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Gross Expenditure on Research and Development - Key Facts

Gross Expenditure on Research and Development 2015

  • GERD in Scotland was £2,150 million in 2015, 6.8% of the UK total. In nominal terms, GERD increased by 1.8% between 2014 and 2015. In real terms this represents an increase of £23 million or 1.1%.
  • Scottish GERD (excluding PNP) was 1.46% of GDP in 2015, compared to 1.95% for the EU.  The gap in 2015 was 0.49 percentage points, as it was in 2014.

Business Enterprise Research and Development - Key Facts

Business Enterprise Research and Development 2015

  • BERD expenditure in Scotland in 2015 was £871 million, 4.2% of the UK total of £20.9 billion.
  • Scottish expenditure decreased by 1% in real terms compared to 2014 figures. UK expenditure increased by 5% in real terms over this period.
  • Scottish expenditure increased by 41% in real terms compared to 2007 figures. UK expenditure increased by 17% over this period.
  • BERD expenditure was 0.60% of Scottish GDP in 2015; the comparable figure was 1.11% for the UK in 2015. The comparable figures were 1.23% for the EU28 and 1.65% for the OECD in 2015. Scotland’s BERD as a % of GDP ranks ninth out of the twelve UK countries/regions and ranks in the fourth quartile of the OECD.
  • BERD expenditure in Scotland is dominated by the Manufacturing sector (£514 million), followed by the Services sector (£279 million) and then Other sectors (£77 million), such as Extractive industries.
  • Expenditure on R&D in Manufacturing decreased by 1.7% (-£9 million) in real terms between 2014 and 2015, expenditure on R&D in Services increased by 11.5% (+£29 million) and expenditure on R&D in Other sectors decreased by 25.8% (-£27 million).
  • Enterprises in Scotland employed 10,985 R&D staff in 2015, up from 9,954 in 2014, an increase of 10.4%. This is the highest level of R&D employment since the series began in 2001, when R&D employment stood at 7,210.
  • In 2014, nearly two thirds (63.9%) of BERD expenditure was undertaken by businesses located in just four authority areas: Edinburgh City (24.5%), West Lothian (16.2%), Aberdeen City (13.0%) and Glasgow City (10.2%).
  • Per head of population West Lothian has the highest BERD spend at £791 per head, nearly five times the Scotland average of £162 per head. 

Higher Education Research and Development - Key Facts

Higher Education Research and Development 2015

  • HERD expenditure in Scotland was £1,092 million in 2015, 13.6% of the UK total. Between 2014 and 2015, HERD expenditure increased by 3.3% (£35 million).
  • Scotland’s Higher Education R&D as a % of GDP ranks top out of the twelve UK countries/regions, and ranks fourth in the OECD.

Government Expenditure on Research and Development - Key Facts

Government Expenditure on Research and Development 2015

  • GovERD expenditure in Scotland was £155 million in 2015, 7.4% of the UK. Between 2014 and 2015, in real terms, GovERD expenditure in Scotland was unchanged.
  • GovERD expenditure was 0.11% of Scottish GDP in 2015; the comparable figures were 0.11% for the UK, 0.24% for the EU and 0.27 for the OECD.

Private Non-Profit Expenditure on Research and Development - Key Facts

Private Non-Profit Expenditure on Research and Development 2015

  • In 2015, Private Non-Profit R&D (PNP) expenditure was £32 million in Scotland, 5.0% of the UK total and 0.02% of Scottish GDP.