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Summary: Ethnicity

Scottish Government have published a guidance note on collecting information on ethnic group.

Adults by ethnic group, 2015

Business, Enterprise and Tourism
  • Self-employment rates tend to be higher for minority ethnic groups. In 2016, the self-employment rate for ethnic minorities was 16% compared to 13% for those of white ethnic origin.

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Business, Enterprise and Tourism Page

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 Children and Families
  • At 31 July 2016, 88% of all children looked after were reported as being from a ‘White’ ethnic group, with a further 4% being from ‘Mixed Ethnicity’, ‘Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British’, ‘Black , Black Scottish or Black British’, or ‘Other’ ethnic groups. Please note that 8% were reported as having a ‘Not Disclosed/Not Known’ ethnic group.
  • At 31 July 2016, 74% of all children on children protection registers were reported as being from a ‘White’ ethnic group, with a further 5% being from ‘Mixed or Multiple Ethnicity’, ‘Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British’, ‘African, Caribbean or Black’, or ‘Other’ ethnic groups. Please note that 21% of all children on child protection registers were reported as having a ‘Not Known’ ethnic group.

Source: Children's Social Work Statistics: Additional Tables 2015/16 (Last updated: March 2017)

 
  • 8.6% of children who were registered for early learning and childcare (ELC) in September 2016 had a  home language which was not English.

Source: Summary Statistics for Schools, No. 7: 2016 Edition: Early Learning and Childcare (Last updated: December 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Children and Families Page

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Crime and Justice

Offence aggravations

  • Offence aggravation data show that in 2015-16 761 people were convicted in Scottish courts of an offence with an associated racial aggravation.

  • Over half of these were for a main charge of breach of the peace or common assault.

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2015/16 (Table 13. Last updated: January 2017)

 

Racist Incidents

  • In 2013-14, where the ethnicity of the victim/complainer was known, those with a ‘Pakistani’ ethnic background were the most likely to be the victim/complainer of a racist incident recorded by the police with 224.2 victims/complainers per 10,000 population. This was followed by ‘African, Caribbean or Other Black’ with 189.9 victims/complainers recorded per 10,000 population. The Scottish average across all ethnic backgrounds was 10.6 victims/complainers per 10,000 population.
  • Where information on the ethnic group of perpetrators was available, in 2013-14, 90.4% of perpetrators of a racist incident recorded by the police were of ‘White British’ ethnic background (which includes ‘White Scottish’ and ‘White English’) and 4.9% of perpetrators were of an ‘Other White’ ethnic background (which includes ‘White Polish’ and ‘White Irish’).

Source: Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland 2013/14 (Last updated: November 2015)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Crime and Justice Page

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Culture
  • In 2013, the percentage of adults who engaged in culture in the previous 12 months (those who attended a cultural event or place or participated in a cultural activity) varied by ethnicity of respondents, although it is not possible to obtain detailed information on many groups. Cultural engagement of the white ethnic group was 91%, and 90% for other minority ethnic groups.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2013: People, Culture and Heritage in Scotland (Last updated: January 2015)

Note: Results on ethnicity should be treated with caution due to sample sizes. Results for more recent years are not currently available

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Culture Page

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Demographics

Detailed population estimates by ethnic group are available through Scotland's 2011 Census.

  • The size of the minority ethnic population in 2011 was just over 200,000 or 4% of the total population of Scotland (based on the 2011 ethnicity classification); this has doubled since 2001 when just over 100,000 or 2% of the total population of Scotland (based on the 2001 ethnicity classification) were from a minority ethnic group.

Source: 2011 Census: Release 2A (Table 2)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity Demographics Page

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Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning
  • In Higher Education, students who declared their ethnicity to be 'White' constituted 87.7% of all students with an ethnicity recorded in 2015-16. Students who declared their ethnicity to be Chinese were the second largest ethnic group (2.7%) and those who declared their ethnicity to be African were the third largest ethnic group (1.9%).

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2015/16 (Last updated: March 2017)

 
  • In 2015-16, 92.9% of young people (aged 16-19) from ethnic minority groups were participating in education, employment or training, compared to 90.3% of those from non-minority ethnic groups.

