Publication - Research and analysis

Coronavirus (COVID-19): international policing responses - part 2 - easing of lockdown

Published: 27 Jul 2020

This review (part 2) considers international policing approaches and responses during the easing of lockdown (up to 15 June 2020) and future considerations.

74 page PDF

1.6 MB

74 page PDF

1.6 MB

Contents
Coronavirus (COVID-19): international policing responses - part 2 - easing of lockdown
Footnotes

74 page PDF

1.6 MB

Footnotes

1. It should be noted that these have not been evaluated.

2. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/21/fewer-young-adults-sticking-uk-lockdown-rules-study-coronavirus

3. As recently seen in Northern Ireland

4. Rising to the policing challenge of COVID-19: Looking beyond the crisis - https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

5. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing-the-lockdown.pdf

6. Although evidence from a range of reliable sources will be required to corroborate this.

7. Comment provided by Susan Kemp, Independent Advisory Group

8. In this paper 'Minority Ethnic communities' is used instead of 'BME' or 'BAME' to include all racial and ethnic groups protected under the Equality Act 2010. We acknowledge there is some debate around the terminology used.

9. And replaced it with a requirement to have a 'reasonable excuse' to stay overnight somewhere other than your home.

10. The body responsible for professional standards in English and Welsh policing

11. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/ministry-of-defence-police-covid-19-response

12. https://policinginsight.com/features/opinion/trickiest-issues-isle-of-man-police-chief-shares-the-lessons-from-policing-the-easing-of-lockdown-restrictions/

13. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

14. Correspondence with Dr Peter Neyroud

15. https://www.independent.co.uk/independentpremium/news-analysis/coronavirus-uk-lockdown-easing-rules-police-a9543246.html

16. The Telegraph, 27 April 2020, 'Police warn lockdown rules becoming unenforceable as people start returning to work

17. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

18. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

19. The latest regulations do not give police the authority to remove people who are contravening the requirement to stay overnight in their home from where they are staying. They cannot use force to break up a prohibited gathering taking place in private. However, they can still issue directions to people breaking both rules which it would be an offence to disobey. They can also use force, when necessary, to break up prohibited public gatherings and return those in them to their homes - https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

20. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-52618005

21. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

22. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

23. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/coronavirus-uk-ppe-shortages-police-policing-covid-19-postcode-lottery-a9519816.html

24. https://www.itv.com/news/2020-05-07/he-spat-at-me-and-said-have-some-of-my-corona-policing-britain-during-the-coronavirus-lockdown/

25. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing-the-lockdown.pdf

26. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/09/katy-bourne-police-crime-commissioner-solidarity-protesting-racism-black-lives-matter

27. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jun/09/neville-lawrence-black-people-still-second-class-citizens-in-britain

28. https://www.theguardian.com/global/2020/jun/09/police-must-view-legitimate-anger-with-care-we-need-to-listen-to-our-communities

29. https://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/COVID-19/understanding-the-law/Documents/Health-Protection-Regulations-Amendments-England-changes-130520.pdf

30. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2020/may/10/doctors-warn-of-second-coronavirus-wave-as-uk-lockdown-weakens#maincontent

31. https://www.polfed.org/hants/advice-guidance/coronavirus/

32. https://www.polfed.org/news-media/latest-news/2020/lockdown-law-guidelines-for-officers-launched/

33. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/coronavirus-uk-ppe-shortages-police-policing-covid-19-postcode-lottery-a9519816.html

34. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/coronavirus-uk-ppe-shortages-police-policing-covid-19-postcode-lottery-a9519816.html

35. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-52772337

36. https://www.itv.com/news/2020-05-07/he-spat-at-me-and-said-have-some-of-my-corona-policing-britain-during-the-coronavirus-lockdown/

37. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/coronavirus-uk-ppe-shortages-police-policing-covid-19-postcode-lottery-a9519816.html

38. Although caution is urged when comparing one month's data from one force - recording will have been carried out much more carefully this year.

39. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/09/katy-bourne-police-crime-commissioner-solidarity-protesting-racism-black-lives-matter

40. https://oscarkilo.org.uk/

41. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

42. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/covid19/2020/05/01/what-makes-britons-trust-police-to-enforce-the-lockdown-fairly/#comments

43. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/lockdown-compliance-may/

44. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

45. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/may/16/uk-police-fear-explosion-of-violent-as-lockdown-eases

46. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/lockdown-might-easing-cant-relax-grip-domestic-abuse/

47. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing_lockdown_domestic_abuse_and_vulnerability.pdf

48. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing_lockdown_domestic_abuse_and_vulnerability.pdf

49. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/lockdown-might-easing-cant-relax-grip-domestic-abuse/

50. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing_lockdown_domestic_abuse_and_vulnerability.pdf

51. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/lockdown-might-easing-cant-relax-grip-domestic-abuse/

52. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

53. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/07/anti-racism-mass-protests-take-place-in-cities-across-the-uk

54. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/07/anti-racism-mass-protests-take-place-in-cities-across-the-uk

55. https://www.cornwalllive.com/news/cornwall-news/police-fire-warning-over-inconsiderate-4139268

56. https://www.sussex.police.uk/news/sussex/news/force-news/sussex-police-maintain-focus-on-domestic-abuse/

57. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/09/katy-bourne-police-crime-commissioner-solidarity-protesting-racism-black-lives-matter

58. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-52650696

59. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-52650696

60. respectful, open and accountable, explaining decisions and listening to people, making unbiased decisions, and conveying trustworthy motives

61. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing-the-lockdown.pdf

62. https://oscarkilo.org.uk/blog-cleveland-police-using-a-wellbeing-van-during-the-covid-19-crisis/

63. https://policinginsight.com/features/opinion/trickiest-issues-isle-of-man-police-chief-shares-the-lessons-from-policing-the-easing-of-lockdown-restrictions/

64. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing_lockdown_domestic_abuse_and_vulnerability.pdf

65. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing_lockdown_domestic_abuse_and_vulnerability.pdf

66. https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

67. https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

68. https://bscpolicingnetwork.com/2020/04/29/the-rise-of-technologically-mediated-police-contact-the-potential-consequences-of-socially-distanced-policing/

69. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/may/16/uk-police-fear-explosion-of-violent-as-lockdown-eases

70. https://post.parliament.uk/horizon-scanning/crime-justice-policing-and-covid-19-what-are-experts-concerned-about/

71. https://post.parliament.uk/horizon-scanning/crime-justice-policing-and-covid-19-what-are-experts-concerned-about/

72. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-fine-police-uk-postcode-lottery-lockdown-latest-a9519251.html

73. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

74. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-fine-police-uk-postcode-lottery-lockdown-latest-a9519251.html

75. https://post.parliament.uk/horizon-scanning/crime-justice-policing-and-covid-19-what-are-experts-concerned-about/

76. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

77. Making it difficult to accurately assess the proportion of FPNs issued by ethnicity

78. from when the law came into force on 27 March to 14 May and prior to the latest easing of lockdown rules

79. http://news.met.police.uk/news/metropolitan-police-release-detailed-analysis-of-covid-19-related-enforcement-403705

80. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/police-fine-arrest-black-people-coronavirus-lockdown-london-a9546181.html

81. http://news.met.police.uk/news/metropolitan-police-release-detailed-analysis-of-covid-19-related-enforcement-403705

82. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-police-powers-race-human-rights-a9539651.html

83. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-fine-police-uk-postcode-lottery-lockdown-latest-a9519251.html

84. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-fine-police-uk-postcode-lottery-lockdown-latest-a9519251.html

85. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/08/police-warn-increased-community-tension-lockdown-mixed-messages/

86. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/

87. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-fine-police-uk-postcode-lottery-lockdown-latest-a9519251.html

88. https://post.parliament.uk/horizon-scanning/crime-justice-policing-and-covid-19-what-are-experts-concerned-about/

89. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-mental-health-crime-unemployment-lockdown-end-police-a9471316.html

90. https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/four-nation-exit-strategy-coronavirus.pdf

91. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52925516

92. https://www.bihr.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=5d1e441f-43b3-469e-b5d8-f520e72aaa09

93. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52962266

94. https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/northern-ireland-domestic-violence-all-time-high-funding-urgently-needed-frontline

95. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52963039

96. https://www.psni.police.uk/news/Latest-News/060620-planned-protests-in-belfast-and-derrylondonderry-have-ended/

97. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52963039

98. https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/northern-ireland-fines-imposed-peaceful-black-lives-matter-protestors-deeply

99. https://caj.org.uk/2020/06/16/amnesty-and-caj-raise-concerns-over-laws-restricting-protest-ahead-of-assembly-debate/

100. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/police-ombudsman-to-probe-difference-in-psni-approach-to-black-lives-matter-rallies-and-belfast-cenotaph-protest-39293099.html

101. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52861828

102. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/health/coronavirus/coronavirus-call-for-travel-restrictions-to-halt-scenes-like-this-as-young-people-in-northern-ireland-urged-act-responsibly-during-lockdown-39255476.html

103. Comments by Dr John Topping

104. https://www.psni.police.uk/news/Latest-News/080620-children-at-increased-risk-of-sexual-abuse-during-lockdown---warning-from-police-and-charity/

105. https://www.belfastlive.co.uk/news/belfast-news/covid-19-shop-workers-having-18221283

106. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/human-rights-review-launched-into-police-response-to-covid-19-pandemic-in-northern-ireland-39213275.html

107. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/police-chiefs-in-ni-and-republic-approve-review-into-pandemic-policing-39193132.html

108. Comment by John Topping

109. Advised that indoor visits last no longer than one hour.

110. Emergency regulations introduced in March afforded Gardaí the power to arrest and charge anyone breaching previous movement restrictions

111. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/covid-19-garda%C3%AD-lose-enforcement-powers-over-movement-restrictions-1.4273899

112. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

113. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

114. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/protesters-gather-outside-us-embassy-in-dublin-over-george-floyd-death-1.4272826

115. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/why-is-there-a-criminal-investigation-into-the-black-lives-matter-dublin-protest-1.4270112

116. https://www.gov.ie/en/news/7e0924-latest-updates-on-covid-19-coronavirus/#latest-regulations

117. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

118. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Report_on_the_Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_regulations_20_May_2020.pdf

119. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

120. https://www.gov.ie/en/campaigns/065724-policing-reform/#:~:text=The%20Commission%20on%20the%20Future,policing%2C%20security%20and%20community%20safety.&text=This%20four%2Dyear%20plan%20is%20ambitious%2C%20but%20realistic.

121. http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Report_on_Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_COVID-19_Regulations_(8_May_2020).pdf/Files/Report_on_Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_COVID-19_Regulations_(8_May_2020).pdf

122. https://www.iccl.ie/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ICCL-letter-to-Garda-Commissioner-re-spit-hoods.pdf

123. https://www.garda.ie/en/about-us/our-departments/office-of-corporate-communications/press-releases/2020/june/an-garda-siochana-continues-to-observe-public-co-operation-with-covid-19-regulations.html

124. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

125. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

126. https://www.policingauthority.ie/assets/uploads/documents/Policing_Performance_by_the_Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na_in_relation_to_Covid-19_Regulations_20200604.pdf

127. https://www.government.nl/topics/coronavirus-covid-19/tackling-new-coronavirus-in-the-netherlands

128. https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/netherlands-report-covid-19-april-2020_en.pdf

129. https://blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2020/05/26/netherlands-global-responses-covid19/

130. https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-netherlands/dutch-to-begin-easing-lockdown-measures-next-week-government-says-idUKKBN22I2PL

131. https://www.government.nl/topics/coronavirus-covid-19/tackling-new-coronavirus-in-the-netherlands/faqs-about-approach-to-tackling-coronavirus

132. https://blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2020/05/26/netherlands-global-responses-covid19/

133. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3598215

134. https://nltimes.nl/2020/04/07/police-issue-1400-fines-violating-covid-19-rules-date

135. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3598215

136. https://news.trust.org/item/20200603164356-lvhiw

137. https://nltimes.nl/2020/03/19/police-impressed-dutch-sticking-coronavirus-rules-prepared-enforce-lock

138. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3598215

139. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3598215

140. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3598215

141. https://dutchreview.com/coronavirus/coronavirus-fines-will-appear-on-adults-criminal-records-is-that-fair/

142. https://blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2020/05/26/netherlands-global-responses-covid19/

143. https://www.gendarmerie.interieur.gouv.fr/Zooms/Deconfinement-phase-2

144. https://www.gouvernement.fr/en/coronavirus-covid-19

145. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/may/09/france-hollande-french-president-app-anti-domestic-violence

146. https://www.leparisien.fr/societe/limite-de-100-km-200-000-controles-effectues-en-france-950-amendes-distribuees-19-05-2020-8319693.php

147. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/12/france-bans-drinking-by-the-seine-following-coronavirus-lockdown-ease

148. https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/entry/paris-invalides-deconfinement-coronavirus_fr_5ec58339c5b60a1fa4e45b2c

