Publication - Research and analysis

An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland: 2015 Update

Published: 29 May 2015
Part of:
Research
ISBN:
9781785444135

A summary of the evidence on sectarianism in Scotland

73 page PDF

1.1 MB

73 page PDF

1.1 MB

Contents
An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland: 2015 Update
Footnotes

73 page PDF

1.1 MB

Footnotes

1. In terms of educational attainment there was little difference for the under 35s but older Catholics had higher proportions with no qualifications than those affiliated with the Church of Scotland.

2. This was classified as being a full time student or currently employed. Retired status was also included within this category. Part-time students would not be officially counted as a student, so would need to be working or otherwise economically active in order to be classified within the outcome variable.

3. 2001 census: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2005/02/20757/53568

4. 2011 census: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/8378/0

5. An examination of the evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0042/00424891.pdf

6. Although it is notable that this is considerably lower than the proportion who said they had no religion in response to the same question in the 2013 attitudes survey: 54%. It is therefore suggested that when a question about religious belonging is preceded by other questions on religion 'some people are stimulated into reporting a largely latent religious affiliation that they would not otherwise have acknowledged' p.7

7. https://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?

8. In order to examine perceptions of sectarianism as a problem more directly, SSA 2014 introduced the following definition of sectarianism: 'As you may know, sectarianism is a term used to describe division, bigotry and discrimination rooted in religion. For the purposes of this survey, I would like you to think only about divisions between followers of different Christian traditions, such as Protestants and Catholics.'

9. It should be noted, though, that the precise wording of the question was 'Turning now to Protestants and Catholics in Scotland. Using a phrase from this card, how serious would you say conflict between them is?' It therefore contains an implicit suggestion that conflict of some sort does exist and so, in that sense, the question could be considered to be leading. Nevertheless, what is interesting in the data is that there was a sharp increase in the proportion of respondents who stated that the conflict was fairly or very serious in 1999. However, as Rosie notes (Rosie , Michael (2004) The Sectarian Myth in Scotland: Of bitter memory and Bigotry. Palgrave Macmillan. P.41), the 1999 survey was conducted against 'a media background in which football-related violence, bigotry and prejudice were prominent'. This is also the year in which Scottish composer James MacMillan gave a lecture at the Edinburgh International Festival on 'Scotland's Shame', reigniting the debate about the prevalence of sectarianism in contemporary Scottish society. As Rose notes, perceptions of the extent of sectarian conflict will have been susceptible to media reporting.

10. The proportions who believed it was very or fairly serious were: 1979: 36%, 1992: 34%, 1997: 39%, 1999:51%, 2000: 38%

11. See: Ormston, R and Anderson, S (2010) Scottish Social Attitudes survey 2009: Local issues, national concerns: Public attitudes to anti-social behavior in Scotland. Scottish Government Social Research.

12. Cited in Scottish Government: 'An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland' 2013: Holligan, C and Raab, G (2010), Inter-sectarian couples in the 2001 Census. Scottish Longitudinal Study Research Working Paper 7. http://calls.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/WP7-Holligan-Raab.pdf

13. Analysis was also restricted to couples for whom complete data on the religion in which they were raised. It excluded the small number of Scottish born couples where one or more member was raised in a non-Christian religion. The total sample was therefore 111,627.

14. Raab, G and Holligan, C. (2011) 'Sectarianism: myth or social reality? Inter-sectarian partnerships in Scotland, evidence form the Scottish Longitudinal Study' in Ethnic and Racial Studies 2011 Volume 34, Part 9. P17.

15. See: 'Community Experiences of Sectarianism'. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/02/9920

16. See: 'Community Impact of Public Processions'. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/02/3769/0

17. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/02/9920

18. http://www.confortiinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Conforti-Anti-Sectarian-Project-Report-April-2014.pdf

19. Analysis by age showed that there was little variation (although older people were less likely to report having experienced discrimination or harassment compared to all adults).

