensions.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid.

35. Davidson, A. (2008) 'Baby boom', The Lawyer,
http://www.thelawyer.com/baby-boom/133071.article.
(Accessed 4 February 2013).

36. Ibid.

37. Pringle, S. (2010). 'From here... to maternity', Journal of the Law Society of Scotland. Edinburgh: Law Society of Scotland.

38. Tipping, S. et al. (2012) The Fourth Work-Life Balance Survey, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS).
Available at: http://www.natcen.ac.uk/media/968679/12-p151-fourth-work-life-balance-employee-survey.pdf.
(Accessed 2 February 2013)

39. National Childcare Trust (2009) Experiences of women returning to work after maternity leave in UK, London: NCT.
Available at: http://www.nct.org.uk/sites/default/files/related_documents/ReturningToWork-Survey.pdf
(Accessed 15 January 2013).

40. Foster, C. (2009). 'Pregnancy and maternity discrimination', Equal Opportunities Review, no. 191, pp. 30.

41. Gatrell, C. J. (2007) 'Secrets and lies: Breastfeeding and professional paid work', Social Science & Medicine 65: 393-404.

42. Del Bono, E. and Pronzato, C. (2012) 'Does Breastfeeding Support at Work Help Mothers and Employers at the Same Time?', Institute for Social and Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 2012-6.
http://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/iser/2012-06

43. See "Valuing Maternity" at
http://www.valuingmaternity.org.uk
.

44. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2011) Equality Act 2010, Enforcement and Litigation: Key Issues. Manchester: EHRC.
Available at: www.equalityhumanrights.com.
(Accessed 17 December 2012).

45. Resolution Foundation (2012) Counting the Cost of Childcare.
Available at: http://www.resolutionfoundation.org/media/media/downloads/Counting_the_costs_of_childcare_2.pdf.
(Accessed 12 December 2012).

46. Barnardo's (2013) Paying to work: childcare and child poverty.
Available at: http://www.barnardos.org.uk/what_we_do/policy_research_unit/research_and_publications/paying-to-work-childcare-and-child-poverty/publication-view.jsp?pid=PUB-1921.
(Accessed 7 January 2013).

47. Women's Budget Group (2012) The Impact on Women of the Autumn Financial Statement 2012 and Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill 2013.
Available at: http://wbg.org.uk/pdfs/WBG-AFS-2012-FINAL-%5b2%5d(1).pdf.
(Accessed 7 January 2013).

48. One Parent Families Scotland (2009) One Parent Families: The Issues. Edinburgh: OPFS

49. Haggarty, P., Campbell, D. M., Duthie, S., Andrews, K., Hoad, G., and Piyathilake, C. (2009) 'Diet and deprivation in pregnancy', British Journal of Nutrition, 102(10):1487-1497.

50. One Parent Families Scotland (2011) Annual Report 2010-11. Edinburgh: OPFS.

51. Naven, L., Withington, R., and Egan, J. (2012) Maximising Opportunities: final evaluation report of the Healthier, Wealthier Children (HWC) Project. Glasgow: GCPH.
Available at: http://www.gcph.co.uk/assets/0000/3624/HWC_final_report_FINAL_Dec2012.pdf.
(Accessed 8 January 2012).

52. Maternity Alliance (2012) Autumn Statement - Cumulative impact on cuts on new mothers. London: Maternity Alliance.
Available at: http://www.maternityaction.org.uk/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/maternityactionautumnstatementbriefing2012.pdf.
(Accessed 7 January 2012).

53. HMRC (2012) Child Benefit: Income Tax Charge for Those on Higher Incomes.
Available at http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/budget2012/tiin-0620.pdf
(Accessed 6 February 2013).

54. Women's Budget Group (Undated) The Impact on Women of Autumn Financial Statement 2012 and Welfare Benefits Uprating Bill 2013. London: WBG.
Available at: http://wbg.org.uk/pdfs/WBG-AFS-2012-FINAL-%5b2%5d(1).pdf.
(Accessed 7 January 2013).

55. McLeish, J. (2003) Mothers in Exile: Maternity Experiences of Asylum Seekers in England. Maternity Alliance, IDOX.

56. Scottish Refugee Council (2011) 'Raising Refugee Women's Voices'. Scottish Refugee Council Annual Conference Report 2011. Glasgow.

