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Summary: Gender

The Scottish Government have published a guidance note on collecting information on gender.

Scotland's population structure, Mid-2017

Business, Enterprise and Tourism

Gender

  • Out of the 322,900 self-employed people in Scotland in 2017, 109,600 were women (34%) while 213,300 were men (66%).  Despite a drop between 2016 and 2017 (-3.2%), female self-employment has increased over recent years, from 76,000 in 2007 to 109,600 in 2017, representing a rise of 44.2%. Although male self-employment also experienced a rise over the same time period, it was considerably smaller at 13.5%.
  • In Scotland, the female self-employment rate (self-employed as a proportion of those in employment) was 8.6% in 2017 – lower than the male self-employment rate at 15.8%, but increased by 2.3 percentage points since 2007. The male self-employment rate increased by 1.7 percentage points over the same period.

Source: Annual Population Survey results for year to December 2017 (Last updated: May 2018)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Business, Enterprise and Tourism

More equality characteristics for Business, Enterprise and Tourism: Business, Enterprise and Tourism Page

Children and Families
  • There were 4,186 children who started to be looked after from 1 August 2016 to 31 July 2017. There is no strong gender pattern among children on the child protection register – 54% were boys and 46% were girls.
  • There were 2,631 children on the child protection register as at 31 July 2017. There is no strong gender pattern among children on the child protection register – 48% were boys, 47% were girls and the remaining 5% were unborn children.
  • 58% of young people in secure care accommodation on 31 July 2017 were boys, compared to 74% on 31st July 2016. The very small number of young people in secure care makes it difficult to determine whether this gender imbalance is accidental or not.

Source: Children's Social Work Statistics Scotland 2016/17 (Last updated: March 2018)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Children and Families Page

More equality characteristics for Children and Families: Children and Families Page

Crime and Justice
  • There was no significant difference in the proportion of men and women who were victims of crime in 2016/17, at 13.9% and 13.0% respectively.
  • Women were less likely than men to feel safe walking alone in their neighbourhood after dark in 2016/17 (67% compared to 89% of men)

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2016-17 (Last updated: March 2018)

 

Offenders and Prison Population

  • Males accounted for 83 per cent of all people convicted in but represented a higher proportion of all custodial sentences (91 per cent) totalling 12,548 men.

  • By contrast women accounted for 17 per cent of people convicted compared to a lower proportion for custodial sentences (9 per cent of custodial sentences).

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015/16 (Last updated: January 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Crime and Justice Page

More equality characteristics for Crime and Justice: Crime and Justice Page

Culture
  • Women tended to report slightly higher levels of attendance to cultural events or places than men in 2016. The most common place to visit for both men and women was the cinema, where more than half had been in the last year. The largest differences were in visits to the theatre, libraries and dance events, where attendance rates for men were much lower.
  • Participation in cultural activities were also higher in women than men, and the difference between them was higher than for attendance rates. The 2016 results show that 85% of women said they had participated in some cultural activity in the last year, compared with 73% of men.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Culture and Heritage (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Culture Page

More equality characteristics for Culture: Culture Page

Demographics
  • Scotland had a relatively even split between genders in 2017, with 51% females and 49% males, although this varied amongst age groups. The youngest age groups had a higher male to female ratio as more male babies are born than female, whilst the oldest age groups had a lower male to female ratio as females have longer life expectancy in Scotland.

Source: Mid-2017 Population Estimates Scotland (Last updated: April 2018, NRS)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender Demographics Page

More equality characteristics for Demographics: Demographics Page

Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning

This research has been carried out independently of the Scottish Government, the results are hosted on an external website and the findings do not necessarily represent the views of the Scottish Government or Scottish Ministers

Higher Education

  • 57% of students in Higher Education in 2016-17 were women

  • In Higher Education in 2016-17, most students in Science and Engineering subjects were men (62.9%), while most students were women in Medical Studies (77.4%), Business and Social Studies (61.9%) and Education and the Arts (68.3%).

External Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2016/17 (Published: March 2018, SFC)

 

Modern Apprenticeships

  • In 2016-17, there were more men starting Modern Apprenticeships than women (60% of new starts were men).

  • In 2016-17, 70% of Modern Apprenticeship frameworks had a gender balance of 75:25 or worse.

Source: Modern Apprenticeship Statistics 2016/17 (Skills Development Scotland. Last updated: June 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning Page

More equality characteristics for Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning: Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning Page

Health, Social Care and Sport
  • As at end June 2017, over three-quarters (77.2%) of NHSScotland workforce (whole-time equivalent) were women (107,302.5 WTE employees out of 138,931.4 WTE).

Source: NHS Workforce Statistics (ISD. Last updated: June 2017)

 
  • In 2014-2015 the average mental wellbeing (WEMWBS) score for 13 to 15 year old boys (52.0) was significantly higher than for girls of the same age (49.9).