20. Age was the next most commonly cited reason 13% of respondents, followed by gender, 8%. Sexual orientation was cited as a reason by 4%. Almost a third (30%) suggested that there were 'other' reasons for the discrimination.

21. The highest proportion, 50% said they had been harassed for 'other' reasons, with disability and gender cited by 7% respectively. A further 4% (for each) said they had been harassed because of their sexual orientation or disability.

22. Due to small sample sizes analysis was conducted by the following categories: no religion, Church of Scotland, Roman Catholic, Other Christian and Another Religion.

23. This compared with 3% of those with no religion, 1% for 'other Christian' and 1% for 'other religion'.

24. Discrimination due to 'other' reasons was most commonly cited by Protestant and Catholic respondents alike (34% and 27% respectively).

25. The higher reported prevalence in the attitudes survey as compared with the Scottish Household Survey is likely to be due to the fact that this is based on a longer time frame and may include historical experiences as well as recent experiences.

26. Higher also than those belonging to other Christian religions (10%), and those who identified as having no religion (6%). In terms of other equality characteristics, gay, lesbian or bisexual experienced higher levels of discrimination (28%), compared to those who identified as being heterosexual (7%) and those from a minority ethnic group were more likely to report experiences of discrimination (24%), compared to those from a white ethnic background (6%). Overall reported experiences of harassment were similar across these respondent characteristics.

27. 23 were those who had no religion.

28. According to the Offences (Aggravation by Prejudice) (Scotland) Act 2009, hate crime refers to any offence where there is evidence that it was motivated by religious, racial, sexual or other social prejudice including transgender status or disability. It involves violence as well as verbal abuse or threats.

29. Religiously aggravated offences are defined as charges that include an aggravation of religiously motivated behaviour in terms of Section 74 of the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003.

30. Shortly after the legislation was introduced, when 479 charges were reported.

31. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/06/1659

32. Previous analysis was carried out by the Scottish Government and Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal service (COPFS) and published for the years 2006, 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13.

33. In terms of educational attainment there was little difference for the under 35s but older Catholics had higher proportions with no qualifications than those affiliated with the Church of Scotland.

34. This was classified as being a full time student or currently employed. Retired status was also included within this category. Part-time students would not be officially counted as a student, so would need to be working or otherwise economically active in order to be classified within the outcome variable.

35. Religious membership is based on self-reporting in the 2011 census. Christian denominations are presented in the census as "Roman Catholic", "Church of Scotland" and "other Christian". For the purpose of this report only "Church of Scotland" membership has been attributed as "Protestant" because "other Christian" may include a mixture of Protestant and non-Protestant denominations. Although the Church of Scotland has been by far the largest Protestant denomination in Scotland, there may be differences with other Protestant churches.

36. Because the question did not specify a time-frame regarding experiences of harassment or discrimination, it is not possible to say whether or not these are historical or recent.

37. Scottish Government (2013) 'An examination of the evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland' Justice Analytical Services. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0042/00424891.pdf

38. As noted earlier, religious membership is based on self-reporting in the 2011 census. Christian denominations are presented in the census as "Roman Catholic", "Church of Scotland" and "other Christian". For the purpose of this report only "Church of Scotland" membership has been attributed as "Protestant" because "other Christian" may include a mixture of Protestant and non-Protestant denominations. Although the Church of Scotland has been by far the largest Protestant denomination in Scotland, there may be differences with other Protestant churches.

39. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census: Part 1 (population and households, ethnicity, identity, language, religion and health) Chart 3.6 Religion by Age, Scotland 2011 http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/8378/5

40. Scottish Executive (2005) 'Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census - Summary Report'. Office of the Chief Statistician. Chart 1.2. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2005/02/20757/53568

41. Roman Catholics were more likely to have been born outside of the UK than those who identified with Church of Scotland (12% compared with 1%). In addition, the majority of Roman Catholic migrants were aged 16-34 when they arrived

42. For example 11% of those affiliated with the Church of Scotland were aged 0-15 compared with 17% of Roman Catholics. It is also notable that the age profile of Roman Catholic is similar to that of the (average) 'all people' figure for Scotland whereas there are much higher proportions of those who identify themselves as having 'no religion' in the younger age groups 0-49, and comparatively fewer proportions aged 50+.

43. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census': Part 1 (population and households, ethnicity, identity, language, religion and health) Chapter 3.2: Ethnicity, Identity and Language http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/8378/5

44. Most of the remainder were born in England.

45. 4% of whom had been resident for 2 years or more, but less than 5 years in Scotland, 2% less than 2 years, 3% - 5 years or more and less than 10 years, and 3% ten years or more).

46. Information on Polish ethnicity was not collected in the 2001 census. However we expect that the group was very small as we know that in 2001 only 3,000 people in Scotland were born in Poland compared to 55,000 in 2001. Poland became a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004.

47. See Scottish Government reports 'Overview of Equality Results from the 2011 Census Release 2' (2014), 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census': part 1 (2014) and Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census Part 2 (2015).

48. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of equality results from the 2011 census': part 1: Chapter 3.1: Demographics: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2014/10/8378/5

49. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of equality results from the 2011 census': part 1: Chapter 3.3: Households: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2014/10/8378/5

50. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census': Part 1: Chapter 3.1: demographics http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/8378/5#chapter3.1

51. This difference in households with dependent children between Roman Catholics and Church of Scotland was also apparent in the 2001 census.

52. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census': Part 1: Chapter 3.1: demographics http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/8378/5#chapter3.1

53. Including published reports, as well as additional data requested from the National Records of Scotland (NRS) broken down by specific age ranges etc.

54. Particularly the Scottish Executive (2005) 'Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census: Summary Report'. Office of the Chief Statistician http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2005/02/20757/53568

55. The Census statistics provide estimates, of the usually resident population of Scotland on Census Day. It achieved an overall response rate of 94% in 2011, with the population estimated with 95% confidence to be accurate to within +/- 23,000 (0.44%). It therefore allows inferences to be made about the Scottish population as a whole.

56. These figures refer to the 15% most deprived data zones in the SIMD 2012. There are 6,505 data zones in Scotland and those ranked 1-976 in the SIMD 2012 make up the 15% most deprived. Comparable figures for 2001 data were not readily available.

57. Scottish Government (2014) 'Overview of Equality Results from the 2011 Census Release 2' http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/03/7340/21 and Scottish Executive (2005) 'Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census: Summary Report'. Office of the Chief Statistician http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2005/02/20757/53568

58. 11% of people affiliated with the Church of Scotland lived in the least deprived decile in 2001 compared with 10% in 2011. The proportion of Roman Catholics in the least deprived decile remained the same at 7%.

59. Scottish Government (2014) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census': Part 1: Chapter 3.1: demographics http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/8378/5#chapter3.1

60. Scottish Government (2015) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census: Part 2': Chapter 3.3 Housing http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00473938.pdf

61. In 2001 62% of Roman Catholic owned their own home compared with 70% of Church of Scotland

62. Scottish Government (2015) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census: Part 2' Chart 3.13: Religion by tenure, people in households aged 16+. Directly comparable data for 2001 was not readily available.

63. for example, teaching, nursing, accountancy. Other Higher Education qualifications not already mentioned (including foreign qualifications).

64. Scottish Government (2015) 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census: Part 2': Chapter 3.2 education: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00473938.pdf

65. Hindus were the most likely to be highly qualified with (74 per cent having 'Level 4 and above' qualifications). They were also least likely to have no qualifications, with only 5% falling into this category.

66. Although some caution should be attached to direct comparison because the 2001 data referred to ages 16-74, while the 2011 data is based on all people aged 16+.