57. Gillespie, M. (2012) Trapped: Destitution and Asylum in Scotland. Glasgow: Scottish Poverty Information Unit.
Available at: http://www.stopdestitution.org.uk/files/Trapped%20destitution%20and%20asylum%20final.pdf.

58. Aspinall, P. and Waters, C. (2010) 'Refugees and asylum seekers: A review from an equality and human rights perspective', Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report 52. Manchester: EHRC.
Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/refugees_and_asylum_seekers_research_report.pdf.
(Accessed 6 February 2013).

59. Centre for Labour and Social Studies (2012) Why Equality Matters. London: CLASS

60. Social Exclusion Unit (1999) Teenage Pregnancy, report by the Social Exclusion Unit. London: The Stationery Office.

61. ISD (2012) Teenage Pregnancy: Year ending 31st December 2010. Publication 26th June 2012.
Available at: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/sexual-health/Publications/2012-06-26/2012-06-26-TeenPreg-Report.pdf.
(Accessed 7 January 2012).

62. Ibid.

63. Harden, A. Brunton, G., Fletcher, A., Oakley, A. (2009) 'Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies'. BMJ 2009;339; b4254.

64. Smith, D. M. and Roberts, R. (2011) 'Social inequality and young pregnancy: The causal attributions of young parents in London, UK', Health and Place, 17(5):1054-1060.

65. Scottish Parliament (2013) 'Teenage pregnancy to be investigated by the Health Committee'. News release, 7 January 2013.
Available at: http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/newsandmediacentre/58121.aspx
(Accessed 7 January 2012).

66. See: http://www.opfs.org.uk/news/article/595

67. Shelter (2012), Housing Rights while Pregnant.

68. Scottish Government (2008) Growing Up in Scotland: Year 2, Results from the second year of a study following the lives of Scotland's children. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/212225/0056476.pdf.
(Accessed 8 January 2013).

69. Mabelis, J. and Marryat, L. (2011) 'Growing Up in Scotland: Parental service use and informal networks in the early years'. Research Findings 1/2011. Edinburgh: Scottish Government
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/349199/0116726.pdf
(Accessed 8 January 2013).

70. EHRC (2012) Hard-to-Reach' or 'Easy-to-Ignore'? - A rapid review of place-based policies and equality.
http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/scotland/research-in-scotland/-hard-to-reach-or-easy-to-ignore-a-rapid-review-of-place-based-policies-and-equality/
Accessed 9/4/2013.

71. Granville, S., Campbell-J, D., Clapton, R. (2006) 'National Transport Strategy: User Consultation', George Street Research Scottish Government Research Findings, No.236/2006.
Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/153448/0041292.pdf.
(Accessed 7 January 2013).

72. http://www.deadlinenews.co.uk/2012/04/12/scots-buses-drop-controversial-pram-ban/

73. http://www.firstgroup.com/ukbus/scotland_east/bus_access/low_floor_access/wheelchairs.php;
http://www.stagecoachbus.com/conditionsofcarriage.aspx;
http://www.arrivabus.co.uk/conditions-of-carriage/;
http://www.lothianbuses.com/index.php/about-us/our-company/policy-documents
.
(Accessed 7 January 2013).

74. Humphreys, C., and Mullender, A. (2000) 'Children and domestic violence: a research overview of the impact on children'. Research in Practice
www.rip.org.uk

75. Leneghan, S., Gillen, P., Sinclair, M. (2012) 'Interventions to reduce domestic abuse in pregnancy: a qualitative systematic review', Evidence Based Midwifery 10(4): 137-142.

76. Pain, R. (2012) Everyday Terrorism, How fear works in Domestic Abuse, Scottish Women's Aid,
http://www.scottishwomensaid.org.uk/sites/default/files/EverydayTerrorismReport.pdf

(Accessed 13 December 2012).

77. Scottish Women's Aid (2012) Changing Lives, Women's Aid in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Women's Aid.
Available at: http://www.scottishwomensaid.org.uk/sites/default/files/Changing%20Lives%20booklet%20pr04.pdf.
Accessed 13 December 2012).

