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Summary: Ethnicity

Scottish Government have published a guidance note on collecting information on ethnic group.

Ethnic Group SSCQ 2014

Business, Enterprise and Tourism
  • Self-employment rates tend to be higher for minority ethnic groups. In 2016, the self-employment rate for ethnic minorities was 16% compared to 13% for those of white ethnic origin.

Source: Annual Population Survey (January to December)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Business, Enterprise and Tourism Page

More equality characteristics for Business, Enterprise and Tourism: Business, Enterprise and Tourism Page

 Children and Families
  • At 31 July 2016, 88% of all children looked after were reported as being from a ‘White’ ethnic group, with a further 4% being from ‘Mixed Ethnicity’, ‘Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British’, ‘Black , Black Scottish or Black British’, or ‘Other’ ethnic groups. Please note that 8% were reported as having a ‘Not Disclosed/Not Known’ ethnic group.
  • At 31 July 2016, 74% of all children on children protection registers were reported as being from a ‘White’ ethnic group, with a further 5% being from ‘Mixed or Multiple Ethnicity’, ‘Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British’, ‘African, Caribbean or Black’, or ‘Other’ ethnic groups. Please note that 21% of all children on child protection registers were reported as having a ‘Not Known’ ethnic group.

Source: Scottish Government, Additional Tables that accompany the 'Children's Social Work Statistics' publication

  • 8.6% of children who were registered for early learning and childcare (ELC) in September 2016 had a  home language which was not English.

Source: Additional Tables that accompany the 'Summary Statistics for Schools in Scotland, 2016 Edition' publication

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Children and Families Page

More equality characteristics for Children and Families: Children and Families Page

Crime and Justice
Offence aggravations
  • Offence aggravation data show that in 2015-16 761 people were convicted in Scottish courts of an offence with an associated racial aggravation.

  • Over half of these were for a main charge of breach of the peace or common assault.

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland, 2015-16 (Table 13)

 

  • In 2013-14, where the ethnicity of the victim/complainer was known, those with a ‘Pakistani’ ethnic background were the most likely to be the victim/complainer of a racist incident recorded by the police with 224.2 victims/complainers per 10,000 population. This was followed by ‘African, Caribbean or Other Black’ with 189.9 victims/complainers recorded per 10,000 population. The Scottish average across all ethnic backgrounds was 10.6 victims/complainers per 10,000 population.
  • Where information on the ethnic group of perpetrators was available, in 2013-14, 90.4% of perpetrators of a racist incident recorded by the police were of ‘White British’ ethnic background (which includes ‘White Scottish’ and ‘White English’) and 4.9% of perpetrators were of an ‘Other White’ ethnic background (which includes ‘White Polish’ and ‘White Irish’).

Source: Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland, 2013-14

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Crime and Justice Page

More equality characteristics for Crime and Justice: Crime and Justice Page

Culture

Results on ethnicity should be treated with caution due to sample sizes.

  • In 2013, the percentage of adults who engaged in culture in the previous 12 months (those who attended a cultural event or place or participated in a cultural activity) varied by ethnicity of respondents, although it is not possible to obtain detailed information on many groups. Cultural engagement of the white ethnic group was 91%, and 90% for other minority ethnic groups.

Source:  People, Culture and Heritage in Scotland - Topic Report on results from the 2013 Scottish Household Survey

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Culture Page

More equality characteristics for Culture: Culture Page

Demographics

Detailed population estimates by ethnic group are available through Scotland's 2011 Census.

  • The size of the minority ethnic population in 2011 was just over 200,000 or 4% of the total population of Scotland (based on the 2011 ethnicity classification); this has doubled since 2001 when just over 100,000 or 2% of the total population of Scotland (based on the 2001 ethnicity classification) were from a minority ethnic group.

Source: Scotland's 2011 Census (Table 2)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity Demographics Page

More equality characteristics for Demgraphics: Demographics Page

Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning
  • In Higher Education, students who declared their ethnicity to be 'White' constituted 88.2% of all students with an ethnicity recorded in 2014-15. Students who declared their ethnicity to be Chinese were the second largest ethnic group (2.6%) and those who declared their ethnicity to be African were the third largest ethnic group (1.9%).

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers, 2014-15

 

  • In 2015-16, 92.9% of young people (aged 16-19) from ethnic minority groups were participating in education, employment or training, compared to 90.3% of those from non-minority ethnic groups. Young people from ethnic minority groups showed higher levels of participation in education.

