Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by xylem feeding insects. Before the current outbreaks in southern Italy and Corsica, the pathogen was restricted to the Americas with the exception of a single outbreak affecting pear in Taiwan. It is now rapidly spreading throughout Italy and has been found in France (including Corsica), Spanish Islands and mainland Spain. Due to trading in low volumes of host plants/species its also been found in Germany and Czech Republic.
X. fastidiosa has a very broad host range including almond, peach, plum, apricot, grapevines, citrus, coffee and olive as well as oak, elm, Italian ryegrass, blackberry and sunflower.
Given the wide range of hosts, the evolving situation in Italy and France, and to improve preparedness within the EU, revised EU emergency measures have been introduced. However these measures are under review as the situation in Europe has changed since these were introduced.