Source: Participation Measure 2016 (Skills Development Scotland. Last updated: August 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning page

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Health, Social Care and Sport
  • In 2014, when the differing age profile of ethnic groups are taken into account, the "White: Other British" and "White: Other" groups have significantly higher levels of good/very good general health compared to the "White: Scottish" majority.

Source: Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2014 (Last updated: May 2016)

 

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Housing and Regeneration
  • People who live in social rented accommodation are more likely to identify as being of ‘White Scottish’ ethnicity  than the population as a whole: 85 per cent  compared to 78 per cent.

Source: Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2014 (Last updated: May 2016)

 
  • People in the private rented sector are more likely to identify as ‘White other British’, ‘White Polish’, ‘White other’ or ‘Asian’ than the population as a whole.

Source: Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2014 (Last updated: May 2016)

 
  • The analysis of ethnicity within the homelessness data is slightly complicated by the fact that it also contains a number of cases where the applicant has been given leave to remain or refugee status.  These applicants originally came from abroad but are now lawfully present in the UK.  We therefore analyse the data in two parts – UK and EU nationals (which we compare with the Scottish population) and those granted leave to remain/refugee status.
  •  There were around 27,000 cases assessed as homeless during 2016/17, who were entitled to apply for assistance as a result of their UK or EU nationality.   The ethnic composition of this group is broadly in line with that for the Scottish population as a whole.  The proportion of white homeless is around 91% in the homelessness data compared with 96% for Scotland (taken from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) 2017).  However, there are some differences within the white population.  The proportion of cases from a white: Scottish background is higher than in the population as a whole (82% compared to 79% for Scotland).  At the same time the proportion of white: other British - is also less than in the wider population (6% compared to 12% for Scotland). The proportion of Asian homeless is slightly less than in the wider population (0.8% compared with 2.3% for Scotland).
  • There were around 1,400 cases assessed as homeless during 2016/17, who were entitled to apply after being granted leave to remain or refugee status. Of these, 3% described themselves as white: other (and outside of the EU),  9% as Asian, 17% as Black and 54% as ‘other’

Source: HL1 dataset (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Housing and Regeneration Page

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Income and Poverty
  • People from minority ethnic (non-white) groups were more likely to be in poverty, both before and after housing costs, compared to those from the 'White - British' group (combined data for 2013/14 to 2015/16).

Relative poverty, after housing costs, by ethnicity

Source: Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland 2015/16: Additional Analysis (Last updated: June 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Income and Poverty Page

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Labour Market
  • In 2016 the employment rate for people from minority ethnic groups decreased by 1.3 percentage points over the year, from 58.9% to 57.6%.

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Labour Market Page

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Local Government
  • In 2016 a higher proportion of people from minority ethnic backgrounds (64%) expressed satisfaction with local schools, local health care and public transport (as a composite measure) compared to people from a 'White' ethnic group (56%).

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Local Services (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Local Government Page

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Rural and Environment
  • The 2011 Census showed that households where the Household Reference Person (HRP) was from a minority ethnic group were more likely to be in urban areas in Scotland. The vast majority of 'African' households were in large urban areas (85%) compared to only 40% of all households.

Source: Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (Last updated: October 2014)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Rural and Environment Page 

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School Education
  • In 2015/16, school leavers who identified their ethnicity as Asian-Chinese had the highest levels of attainment with 91.8 per cent of leavers achieving at least one qualification at SCQF level 6 or better, far higher than the percentage for leavers with an ethnicity of White-Scottish (61.1 per cent achieving this level).

Source: Attainment and Leaver Destinations 2015/16 (Table 6. Last updated: June 2017)

 
  • In September 2016, 1.4% of school teachers recorded a minority ethnic background. The majority were from a white ethnic background (93.6%).

Source: Summary Statistics for Schools in Scotland, No.7: 2016 Edition (Table 3.4. Last updated: December 2016)

 
  • Data on the ethnicity of pupils in publicly-funded schools in Scotland from the Pupil Census in 2016 shows that 86.2% of pupils were recorded as being white Scottish or white other British. The largest other ethnic backgrounds include white other (4.9 per cent), Asian Pakistani (1.9 per cent) and mixed (1.2 per cent).