67. Level 1 = 'O Grade, Standard Grade, Access 3 Cluster, Intermediate 1 or 2, GCSE, CSE, Senior Certificate or Equivalent; GSVQ Foundation or Intermediate, SVQ Level 1 or 2, SCOTVEC Module, City and Guilds Craft or equivalent; Other school qualifications not already mentioned (including foreign qualifications)' Level 2 = 'SCE Higher Grade, Higher, Advanced Higher, CSYS, A Level, AS Level, Advanced Senior Certificate or equivalent; GSVQ Advanced, SVQ Level 3, ONC, OND, SCOTVEC National Diploma, City and Guilds Advanced Craft or equivalent' Level 3 = 'HNC, HND, SVQ Level 4 or equivalent, Other post-school but pre-Higher Education qualifications not already mentioned (including foreign qualifications)'

68. Previous analysis of the 2001 data was done according to the age breakdowns 16-29, 30-49, 50-Pensionable age and pensionable age -76. However, there was no analysis by 'pensionable age' in the 2011 census and standard age bands 65+ were used for both sexes. Therefore the standard NRS age breakdown (for 2011) was requested for the 2001 data to allow comparability between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. There was also no available 'all people' figure for the 2001 data and so 'No religion' only is provided for comparative purposes.

69. Including full time students. Unemployment rates are calculated by dividing the number of unemployed by the economically active population. The employment rate = the number of people employed divided by the population. The economic activity rate = the number of employed + unemployed divided by the population.

70. The unemployment rate for Church of Scotland was 6% and 8% for Roman Catholics. Unemployment rates for 2001 were based on all economically active people aged 16-pensionable age. However, 2011 figures are based on the 16+ population, in line with the labour force survey data on unemployment rates and the standard ILO definition. The 2001 and 2011 figures are therefore not directly comparable.

71. A 2011 Scottish Government study: 'Experiences of Muslims living in Scotland' found that Muslims experienced particular challenges in the labour market, with Muslim women highlighted as being particularly underrepresented. There was found to be limited evidence on the causes on this in Scotland however. http://www.gov.scot/resource/doc/344206/0114485.pdf

72. Economic Activity and employment rates are based on all people aged 16-64 whereas the unemployment rate is based on the population aged 16+.

73. At the time of writing the 2014 figures were not yet available with planned release at the end of May/June 2015.

74. Employment and Economic Activity Rates are based on the population aged 16-64. Unemployment rates are based on the population aged 16 and over

75. See Paterson, L. (2000) 'The social class of Catholics in Scotland', Journal of the Royal Statistical society, 163, (3): 263-379 cited in Scottish Government (2013) 'An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism' Justice Analytical Services. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0042/00424891.pdf

76. Although the question in 2001 was the same as 2011, in the 2011 Census the Standard Occupation Classification 2010 (SOC2010) was used to classify responses. In the 2001 Census, SOC2000 was used, meaning direct comparisons between the two sets of census results are not possible without further processing of the data.

77. Paterson, L. (2000) 'The social class of Catholics in Scotland', Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 163, (3): 263-379 cited in Scottish Government (2013) 'An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism' Justice Analytical Services. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0042/00424891.pdf

78. Using data generated by the 1997 Scottish Election survey and based on analysis by two categories 'Catholic' and 'non-Catholic' where the latter comprises a large and divergent group of people.

79. Those born between 1967 and 1976. Also cited in Scottish Government (2013) 'An Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism' Justice Analytical Services. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0042/00424891.pdf

80. The 2011 assessment is not based on a person's health based over any specified period of time. In 2001 the question in Scotland had only 3 tick boxes compared to 5 in 2011 (good, fairly good or not good). The 2001 question also referred to the 'last 12 months' unlike the 2011 question that did not refer to time. The data is therefore not directly comparable.

81. Scottish Government (2012) 'Scottish Health Survey Topic Report: Equality Groups' Table 2.1. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2012/10/8988 referenced in Scottish Government (2013) 'An examination of the evidence on sectarianism in Scotland'

82. Due to the fact that pensionable age has been equivalising in recent years for men and women

83. In 2001 pensionable age was defined as 60 for women and 65 for men. For the 2011 analysis, as pensionable age has been equivalising in recent years for men and women Community Analytical Services colleagues recommend using actual age bands (i.e. 50-64) as the term 'pensionable age' is no longer appropriate. In analysis for 2011 the NRS standard age bands are used for both genders.