Source: Annual Participation Measure 2016, Skills Development Scotland

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning page

More equality characteristics for Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning: Employability, Skills, and Lifelong Learning page

Health, Social Care and Sport
  • In 2014, when the differing age profile of ethnic groups are taken into account, the "White: Other British" and "White: Other" groups have significantly higher levels of good/very good general health compared to the "White: Scottish" majority.
  • Source: Scottish Surveys Core Questions (SSCQ) 2014

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Health, Social Care and Sport Page

More equality characteristics for Health, Social Care and Sport: Health, Social Care and Sport Page

Housing and Regeneration
  • People who live in social rented accommodation are more likely to identify as being of ‘White Scottish’ ethnicity  than the population as a whole: 85 per cent  compared to 78 per cent.

Source: Scottish Survey Core Questions, 2014.

 

  • People in the private rented sector are more likely to identify as ‘White other British’, ‘White Polish’, ‘White other’ or ‘Asian’ than the population as a whole.

Source: Scottish Survey Core Questions, 2014.

 

  • The analysis of ethnicity within the homelessness data is slightly complicated by the fact that it also contains a number of cases where the applicant has been given leave to remain or refugee status.  These applicants originally came from abroad but are now lawfully present in the UK.  We therefore analyse the data in two parts – UK and EU nationals (which we compare with the Scottish population) and those granted leave to remain/refugee status.

     There were around 27,000 cases assessed as homeless during 2015/16, who were entitled to apply for assistance as a result of their UK or EU nationality.   The ethnic composition of this group is broadly in line with that for the Scottish population as a whole.  The proportion of white homeless is around 92% in the homelessness data compared with 96% for Scotland (taken from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) 2015).  However, there are some differences within the white population.  The proportion of cases from a white: Scottish background is higher than in the population as a whole (83% compared to 79% for Scotland).  At the same time the proportion of white: other British - is also less than in the wider population (6% compared to 12% for Scotland). The proportion of Asian homeless is slightly less than in the wider population (0.7% compared with 2.4% for Scotland).

     There were around  1,500 cases assessed as homeless during 2015/16, who were entitled to apply after being granted leave to remain or refugee status. Of these, 3% described themselves as white: other (and outside of the EU),  7% as Asian, 15% as Black and 60% as other.

    Source: HL1 Dataset as at 25 May 2016 and Scottish Household Survey 2015

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Housing and Regeneration Page

More equality characteristics for Housing and Regeneration: Housing and Regeneration Page

Income and Poverty
  • Based on data for 2012/13 to 2014/15, people from minority ethnic (non-white) groups were twice as likely to be in poverty, both before and after housing costs, compared to those from the 'White - British' group.
  • Before housing costs, 28% of people from minority ethnic (non-white) groups were in poverty, compared with 14% of ‘White – British’ people.
  • After housing costs, 34% of people from minority ethnic (non-white) groups were in poverty, compared with 17% of ‘White – British’ people.

Source: Income and Poverty – Equality Analysis

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Income and Poverty Page

More equality characteristics for Income and Poverty: Income and Poverty Page

Labour Market
  • In 2016 the employment rate for people from minority ethnic groups decreased by 1.3 percentage points over the year, from 58.9% to 57.6%.

Source: Annual Population Survey

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Labour Market Page

More equality characteristics for Labour Market: Labour Market Page

Local Government
  • In 2015 a higher proportion of people from minority ethnic backgrounds (61%) expressed satisfaction with local schools, local health care and public transport (as a composite measure) compared to people from a 'White' ethnic group (57%).

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2015)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Local Government Page

More equality characteristics for Local Government: Local Government Page

Rural and Environment
  • The 2011 Census showed that households where the Household Reference Person (HRP) was from a minority ethnic group were more likely to be in urban areas in Scotland. The vast majority of 'African' households were in large urban areas (85%) compared to only 40% of all households.

Source: Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (2014)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Rural and Environment Page 

More equality characteristics for Rural and Environment: Rural and Environment Page

School Education
  • In 2015/16, school leavers who identified their ethnicity as Asian-Chinese had the highest levels of attainment with 91.8 per cent of leavers achieving at least one qualification at SCQF level 6 or better, far higher than the percentage for leavers with an ethnicity of White-Scottish (61.1 per cent achieving this level).

Source: Summary Statistics for Attainment, Leaver Destinations and Healthy Living, No 7: 2017 Edition, table 6 

  • In September 2015, 1.3% of school teachers recorded a minority ethnic background. The majority were from a white ethnic background (94.4%).

Source:  Summary statistics for schools in Scotland, Table 3.4

  • Data on the ethnicity of pupils in publicly-funded schools in Scotland from the Pupil Census in 2015 shows that 87% of pupils were recorded as being white Scottish or white other British. The largest other ethnic backgrounds include white other (4.4 per cent), Asian Pakistani (1.9 per cent) and mixed (1.2 per cent).

