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Gross Expenditure on Research and Development - Key Facts

Gross Expenditure on Research and Development 2016

  • GERD in Scotland was £2,331 million in 2016, 7.0% of the UK total. In nominal terms, GERD increased by 4.5% between 2015 and 2016. In real terms this represents an increase of £50 million or 2.2%.
  • Scottish GERD (excluding PNP) was 1.54% of GDP in 2016, compared to 1.94% for the EU.  The gap in 2016 was 0.40 percentage points, which is 0.04 percentage points narrower than in 2015.

Business Enterprise Research and Development - Key Facts

Business Enterprise Research and Development 2016

  • BERD expenditure in Scotland in 2016 was £1,072 million – the highest level in the series back to 2001; this is the first time that BERD spend has exceeded £1 billion.

  • Scottish expenditure increased by 10% in real terms compared to 2015 figures, exceeding the 3.3% increase in UK expenditure in real terms over this period.

  • Scottish expenditure increased by 69% in real terms compared to 2007 figures, also exceeding 21.6% increase in UK expenditure over this period.

  • Scotland’s BERD expenditure represents 4.8% of the UK total of £22.2 billion.  BERD expenditure was 0.72% of Scottish GDP in 2016; the comparable figure was 1.12% for the UK in 2016.

  • BERD expenditure in Scotland is dominated by Manufacturing (£592 million), followed by Services (£366 million) and then ‘Other’ product groups (£114 million), such as ‘extractive industries’.

  • Expenditure on Manufacturing R&D increased by 12.4% (+£65 million) in real terms between 2015 and 2016; expenditure on Services R&D decreased by 0.8% (-£3.1 million) and expenditure on 'Other' R&D increased by 45.9% (+£36 million).

  • Enterprises in Scotland employed 11,943 R&D staff in 2016, up 0.7% on 2015. This is the highest level of R&D employment since the series began in 2001.

Higher Education Research and Development - Key Facts

Higher Education Research and Development 2016

  • HERD expenditure in Scotland was £1,061 million in 2016, 13.2% of the UK total. Between 2015 and 2016, HERD expenditure decreased by 4.9% (£55 million).
  • Scotland’s Higher Education R&D as a percentage of GDP ranks top out of the twelve UK countries/regions, and ranks fifth in the OECD.

Government Expenditure on Research and Development - Key Facts

Government Expenditure on Research and Development 2016

  • GovERD expenditure in Scotland was £163 million in 2016, 7.5% of the UK total. GovERD increased by 3.2% in real terms (£5 million) between 2015 and 2016.
  • GovERD expenditure was 0.11% of Scottish GDP in 2016; the comparable figures were 0.11% for the UK, 0.23% for the EU and 0.26% for the OECD.

Private Non-Profit Expenditure on Research and Development - Key Facts

Private Non-Profit Expenditure on Research and Development 2016

  • In 2016, Private Non-Profit R&D (PNP) expenditure was £35 million in Scotland, 5.0% of the UK total and 0.02% of Scottish GDP.