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Summary: Gender

The Scottish Government have published a guidance note on collecting information on gender.

2016 population infographic

Business, Enterprise and Tourism
  • In 2016, out of the 327,200 self-employed people in Scotland 112,900 were women (35%) while 214,400 were men (65%).  Female self-employment has increased over recent years, from 76,000 in 2007 to 112,900 in 2016, representing a rise of 49%. Although male self-employment also experienced a rise over the same time period, it was significantly smaller at 14%.
  • In Scotland, the female self-employment rate (self-employed as a proportion of those in employment) was 9% in 2016 – lower than the male self-employment rate at 16%, but an increase of around 3 percentage points since 2007. The male self-employment rate increased by around 2 percentages point over the same period.
  • There are more self-employed men than self-employed women in all broad industrial sectors, with the exception of ‘Public Administration, Education and Health’ (in 2016, women made up 67% of the self-employed workforce in the sector) and ‘Other services’ (in 2016, women made up 61% of the self-employed workforce in the sector).  Around 48% of all self-employed women work in these two sectors alone – compared to 14% of self-employed men.

male female self employment rates 2016

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Business, Enterprise and Tourism

More equality characteristics for Business, Enterprise and Tourism: Business, Enterprise and Tourism Page

Children and Families
  • There were 4,116 children who started to be looked after during 1 August 2015 and 31 July 2016 - 54% were boys and 46% were girls.
  • There were 2,723 children on the child protection register as at 31 July 2016. There is no strong gender pattern among children on the child protection register – 49% were boys, 47% were girls and the remaining four per cent were unborn children.

Source: Children's Social Work Statistics: Additional Tables 2015/16 (Last updated: March 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Children and Families Page

More equality characteristics for Children and Families: Children and Families Page

Crime and Justice

Crime

  • The risk of being a victim of any crime was slightly higher for men than for women. 15.6% of men had been the victim of at least one crime compared with 13.6% of women.
  • Women were less likely than men to feel safe walking alone in their neighbourhood after dark (64% compared to 86% of men)

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15 (Last updated: March 2016)

 

Offenders and Prison Population

  • Males accounted for 83 per cent of all people convicted in but represented a higher proportion of all custodial sentences (91 per cent) totalling 12,548 men.

  • By contrast women accounted for 17 per cent of people convicted compared to a lower proportion for custodial sentences (9 per cent of custodial sentences).

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015/16 (Last updated: January 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Crime and Justice Page

More equality characteristics for Crime and Justice: Crime and Justice Page

Culture
  • Women tended to report slightly higher levels of attendance to cultural events or places than men in 2016. The most common place to visit for both men and women was the cinema, where more than half had been in the last year. The largest differences were in visits to the theatre, libraries and dance events, where attendance rates for men were much lower.
  • Participation in cultural activities were also higher in women than men, and the difference between them was higher than for attendance rates. The 2016 results show that 85% of women said they had participated in some cultural activity in the last year, compared with 73% of men.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Culture and Heritage (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Culture Page

More equality characteristics for Culture: Culture Page

Demographics
  • In 2016, 51% of Scotland‘s population were women and 49% were men. This proportion has not changed much since 1947.

Source: Mid Year Population Estimates Scotland Mid-2016 (NRS. Last updated: April 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender Demographics Page

More equality characteristics for Demographics: Demographics Page

Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning

Higher Education

  • Over half (56.5%) of students in Higher Education in 2015-16 were women.

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2015/16 (SFC. Last updated: March 2017)

 

Modern Apprenticeships

  • In 2016-17, there were more men starting Modern Apprenticeships than women (60% of new starts were men).

  • In 2016-17, 70% of Modern Apprenticeship frameworks had a gender balance of 75:25 or worse.

Source: Modern Apprenticeship Statistics 2016/17 (Skills Development Scotland. Last updated: June 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning Page

More equality characteristics for Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning: Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning Page

Health, Social Care and Sport
  • As at end June 2017, over three-quarters (77.2%) of NHSScotland workforce (whole-time equivalent) were women (107,302.5 WTE employees out of 138,931.4 WTE).

Source: NHS Workforce Statistics (ISD. Last updated: June 2017)

 
  • In 2014-2015 the average mental wellbeing (WEMWBS) score for 13 to 15 year old boys (52.0) was significantly higher than for girls of the same age (49.9).