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • In 2015, male drinkers consumed around twice as much a week on average as female drinkers

Male drinkers consume around twice as much a week on average as female drinkers

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • Men were more likely than women to meet the Moderate or Vigorous Physical Activity guidelines in 2015

Men were more likely than women to meet the Moderate or Vigorous Physical Activity guidelines

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • In 2015, 15% of boys and 14% of girls were at risk of obesity, figures which were identical to those in 1998.
  • The proportion of boys of healthy weight has increased every year since 2011

The proportion of boys of healthy weight has increased every year since 2011

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • Self-reported drug use in Scotland is higher for men than for women.  In 2014/15 8.9% of men reported illicit drug use in the last year compared with 3.4% of women. 

Self-reported drug use in Scotland is higher for men than for women.

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use (Last updated: June 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Health, Social Care and Sport Page

More equality characteristics for Health, Social Care and Sport: Health, Social Care and Sport Page

Housing and Regeneration
  • Women are slightly more likely to rate their neighbourhood as a ‘very good’ place to live than men: 58 per cent  compared to 55 per cent.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016).

 
  • Women are more likely to be long stay residents in care homes than men. In 2016 68% were women whilst 32% were men.

Source: Care Home Census 2016 (Last updated: October 2016)

 
  • Males were the main applicant in 54% of cases assessed as homeless or potentially homeless in 2016/17. Females were the main applicant in 46% of cases.

Source: HL1 dataset (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Housing and Regeneration Page 

More equality characteristics for Housing and Regeneration: Housing and Regeneration Page

Income and Poverty

Relative Poverty after housing costs for single-working age adults, by gender

Relative Poverty, after housing costs, for single working-age adults, by gender

  • In 2014-17, the poverty rate after housing costs of single working-age women, including lone parents, was 30% and 26% for men. Over the past ten years, the poverty rate has been slightly higher for women in most years.

Source: Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland 2014-17 (Last updated: March 2018)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Income and Poverty Page

More equality characteristics for Income and Poverty: Income and Poverty Page

Labour Market

In 2016 in Scotland:

  • 87.2% of men in employment are in full time employment compared to 58.3% of women.

  • 18.1% of men in employment work in the public sector compared to 35.0% of women. Since 2008 there has been a larger reduction in the proportion of women in employment in the public sector than men (2.9 percentage points for women and 0.9 percentage points for men).

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

Employment rates (16-64) by gender for Scotland and UK in 2016, with change over year.

employment rates by gender Scotland UK 2016

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Labour Market page

More equality characteristics for Labour Market: Labour Market Page

Local Government
  • There is no evidence of a difference between men and women's satisfaction with public services overall. In 2016, 56% of men and 56% of women said they were satisfied with local schools, local health services and public transport (as a composite measure).

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Local Services (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Local Government Page

More equality characteristics for Local Government: Local Government Page

 Rural and Environment
  • For men, the life expectancy in remote rural and accessible rural areas was around 79 years in 2013-14, nearly 3 years more than in the rest of Scotland. For women, the life expectancy in rural areas was around 82 years, nearly 2 years more than in the rest of Scotland.

UR_L

Source: Population Estimates by Urban Rural Classification 2011-16 (Last updated: August 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Rural and Environment Page

More equality characteristics for Rural and Environment: Rural and Environment Page

School Education
  • In 2015/16, women school leavers had the highest levels of attainment with 67.3 per cent achieving one or more qualifications at SCQF level 6 or better, compared to 56.3 per cent for men school leavers.

Source: Attainment and Leaver Destinations 2015/16 (Last updated: June 2017)

 
  • In September 2017, 63% of all secondary school teachers were women, however, when broken down by grade, only 41% of secondary school head teachers were women.

Source:  Teacher Census Supplementary Data (Table 3.4. Last updated: March 2018)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and School Education Page

More equality characteristics for School Education: School Education Page

Third Sector
  • In 2015, 67% of the people employed in the third sector were women, compared with 64% in the public sector and 42% in the private sector.

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2015 (Last updated: May 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Third Sector Page

More equality characteristics for Third Sector: Third Sector Page

Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations - Third Sector Evidence Library.

Transport and Travel
  • Men were more likely own a driver's licence than women. 76% of men owned a driving licence compared to 63% of women in 2015.

Source: Transport and Travel in Scotland 2016 (Table 1. Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Transport and Travel Page

More equality characteristics for Transport and Travel: Transport and Travel Page

Publications and Outputs

Publications and Outputs

Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2016 (April 2018) Official statistics publication on equality groups across a range of measures from harmonised questions across the major SG population surveys. This publication is available for individual years, as well as a combined multi-year SSCQ which pools several years of data allowing for more in-depth analysis. This publication provides statistics centred around protected equality characteristics and sub-national geographies: age, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, country of birth, deprivation and Health Board/Police Scotland Division.

 

Scottish Household Survey 2016 (September 2017) This report presents reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households, both nationally and at a sub-national level. This includes analysis of age, deprivation, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion and sexual orientation

 

labour Market Statistics Monthly Briefing Paper (2017) The monthly publication contains headline Labour Market Statistics, trends by gender and youth employment and unemployment.