84. In the 'Examination of the Evidence on Sectarianism in Scotland report' (2013) the figures for the age group 0-29 have been amended. The previous figures cited were higher due to the proportions reported for the 0-15 and 16-29 age groups having been erroneously added together. The figures have been corrected accordingly.

85. All religion groups in the 2001 census included, in addition to those listed in the table, Other Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh and Other Religion. 2011 census data provided an 'All people' rather than all religions group for comparative analysis, reflecting the proportionate increase in those with 'no religion' between 2001 and 2011.

86. The Twenty-07 study was set up in 1987 and followed 3 different age cohorts of people for 20 years. See Abbotts et al, 1997; 1999; Abbots et al, 2001; 2001a; 2001b; Abbots, 2004 Mullen et al, 2000; and Walls and Williams, 2004 (listed in bibliography).

87. Abbots, J., Williams, R, Gord, G, Hunt, K., West, P. (1997). 'Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain: an ethnic and religious minority 150 years on', Social Science and Medicine 45(1): 3-14.

88. Abbots, J. (2004) 'Irish Catholic Health Disadvantage in the West of Scotland', Scottish Affairs, 46: 131-48.

89. Abbots, J., Williams, R., West, P., Hunt, K. and Ford, G. (2004) 'Catholic socio-economic disadvantage in the west of Scotland: a narrowing of inequality', Scottish Affairs, (49), 77-87.

90. includes Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Jewish, Pagan, Another Religion

91. The 7% difference between Church of Scotland and Roman Catholic is statistically significant. The 2012-13 figures are in line with earlier analysis from 2010-11 where 20% of Catholics were victims of crime compared with 14% of those affiliated with the Church of Scotland.

92. It is also important to note that this does not mean that they were the victims of sectarian or religiously motivated crime. Previous analysis has showed that sectarian crime and harassment accounts for only a very small proportion of crime (see earlier section).

93. Scottish Government, Justice Analytical Services (2013): 'An examination of the evidence on sectarianism in Scotland. http://www.nls.uk/scotgov/2013/9781782566465.pdf

94. Scottish Government (2014) 'Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2012/13: main Findings' http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0044/00447271.pdf

95. These figures as are at 25th of March with the total prison population being 7618. Although some caution should be attached to this figure as it represents a 'snapshot' in time, rather than a yearly average, it is in line with 2008-2009 figures which showed that 23% of the prison population were Catholic.

96. Data for 2001 obtained from review cited PQ S1W-15069 - Pauline Mcneill (Glasgow Kelvin) (Lab) (Date Lodged Thursday, April 12, 2001. The review cites figures for 2006 when the total number of prisoners in Scotland was 7,205 with 24% of these self-defined on entry as Catholic. In 2008-9 the figure was 23%.

97. Cited in the 2013 review this work draws in Houchin's 2005 research which showed that the imprisoned population is drawn disproportionately from the most deprived communities in Scotland, particularly in Glasgow which had a particularly strong association between deprivation and imprisonment.

98. Derived from a census variable.

99. Retired status was also included within this category. Part-time students would not be officially counted as a student, so would need to be working or otherwise economically active in order to be classified within the outcome variable.

100. Isengard, B. (2002) 'Youth unemployment: individual risk factors and institutional determinants. A case study of Germany and the UK' German Institute of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, Discussion Paper 284.

101. Van Ham, M. & Manley, D (2009) 'The Effect of Neighbourhood Housing Tenure Mix on Labour Market Outcomes: A Longitudinal Perspective' Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA DP No. 4094

102. Non-Catholic included all other groups not identifying as Catholic including those with no religion and those who did not specify a response to this question Further breakdowns by religion may tell a different/more nuanced story, i.e. it is likely that other religious groups have different probabilities of being in employment or education

103. The effect of Catholicism has a very marginal effect, which impacts very slightly on council area coefficients.


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