Publication - Research and analysis

An Evaluation of Legacy from the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games: Post Games Report

Published: 23 Jul 2015
Part of:

This report is the first post games legacy evaluation report for the XX Commonwealth Games it aims to generate learning for ourselves, future bidders and hosts, and to add to the international literature

118 page PDF

2.1 MB

118 page PDF

2.1 MB

An Evaluation of Legacy from the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games: Post Games Report

118 page PDF

2.1 MB


1 Pre Games volunteers were recruited by the Organising Committee to assist with early pre Games preparations, in advance of the main Clyde-sider programme launch in 2013. Host City Volunteers were recruited by Glasgow City Council/Glasgow Life to welcome and assist visitors to the city during Games time. Volunteers for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the Games were recruited by the Organising Committee.

2 Society of Local Authority Chief Executives and Senior Managers

3 GLEWG comprises representatives from Scottish Government, Glasgow City Council, Scottish Enterprise, Visit Scotland, sportscotland, Creative Scotland, Volunteer Scotland, Skills Development Scotland, NHS Health Scotland and the Glasgow Research Partnership.


5 See Evidence Review section in following chapter.

6 See section on Tracking Outcome Indicators in Chapter 3 on Method

7 More information on legacy programmes is on the Assessing Legacy website and the Glasgow City Council website.

8 Mayne, J. (2008) Contribution Analysis: An approach to exploring cause and effect, ILAC methodological brief, available at

9 Games Legacy Economic Evaluation group comprises Scottish Government, Glasgow City Council, Scottish Enterprise, Glasgow Life and Glasgow City Marketing Bureau.

10 Visitor groups include event visitors, games volunteers and media personnel

11 Understanding Society is a major UK household longitudinal study.

12 All of the full references for the evidence cited are in the accompanying updated Evidence Review. This updates the review published alongside the Pre Games Report to include new literature published in the year up to September 2014. Other relevant evidence – for example, legacy evaluation programme reports, that were published after this date are cited directly in this report.


14 See Economic Assessment Technical Report for full details.

15 See also Minutes of the Input-Output Expert Users Group, November 2013.

16Tier 1 contracts awarded through the Glasgow Business Portal included contracts to deliver the capital programme of venue developments and the creation of the Athletes’ Village development in addition to wider Games related capital spend and procurement by the OC related to delivering the event. See GCC Executive Committee report on Commonwealth Games February 2015:

17 Scotland House was a facility for networking with representation from Scotland’s enterprise, tourism, sports, cultural and event agencies and a programme of formal and informal events during Games time.

18 Glasgow 2014 XX Commonwealth Games Highlights Report

19 Scotland Welcomes the World events included Geared for Gold; Showcasing Scotland Food & Drink; 2014 Commonwealth Business Conference; Scotland House Business Events and Ryder Cup Business Engagment

20 Bellerby Economics (2015) Evaluation of Scotland Welcomes the World 2014: Business Engagement Events. Report for Scottish Enterprise.

21 The One Year After Opening Evaluation of the M74 Completion Scheme found it is performing well and moving towards its key objectives, including improved access opportunities to strategic development areas. See Transport Scotland (2015) M74 Completion Project: One Year After Opening Evaluation.



24 Who do not meet the Commonwealth Apprentice Initiative criteria

25 Young people who have faced significant challenges including those with a disability, care leavers, carers and ex-offenders.

26 Positive destinations refers to pupils moving on to work, education or training after leaving school.

27 See Economic Assessment Technical Report

28 Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2014.

29 See Indicator F4 on Assessing Legacy.

30 Glasgow Centre for Population Health (forthcoming) Commonwealth Games Volunteering Research, Baseline Report.

31 58% of respondents to the baseline pre Games Clydesider applicant survey had a degree or higher qualification. Ibid.

32 Though as noted in footnote 8 above, 58% of those who responded to the first clydesider applicant sweep in the GCPH research had a degree or higher qualification.

33 ACORN CACI analysis is a geodemographic classification system based on over 400 variables and 4 core indicators of income, age, gender and ethnicity.

34 The sample size for survey 1 was 838 and survey 2 (post Games) was 208.

35 House of Lords (2013) Keeping the Flame Alive: the Olympic and Paralympic Legacy. HL Paper 78


37 Ekos (2014) Evaluation of the investment in Commonwealth Games Venues. Report to Glasgow Life.

38 Emirates Arena, Hockey Centre, Kelvingrove, Scotstoun and Tollcross

39 Ibid pV

40 National Evaluation of the Community Sports Hub programme, ODS Consulting, 2014.

41 Glasgow Life is GCC’s arms length charitable trust that manages cultural and sporting events and facilities in Glasgow.