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • In 2015, male drinkers consumed around twice as much a week on average as female drinkers

Male drinkers consume around twice as much a week on average as female drinkers

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • Men were more likely than women to meet the Moderate or Vigorous Physical Activity guidelines in 2015

Men were more likely than women to meet the Moderate or Vigorous Physical Activity guidelines

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • In 2015, 15% of boys and 14% of girls were at risk of obesity, figures which were identical to those in 1998.
  • The proportion of boys of healthy weight has increased every year since 2011

The proportion of boys of healthy weight has increased every year since 2011

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 
  • Self-reported drug use in Scotland is higher for men than for women.  In 2014/15 8.9% of men reported illicit drug use in the last year compared with 3.4% of women. 

Self-reported drug use in Scotland is higher for men than for women.

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use (Last updated: June 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Health, Social Care and Sport Page

More equality characteristics for Health, Social Care and Sport: Health, Social Care and Sport Page

Housing and Regeneration
  • Women are slightly more likely to rate their neighbourhood as a ‘very good’ place to live than men: 58 per cent  compared to 55 per cent.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016).

 
  • Women are more likely to be long stay residents in care homes than men. In 2016 68% were women whilst 32% were men.

Source: Care Home Census 2016 (Last updated: October 2016)

 
  • Males were the main applicant in 54% of cases assessed as homeless or potentially homeless in 2016/17. Females were the main applicant in 46% of cases.

Source: HL1 dataset (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Housing and Regeneration Page 

More equality characteristics for Housing and Regeneration: Housing and Regeneration Page

Income and Poverty
  • After housing costs, the rates of poverty for men and women have been similar over the last 10 years. In 2015-16  19% of women and 18% of men were in poverty AHC.

  • The rates of poverty are higher for single working age adults than the population as a whole, though there has generally been little difference between men and women. In 2015-16, 27% of single working age women without children were in poverty after housing costs, compared with 27% of single working age men.

 Relative Poverty AHC Gender

Source: Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland 2015/16: Additional Analysis (Last updated: June 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Income and Poverty Page

More equality characteristics for Income and Poverty: Income and Poverty Page

Labour Market

In 2016 in Scotland:

  • 87.2% of men in employment are in full time employment compared to 58.3% of women.

  • 18.1% of men in employment work in the public sector compared to 35.0% of women. Since 2008 there has been a larger reduction in the proportion of women in employment in the public sector than men (2.9 percentage points for women and 0.9 percentage points for men).

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

Employment rates (16-64) by gender for Scotland and UK in 2016, with change over year.

employment rates by gender Scotland UK 2016

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Labour Market page

More equality characteristics for Labour Market: Labour Market Page

Local Government
  • There is no evidence of a difference between men and women's satisfaction with public services overall. In 2016, 56% of men and 56% of women said they were satisfied with local schools, local health services and public transport (as a composite measure).

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Local Services (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Local Government Page

More equality characteristics for Local Government: Local Government Page

 Rural and Environment
  • For men, the life expectancy in remote rural and accessible rural areas was around 79 years in 2013-14, nearly 3 years more than in the rest of Scotland. For women, the life expectancy in rural areas was around 82 years, nearly 2 years more than in the rest of Scotland.

UR_L

Source: Population Estimates by Urban Rural Classification 2011-16 (Last updated: August 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Rural and Environment Page

More equality characteristics for Rural and Environment: Rural and Environment Page

School Education
  • In 2015/16, women school leavers had the highest levels of attainment with 67.3 per cent achieving one or more qualifications at SCQF level 6 or better, compared to 56.3 per cent for men school leavers.

Source: Attainment and Leaver Destinations 2015/16 (Last updated: June 2017)

 
  • In September 2016, 63% of all secondary school teachers were women, however, when broken down by grade, only 41% of secondary school head teachers were women.

Source: Teacher Census 2016: Supplementary Data (Last updated: December 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and School Education Page

More equality characteristics for School Education: School Education Page

Third Sector
  • In 2015, 67% of the people employed in the third sector were women, compared with 64% in the public sector and 42% in the private sector.

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2015 (Last updated: May 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Third Sector Page

More equality characteristics for Third Sector: Third Sector Page

Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations - Third Sector Evidence Library.

Transport and Travel
  • Men were more likely own a driver's licence than women. 76% of men owned a driving licence compared to 63% of women in 2015.

Source: Scottish Transport Statistics 2016 (Table 1. Last updated: February 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Gender and Transport and Travel Page

More equality characteristics for Transport and Travel: Transport and Travel Page

Publications and Outputs

Publications and Outputs

Scottish Household Survey 2016 (September 2017) This report presents reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households, both nationally and at a sub-national level. This includes analysis of age, deprevation, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion and sexual orientation

 

Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2015 (November 2016) Official statistics publication on equality groups across a range of measures from harmonised questions across the major SG population surveys. This publication provides statistics centred around protected equality characteristics and sub-national geographies: age, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, country of birth, deprivation and Health Board/Police Scotland Division.