149. https://www.connexionfrance.com/French-news/French-police-crackdown-on-crowds-at-beaches-and-parks-after-lack-of-physical-distancing-in-deconfinement

150. https://www.thelocal.fr/20200519/french-police-carry-out-200000-road-stops-to-check-100km-permission-forms

151. https://www.ouest-france.fr/societe/police/deconfinement-les-100-km-un-defi-pour-les-policiers-6834204

152. https://france3-regions.francetvinfo.fr/hauts-de-france/coronavirus-lille-arras-policiers-positifs-au-covid-19-milliers-tests-vont-etre-effectues-1831158.html

153. https://www.francebleu.fr/infos/faits-divers-justice/coronavirus-8-cas-de-covid-19-a-la-gendarmerie-de-sarreguemines-1589915887

154. https://www.leparisien.fr/val-d-oise-95/roissy-plaine-de-france-denis-de-masure-chef-de-la-police-municipale-est-decede-du-covid-19-14-05-2020-8317212.php

155. http://www.rfi.fr/en/france/20200603-20-000-rally-paris-black-man-adama-traor%C3%A9-died-police-bruality-george-floyd-us-covid-19

156. https://english.elpais.com/society/2020-06-01/deescalation-gets-even-more-complex-in-town-split-between-spain-and-france.html

157. https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/entry/deconfinement-soutenir-et-non-punir-le-defi-que-relevent-les-gendarmes_fr_5eb3dd3ac5b652c564733cfd

158. https://www.gendinfo.fr/actualites/2020/operation-hygie-comment-les-gendarmes-prennent-ils-soin-de-ceux-qui-nous-soignent

159. https://www.gendinfo.fr/actualites/2020/repondre-present-pendant-la-crise

160. Similar to what in the UK is known as 'stop and search'

161. https://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2020/06/04/le-defenseur-des-droits-appelle-a-une-tracabilite-des-controles-d-identite_6041728_3224.html

162. https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/24551/in-lockdown-migrants-in-france-up-against-pandemic-police-abuse

163. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-05-18/paris-police-drones-banned-from-spying-on-virus-violators

164. Similar to what in the UK is known as 'stop and search'

165. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/05/15/france-end-discriminatory-police-checks-and-fines

166. https://amnestyfr.cdn.prismic.io/amnestyfr/10799550-b926-4e77-b95c-12bfab03bd74_Usage+ill%C3%A9gal+de+la+force+et+pratiques+discriminatoires_+analyse+de+pratiques+polici%C3%A8res+pendant+le+confinement.pdf

167. https://no.ambafrance.org/Informations-Coronavirus-Covid-19

168. https://www.lifeinnorway.net/coronavirus-in-norway/

169. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52853556

170. Changes in crime and policing resulting from COVID-19 'lockdowns': First takes from nine countries. Ben Bradford, Institute for Global City Policing, 13th April 2020

171. https://www.nettavisen.no/nyheter/korona-tiltakene-har-gitt-rom-for-flere-lovbrudd-drastisk-okning-i-forerkortbeslag/3423963654.html

172. https://www.nettavisen.no/nyheter/slar-alarm-om-gjengkrig-i-oslo-gatene-politiet-kommer-med-innrommelse/3423959789.html

173. https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidnikel/2020/06/06/norway-fears-coronavirus-return-as-anti-racism-protest-fills-oslo-streets/#35856125504c

174. https://www.aftenposten.no/meninger/debatt/i/wPaPy5/det-er-ikke-politiet-som-gir-tillatelse-til-demonstrasjoner-det-er-grunnloven-politiadvokat-kai-spurkland

175. Changes in crime and policing resulting from COVID-19 'lockdowns': First takes from nine countries. Ben Bradford, Institute for Global City Policing, 13th April 2020

176. https://www.ht.no/nyheter/2020/06/10/Politiet-advarer-bedrifter-mot-korona-utnyttelse-%E2%80%93-og-varsler-kontroller-22038568.ece

177. Comment by Randi Helene Kittang Solhjell

178. https://www.politiforum.no/artikler/koronaens-pris-store-etterspill-for-politiet/491330

179. https://pf.no/aktuelt/samfunnsansvar/bad-om-fortgang-i-yrkesskadesaken-og-faste-stillinger

180. Planned for 22 June.

181. https://uniteforrecovery.govt.nz/covid-19/covid-19-alert-system/alert-level-1/

182. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12329263

183. https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/415753/police-commissioner-on-enforcing-lockdown-i-m-confident-that-we-acted-lawfully

184. https://www.odt.co.nz/news/national/police-officers-were-uneasy-about-enforcing-lockdown

185. This power has been exercised once, to break up a party in a private house

186. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12331547

187. https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/416766/covid-19-developments-in-new-zealand-on-15-may

188. https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/sc/make-a-submission/document/52SCFE_SCF_INQ_97823/inquiry-into-the-operation-of-the-covid-19-public-health

189. The Act is in force for renewable periods of 90 days and expires after two years.

190. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

191. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

192. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

193. https://theconversation.com/are-new-zealands-new-covid-19-laws-and-powers-really-a-step-towards-a-police-state-138114

194. https://www.police.govt.nz/news/release/no-parties-%E2%80%93-no-excuses?ref=/news&search=level%203&cmin=&cmax=

195. https://www.police.govt.nz/about-us/publications-statistics/data-and-statistics/policedatanz

196. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/11/new-zealand-domestic-violence-services-to-get-200m-as-lockdown-takes-toll

197. https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/415553/domestic-violence-calls-to-police-increase-in-lockdown

198. Family harm non-crime: 6,679 Level 3, 10,426 Level 4. Family harm crime: 190 Level 3, 332 Level 4. https://www.police.govt.nz/about-us/publications-statistics/data-and-statistics/policedatanz

199. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/18/new-zealand-braces-for-spike-in-child-abuse-reports-as-covid-19-lockdown-eases

200. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12336737

201. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12336356&ref=art_readmore

202. Opinion of Robert Mark Evans OBE

203. Epidemic Response Committee, 2 April 2020

204. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

205. https://www.hrc.co.nz/files/6615/8819/4763/Human_Rights_and_Te_Tiriti_o_Waitangi-_COVID-19_and_Alert_Level_4_FINAL.pdf

206. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

207. https://www.police.govt.nz/about-us/publications-statistics/data-and-statistics/policedatanz

208. Figure consists of prevention activities and pandemic response prevention.

209. https://www.police.govt.nz/news/release/police-continue-target-organised-crime-across-country-during-alert-levels-3-and-4?ref=/news/national&search=gangs&cmin=&cmax=

210. https://www.police.govt.nz/news/release/distance-and-isolation-new-zealand-police-team-wellington-paranormal?ref=/news&search=wellington&cmin=&cmax=

211. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

212. https://www.police.govt.nz/about-us/publications-statistics/data-and-statistics/policedatanz

213. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/new-zealands-population-reflects-growing-diversity

214. https://www.stats.govt.nz/topics/population

215. Epidemic Response Committee, 30 April 2020

216. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12329263

217. https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/politics/2020/05/todd-muller-calls-for-innovative-plan-to-reopen-new-zealand-s-borders-post-covid-19.html

218. https://policyexchange.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Policing-a-Pandemic.pdf

219. https://policyexchange.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Policing-a-Pandemic.pdf

220. https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

221. https://post.parliament.uk/horizon-scanning/crime-justice-policing-and-covid-19-what-are-experts-concerned-about/

222. https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

223. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-fine-police-uk-postcode-lottery-lockdown-latest-a9519251.html

224. https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

225. https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/government-public-services/public-sector-research-centre/policing-challenge-of-covid-19.html

226. https://policyexchange.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Policing-a-Pandemic.pdf

227. (currently unpublished)

228. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/jill-dando-institute/sites/jill-dando-institute/files/policing_lockdown_domestic_abuse_and_vulnerability.pdf

229. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-domestic-abuse-lockdown-refuge-a9543011.html

230. Referrals to the Veritas Stalking Advocacy Service in Sussex increased by 26% and the national stalking charity Paladin has seen a 40% rise in requests for support.

231. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/09/katy-bourne-police-crime-commissioner-solidarity-protesting-racism-black-lives-matter

232. https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m000jmtt

233. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/coronavirus-mental-health-crime-unemployment-lockdown-end-police-a9471316.html

234. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/may/07/drug-dealers-posing-joggers-nhs-staff-covid-19-lockdown

235. https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/cyber-experts-shine-light-on-online-scams

236. https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/covid-19-exploited-by-cyber-actors-advisory

237. Note that the graph does not include separate UK nations' figures

238. From: Policing the coronavirus lockdown. Brown, J. House of Commons Library Briefing Paper. Number 8875, 1 May 2020. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8875/


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