Source: Summary statistics for schools in Scotland, Table 4.5

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and School Education Page

More equality characteristics for School Education: School Education Page

Third Sector
  • In 2015, 2% of volunteers were from an ethnic group other than 'white'.

Source: Scottish Household Survey (2015)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Third Sector Page

More equality characteristics for Third Sector: Third Sector Page

Transport and Travel
  • Indian, Pakistani and Chinese households are most likely to have access to a car.  African households are least likely to.  At the time of the 2011 census, three quarters of households in Scotland had access to a car or van. The proportion was over 80% for Pakistani and White: Other British households and lowest (47%) for African households.

Source: Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2 (2015)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Transport and Travel Page 

More equality characteristics for Transport and Travel: Transport and Travel Page

Publications and Output

Publications and Output

Scottish Household Survey 2015 (2016) - This report presents reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics (including ethnic group) and behaviour of Scottish households, both nationally and at a sub-national level.

Scottish Household Survey Local Authority Tables 2015 (2016) - The SHS Annual Report presents reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households at a national level. The SHS 2015 Local Authority Tables provide comparable information at sub-national level (including for ethnic group).

Characteristics of migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census (Revised October 2016) Compares characteristics (including ethnic group) of migrants from European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA countries with the Scotland-born population and migrants from the rest of the UK.

Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2014 (2016) - Official statistics publication on equality groups across a range of measures from harmonised questions across the major SG population surveys. This publication provides statistics centred around protected equality characteristics and sub-national geographies: age and sex, disability, ethnic groups, religion, sexual orientation, country of birth, deprivation and Health Board/Police Scotland Division.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2 (2015) - Brings together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a highly detailed picture of equality in Scotland. The policy areas covered are Labour Market, Education, Housing and Transport. Chapter 1 presents an analysis of ethnicity in relation to these groups

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (2014) - Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census, including Ethnicity, Religion, and Disability.

Overview of Equality Results from the 2011 Census Release 2 - This paper provides further analysis of equality data originally released from the Census by the National Records of Scotland (NRS). It pulls this together into a user friendly format providing new analysis and insight, particularly around deprivation. The main equality strands included in the paper are ethnicity, religion and disability.

Scottish Government Equality Outcomes: Ethnicity Evidence Review (2013) - a comprehensive review of the available evidence relating to ethnicity, across the policy areas.

Scottish Social Attitudes survey 2010: Attitudes to discrimination and positive action - Research Findings (2011) - This paper summarises the key findings from a module of the Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2010 looking at attitudes towards discrimination and positive action in Scotland.

Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census (2004)  - The report presents results across the main policy areas covered in the Census analysed by ethnic group.

Data

Data

The Scottish Government website provides further information on accessing Scottish Household Survey data.

Annual Population Survey, Scottish Crime and Justice Survey and Scottish Household Survey microdata is available (through a ‘special licence’ scheme) from the UK Data Archive.

Scottish Health Survey - via UK Data Service.

Scotland's Census Data Explorer - download data, charts and tables from the 2011 Census.

statistics.gov.scot  provides access to the official statistics datasets, which can be broken down by ethnicity.

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept-scheme/ethnicity

A range of ethnicity categories can be selected, for example:

Asian

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/ethnicity/asian

Black

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/ethnicity/black

Chinese

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/ethnicity/chinese

Mixed

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/ethnicity/mixed

Other

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/ethnicity/other

White

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/ethnicity/white

Future Developments

Results from the 2011 Census have been published throughout the year. More detailed data is available on the census website data explorer.

Select below for further information on:

Planned 2011 Census output releases

Census

External Links

Please note that you will leave the Scottish Government web site by clicking on any of the following links, and that the Scottish Government and its staff are not responsible for content external to this web site. Any research has been carried out independently of the Scottish Government and the findings do not necessarily represent the views of the Scottish Government or Scottish Ministers.

External Publications and Outputs

UK Ethnicity Facts and Figures (UK Government, October 2017) - This website brings together a range of UK government statistics covering ethnicity.  It includes crime, culture, education, health, housing and work.

How does personal well-being vary by sex, disability, ethnicity and religion?  (ONS, 2015) - Reports that different equality groups have different personal well-being ratings, reporting that some ethnic minority and religious minority groups reported lower personal well-being scores than others.

Interactive census profiler (CoDE) The Economic and Social Research Council's Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity (CoDE) has produced an excel-based  that allows users to create tailored census analysis using England and Wales data.

External Organisations

BEMIS  -Support for the ethnic minority voluntary sector in Scotland.

Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (CRER) - Tackles racial inequality and promotes racial justice across Scotland.

Council of Ethnic Minority Voluntary Sector Organisations (Scotland) - Intermediary organisation for Scotland’s ethnic minority voluntary sector and its communities.