Source: Summary Statistics for Schools in Scotland, No.7: 2016 Edition (Table 4.5. Last updated: December 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and School Education Page

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Third Sector
  • In 2016, 2% of volunteers were from an ethnic group other than 'white'.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Volunteering (Last updated: September 2017)

 

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Transport and Travel
  • Indian, Pakistani and Chinese households are most likely to have access to a car.  African households are least likely to.  At the time of the 2011 census, three quarters of households in Scotland had access to a car or van. The proportion was over 80% for Pakistani and White: Other British households and lowest (47%) for African households.

Source: Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2 (Last updated: March 2015)

 

More facts on this topic: Ethnicity and Transport and Travel Page 

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Publications and Output

Publications and Outputs

Scottish Household Survey 2016 (September 2017) This report presents reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households, both nationally and at a sub-national level. This includes analysis of age, deprevation, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion and sexual orientation

 

Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2015 (November 2016) Official statistics publication on equality groups across a range of measures from harmonised questions across the major SG population surveys. This publication provides statistics centred around protected equality characteristics and sub-national geographies: age, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, country of birth, deprivation and Health Board/Police Scotland Division.

Characteristics of migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census (October 2016) Compares characteristics (including Age) of migrants from European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA countries with the Scotland-born population and migrants from the rest of the UK.

Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2015: Attitudes to Discrimination and Positive Action (2016) This report explores attitudes to discrimination and positive action in Scotland in relation to: age, disability, gender, race, religion, gender reassignment and sexual orientation.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2 (March 2015) Brings together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a highly detailed picture of equality in Scotland. The policy areas covered are Labour Market, Education, Housing and Transport. The BSL section contains data by age.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (October 2014) Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census, including Ethnicity, Gypsy/Travellers, Religion, Disability and BSL and contains data by age.

Overview of Equality Results from 2011 Census Release 2 (March 2014) This paper provides further analysis of equality data originally released from the Census by the National Records of Scotland (NRS). It pulls this together into a user friendly format providing new analysis and insight, particularly around deprivation. The main equality strands included in the paper are ethnicity, religion and disability.

Scottish Government Equality Outcomes: Ethnicity Evidence Review (2013) A comprehensive review of available evidence in relation to ethnicity.

Data

Data

Scottish Government Survey data

Scottish Household Survey - Information on how to access Scottish Household Survey data.

UK Data Archive - Annual Population Survey, Scottish Crime and Justice Survey and Scottish Household Survey microdata is available (through a ‘special licence’ scheme).

Scottish Health Survey data can be accessed via the UK Data Service

2011 Census data

Scotland's Census Data Explorer - download data, charts and tables from the 2011 Census.

Official Statistics

statistics.gov.scot  provides access to the official statistics datasets, which can be broken down by ethnicity groups, for example:

Future Developments

Results from the 2011 Census have been published throughout the year. More detailed data is available on the census website data explorer.

Select below for further information on:

Planned 2011 Census output releases

Census

External Links

Please note that you will leave the Scottish Government web site by clicking on any of the following links, and that the Scottish Government and its staff are not responsible for content external to this web site. The research below has been carried out independently of the Scottish Government and the findings do not necessarily represent the views of the Scottish Government or Scottish Ministers

External Publications and Outputs

UK Ethnicity Facts and Figures (UK Government, October 2017) This website brings together a range of UK government statistics covering ethnicity. It includes crime, culture, education, health, housing and work.

How does personal well-being vary by sex, disability, ethnicity and religion? (ONS, 2015) Report exploring differences in personal well-being rating for different equality groups. It includes disability, ethnicity, gender and religion

Interactive census profiler (Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity ) The Economic and Social Research Council's Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity (CoDE) has produced an excel-based that allows users to create tailored census analysis using England and Wales data.

External Research Organisations

BEMIS - Support for the ethnic minority voluntary sector in Scotland.

Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (CRER) - Tackles racial inequality and promotes racial justice across Scotland.

Council of Ethnic Minority Voluntary Sector Organisations (Scotland) - Intermediary organisation for Scotland’s ethnic minority voluntary sector and its communities.