Characteristics of migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census (October 2016) Compares characteristics (including Age) of migrants from European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA countries with the Scotland-born population and migrants from the rest of the UK.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census: Part 2 (March 2015) Brings together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a highly detailed picture of equality in Scotland. The policy areas covered are Labour Market, Education, Housing and Transport. The BSL section contains data by age.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census: Part 1 (October 2014) Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census, including Ethnicity, Gypsy/Travellers, Religion, Disability and BSL and contains data by age.

Scottish Government Equality Outcomes: Gender Evidence Review (2013) A comprehensive review of available evidence in relation to gender

Forced Marriage Statutory Guidance Analysis Of Consultation Findings (2012) A consultation was carried out by the Scottish Government from March to July 2011 on draft Forced Marriage Statutory Guidance, to inform the final document.

The Position of Scotland’s Equality Groups. Revisiting Resilience in 2011 (2011) This study seeks to offer discussion and analysis to inform an understanding of how well positioned people in Scotland with equalities characteristics are to access the benefits of economic recovery

Reporting on Progress Towards Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men made by Public Authorities in Scotland: Ministerial Priorities for Gender Equality: Tackling Occupational Segregation (2010) This research was carried out to identify progress made by Scottish public authorities in tackling violence against women to enable Scottish Ministers to report against the requirements of the Gender Equality Duty. Four reports and research findings have been published.

 

Reporting on Progress Towards Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men Made by Public Authorities in Scotland: Ministerial Priorities for Gender Equality: Tackling Violence Against Women (2010) This research was carried out to identify progress made by Scottish public authorities in tackling violence against women to enable Scottish Ministers to report against the requirements of the Gender Equality Duty. Four reports and research findings have been published.

 

A Gender Audit of Statistics: Comparing the Position of Women and Men in Scotland (2007) This research provides a review of statistics on gender differences and inequalities in Scotland across a range of key areas of social and economic life.

Violence Against Women: A literature review (2005) Literature review on violence against women.

Data

Data

Scottish Government Survey Data

Scottish Health Survey - Access to Scottish Health Survey data is available via the UK Data Service

Scottish Household Survey - The Scottish Government website provides further information on accessing Scottish Household Survey data

UK Data Archive - Annual Population Survey, Scottish Crime and Justice Survey and Scottish Household Survey microdata is available (through a ‘special licence’ scheme) from the UK Data Archive

Scotland's Census

Scotland's Census Data Explorer - Download data, charts and tables from the 2011 Census

Official Statistics

statistics.gov.scot - Explore, visualise and download over 200 datasets from a range of producers. Start browsing by theme, organisation, or geography. Or access programmatically using our APIs. A range of datasets are available that can be broken down by gender

 

Future Developments

Future Developments

Results from the 2011 Census have been published throughout the year. More detailed data is available on the census website data explorer.

Select below for further information on:

Planned 2011 Census output releases

Census

External Links

External Links

Please note that you will leave the Scottish Government web site by clicking on any of the following links, and that the Scottish Government and its staff are not responsible for content external to this web site. The research below has been carried out independently of the Scottish Government and the findings do not necessarily represent the views of the Scottish Government or Scottish Ministers

External Publications and Outputs

The Pursuit of Gender Equality: An uphill battle (OECD, October 2017) An OECD report looking at progress towards gender equality. Topics include violence against women, gender budgeting, the unequal sharing of unpaid work, labour market outcomes and migration

Scotland's Councillors 2017-22 (Improvement Service, 2017) his report presents the findings of a survey of all councillors in Scotland following the May 2012 local elections. It includes age, ethnicity, gender and religion of councillors in Scotland

Pregnancy and maternity-related discrimination and disadvantage (BIS and EHRC, 2016) Results of research on pregnancy and maternity-related discrimination and disadvantage in the workplace.

Public sector equality duty: Guidance for reporting on gender and employment, equal pay, and occupational segregation (Close the Gap, 2016) Guidance providing information to help Scottish public authorities meet the public sector equality duty as it relates to gender and employment

How does personal well-being vary by sex, disability, ethnicity and religion? (ONS, 2015) Report exploring differences in personal well-being rating for different equality groups. It includes disability, ethnicity, gender and religion

External Research Organisations

Close the Gap - Work to close the gender pay gap

Engender - Work to increase women's power and influence, to make equality a reality in Scotland

Glasgow Women's Library - Information hub relating to women's lives, histories and achievements

Scottish Women's Convention - Works to ensure women in Scotland can influence the policies which affect them

Equality and Human Rights Commission - The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) encourages equality and diversity, and is responsible for enforcing the Equality Act. EHRC produce research and analysis on equality characteristics

Government Equalities Office - The Government Equalities Office (GEO) is part of the UK Government and publishes research and analysis relating to equality legislation in the UK