42 Scottish Household Survey figures

43 See Local Government Capital Expenditure statistics:

44 Glasgow Life Monitoring data

45 Event Scotland (2015) Games for Scotland Final Report.


47 Global gold standard advocacy tool which makes the case for increased action worldwide to tackle physical inactivity.




51 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

52 NHS Scotland hospitals and buildings.




56 Lowden, K. et al (2014) Measuring the Impact of the Two Hours/Two Periods of Quality Physical Education Programme.


58 ODS Consulting (2014) National Evaluation of the Active Schools Programme.


60 OFCOM (2014) Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games: Media Consumption Research

61 OFCOM research, Glasgow Household Survey and Scottish Household Survey

62 NBI is used as a data source for the National Indicator on Scotland’s reputation on the Scotland Performs National Performance Framework. A shift of more than 1 point up or down is considered the threshold for change in performance.


64 Survey results from 2012-2015 available in the XX Commonwealth Games Omnibus Research Report here:

65 TNS survey April 2015

66 GCMB commissioned market research from Progressive and Scotpulse

67 GCPH (forthcoming) 2014 Commonwealth Games Volunteering Research, Follow Up report

68 68% of unsuccessful applicants indicated they intended to do the same level of volunteering in the future; 13% expected to do less and 19% expected to do more.

69 Including Host City Volunteers, Opening and Closing Ceremony Cast volunteers, Queen’s Baton Relay Batonbearers and Volunteer Support Pot beneficiaries.

70 Scotland’s education curriculum from ages 3 to 18.

71 BOP consulting (2015) Glasgow 2014 Cultural Programme Evaluation: Overarching Report. Creative Scotland and Glasgow Life.

72 With, for instance, no box office data available for analysis

73 For example, the Games time Visitor Survey found the demographic groups most likely to attend Festival 2014 events were aged 25-64 and in full or part time employment.

74 For example, the Scottish Household Survey finds differences in cultural engagement by age, disability , educational attainment and deprivation.

75 Big Lottery (2015) Legacy 2014 Evaluation. Big Lottery Fund’s contribution to the 2014 Commonwealth Games Legacy

76 A collaboration between director Virginia Heath and musician King Creosote


78 Cleland et. al. (2015) GoWell East: Studying Change in Glasgow’s East End: Headline Indicators Report for Wave 2 (2015) in comparison to Wave 1 (2012)

79 Clark and Kearns (2015) The Glasgow 2014 Games: Regeneration and Physical Activity Legacy

80 Clark and Kearns (2015) The Glasgow 2014 Games: Regeneration and Physical Activity Legacy


82 Clark and Kearns (2015) The Glasgow 2014 Games: Regeneration and Physical Activity Legacy

83 Clark and Kearns (2015) The Glasgow 2014 Games: Regeneration and Physical Activity Legacy

84 It should be noted that while the Clyde Gateway regeneration area and the GoWell East study area overlap, they are not exactly coterminous, and some of the environmental changes described in this section lie outside the GoWell East study area.

85 The Athletes’ Village is Scotland’s first large-scale carbon neutral housing development and has won numerous awards, including: Best Green Initiative (Homes for Scotland Awards, 2013); Best Regeneration Project (Herald Property Awards, 2013); City Regeneration Project of the Year (Scottish Property Awards 2014); Best Regeneration Project RICS (Scotland) Awards, 2014).


87 Sports participation, wider physical activity and visits to the outdoors

88 Chan, CB et al (2009) Assessing the Effects of Weather Conditions on Physical Activity Participation Using Objective Measures. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health 6:10 pp 2639-2654

89 The Wave 2 Headline Indicators report indicates this is likely because of an ‘intention-action’ gap where most who expressed interest in volunteering in the baseline survey did not apply to do so in the formal large scale programmes.

90 Audit Scotland (March 2015) Commonwealth Games 2014 Third Report


92 Giarchi, I. (2014) Lessons Learned from the XX Commonwealth Games, Scottish Government.

93 Glasgow Research Partnership (2014) Games Times Roles and the 2014 XX Commonwealth Games. A survey of staff in the Glasgow Council Family. Available here:

94 Giarchi, I. (2014) Lessons Learned from the XX Commonwealth Games, Scottish Government



97 Audio description, remote BSL interpretation, hearing enhancement technology, speech to text reporting

98 Dedicated accessibility/mobility team, role-specific training, mobility buggies, wheelchair loan and push service

99 TNS Omnibus Survey March 2015. When asked ‘now that the commonwealth Games are over, what, if anything, do you think will have changed because of them? Only 3% of unprompted answers were negative.



Email: Niamh O’Connor