78. Bacchus, L., Mezey, G., and Bewlley, S. (2006) 'A Qualitative Exploration of the Nature of Domestic Violence in Pregnancy', Violence Against Women (12): 588-604.

79. Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE) 'Saving Mothers' Lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-08. The Eighth Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom'. BJOG 2011;118(Suppl. 1):1-203.

80. Stenson, K., Sidenval, B., and Heimer, G. (2005) 'Midwives' experiences of routine antenatal questioning relating to men's violence against women', Midwifery 21(4): 311-321.

81. Leneghan. S., Gillen, P., and Sinclair, M. (2012) 'Interventions to reduce domestic abuse in pregnancy: a qualitative systematic review', Evidence Based Midwifery 10(4): 137-142.

82. Ibid.

83. Employment Tribunal and EAT statistics 2009-10 (GB) 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2010.
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/163476/tribs-et-eat-annual-stats-april09-march10.pdf.pdf

84. Scottish Government (Undated) 'What is a public appointment?' in Public Appointments.
http://www.appointed-for-scotland.org/What-is-a-public-appointment/
Accessed 4/4/2013.

85. Learning and Teaching Scotland (2010) Reducing Teenage Pregnancy Guidance and Self-Assessment tool. Edinburgh: Learning and Teaching Scotland.

86. Ross, N.J., Church, S., Hill, M., Seaman, P. and Roberts, T. (2012), 'The perspectives of young men and their teenage partners on maternity and health services during pregnancy and early parenthood', Children & Society, Vol. 26 (4): 304-315.

87. Furber, C.M. & McGowan, L. (2011) 'A qualitative study of the experiences of women who are obese and pregnant in the UK', Midwifery, Vol. 27(4): 437-444.

88. Heslehurst, N., Moore, H., Rankin, J., Ells, L.J., Wilkinson, J.R. & Summberbell, C.D. (2011), 'How can maternity services be developed to effectively address maternal obesity? A qualitative study', Midwifery, Vol. 27(5):e170-177.

89. http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Maternity-and-Births/Publications/2012-11-27/2012-11-27-Births-Report.pdf?69633120299. p.3

90. Ford, K. (undated) 'Understanding the use of alcohol in pregnancy amongst women in Scotland', First Year Update Knowledge Transfer Publication Series: Economics and Social research Council and the Scottish Government Joint PhD Scheme.

91. Mackay, D. F., Nelson, S. M., Haw, S. J. and Bell, J. P. (2012) 'Impact of Scotland's Smoke-Free Legislation on Pregnancy complications: retrospective Cohort Study', PLoS Med 9(3)

92. Robinson, J., Ritchie, D., Amos, A., Cunningham-Burley S., and Greave, L. (2010) 'Waiting until they got home: Gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland', Social Science and Medicine 71: 884-890.

93. O'Hara, J. (2008) 'Why should I care about gender?. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, Vol. 2 (2): 9-18.

94. NHS Health Scotland (2012) Mental health and wellbeing in pregnancy
Available at: www.maternal-and-early-years.org.uk.
(Accessed 12 December 2012).

95. The Guardian (2013) Woman with learning disabilities can decide own pregnancy fate, court rules, 10 January 2013.
Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2013/jan/10/woman-learning-difficulties-decide-pregnancy.
(Accessed 15 January 2013).

96. Collins, C.H., Zimmerman, C. & Howard, L.M. (2011) 'Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant women and postnatal depression: Rates and risk factors', Archives of Women's Mental Health, Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3-11.

97. Edge, D. (2008) ' "We don't see black women here": An exploration of the absence of Black Caribbean women from clinical and epidemiological data on perinatal depression in the UK', Midwifery, Vol. 24 (4):379-389.

98. RCGP Curriculum 2010, Statement 3.06 Women's Health, revised 30 May 2012.
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(Accessed 15 January 2013).

99. SPSO (2012) Investigation report ref: 201100758 (Maternity care; consent; communication) Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Board.
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(Accessed 15 January 2013).

100. O'Brien, M. and Robertson, A. (2010), 'Women and sport', Scottish Medical Journal, Vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 25-28.


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