Characteristics of migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census (October 2016) Compares characteristics (including Age) of migrants from European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA countries with the Scotland-born population and migrants from the rest of the UK.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2 (March 2015) Brings together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a highly detailed picture of equality in Scotland. The policy areas covered are Labour Market, Education, Housing and Transport. The BSL section contains data by age.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (October 2014) Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census, including Ethnicity, Gypsy/Travellers, Religion, Disability and BSL and contains data by age.

Forced Marriage Statutory Guidance Analysis Of Consultation Findings (2012) A consulation was carried out by the Scottish Government from March to July 2011 on draft Forced Marriage Statutory Guidance, to inform the final document.

The Position of Scotland’s Equality Groups. Revisiting Resilience in 2011 (2011) This study seeks to offer discussion and analysis to inform an understanding of how well positioned people in Scotland with equalities characteristics are to access the benefits of economic recovery

Reporting on Progress Towards Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men made by Public Authorities in Scotland: Ministerial Priorities for Gender Equality: Tackling Occupational Segregation (2010) This research was carried out to identify progress made by Scottish public authorities in tackling violence against women to enable Scottish Ministers to report against the requirements of the Gender Equality Duty. Four reports and research findings have been published.

 

Reporting on Progress Towards Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men Made by Public Authorities in Scotland: Ministerial Priorities for Gender Equality: Tackling Violence Against Women (2010) This research was carried out to identify progress made by Scottish public authorities in tackling violence against women to enable Scottish Ministers to report against the requirements of the Gender Equality Duty. Four reports and research findings have been published.

 

A Gender Audit of Statistics: Comparing the Position of Women and Men in Scotland (2007) This research provides a review of statistics on gender differences and inequalities in Scotland across a range of key areas of social and economic life.

Violence Against Women: A literature review (2005) Literature review on violence against women.

Data

Data

Scottish Government Survey data

Scottish Household Survey - Information on how to access Scottish Household Survey data.

UK Data Archive - Annual Population Survey, Scottish Crime and Justice Survey and Scottish Household Survey microdata is available (through a ‘special licence’ scheme).

Scottish Health Survey data can be accessed via the UK Data Service

2011 Census data

Scotland's Census Data Explorer - download data, charts and tables from the 2011 Census.

Official Statistics

statistics.gov.scot  provides access to the official statistics datasets, which can be broken down by gender, for example:

Future Developments

Future Developments

Results from the 2011 Census have been published throughout the year. More detailed data is available on the census website data explorer.

Select below for further information on:

Planned 2011 Census output releases

Census

External Links

External Links

Please note that you will leave the Scottish Government web site by clicking on any of the following links, and that the Scottish Government and its staff are not responsible for content external to this web site. The research below has been carried out independently of the Scottish Government and the findings do not necessarily represent the views of the Scottish Government or Scottish Ministers

External Publications and Outputs

The Pursuit of Gender Equality: An uphill battle (OECD, October 2017) An OECD report looking at progress towards gender equality. Topics include violence against women, gender budgeting, the unequal sharing of unpaid work, labour market outcomes and migration

Pregnancy and maternity-related discrimination and disadvantage (BIS and EHRC, 2016) Results of research on pregnancy and maternity-related discrimination and disadvantage in the workplace.

Public sector equality duty: Guidance for reporting on gender and employment, equal pay, and occupational segregation (Close the Gap, 2016) Guidance providing information to help Scottish public authorities meet the public sector equality duty as it relates to gender and employment

How does personal well-being vary by sex, disability, ethnicity and religion? (ONS, 2015) Report exploring differences in personal well-being rating for different equality groups. It includes disability, ethnicity, gender and religion

External Research Organisations

Close the Gap - Work to close the gender pay gap

Engender - Work to increase women's power and influence, to make equality a reality in Scotland

Glasgow Women's Library - Information hub relating to women's lives, histories and achievements

Scottish Women's Convention - Works to ensure women in Scotland can influence the policies which affect them

Equality and Human Rights Commission - The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) encourages equality and diversity, and is responsible for enforcing the Equality Act. EHRC produce research and analysis on equality characteristics

Government Equalities Office - The Government Equalities Office (GEO) is part of the UK Government and publishes research and analysis relating to equality legislation in the UK