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Age

Summary: Age

The Scottish Government has published a guidance note on collecting information on age.                                                                                                                      

Business, Enterprise and Tourism
  • Self-employment rates tend to be higher for disabled people. In 2016, the self-employment rate for disabled people was 15% compared to 12% for non-disabled people.
  • Self-employment rates tend to be higher for minority ethnic groups. In 2016, the self-employment rate for ethnic minorities was 16% compared to 13% for those of white ethnic origin.
  • Out of the 327,200 self-employed people in Scotland in 2016, 112,900 were women (35%) while 214,400 were men (65%).  Female self-employment has increased over recent years, from 76,000 in 2007 to 112,900 in 2016, representing a rise of 49%. Although male self-employment also experienced a rise over the same time period, it was significantly smaller at 14%.

      male female self employment rates 2016    

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Business, Enterprise and Tourism page

More equality characteristics for Business, Enterprise and Tourism: Business, Enterprise and Tourism page

Children and Families
  • The number of children on the child protection register has fluctuated regularly, but there is a general upwards trend. The total has increased by 33 per cent between 2000 and 2016 (from 2,050 to 2,723). The number of children registered in 2016 is below 2014's historic high; it has fallen 4 per cent since last year.

Source: Children's Social Work Statistics 2015/16 (Last updated: March 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Children and Families Page

More equality characteristics for Children and Families: Children and Families Page

Crime and Justice
 

Risk of Crime

  • The Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-15 estimates that around one in seven (14.5%) adults aged 16 or over was the victim of at least one crime.

  • The risk of being a victim of any crime decreased with age. One fifth (20.4%) of 16 to 24 year olds were a victim of crime, compared with a 6.8% of those 60 or over.

  • The risk of being a victim of violent crime decreased with age. The risk of being a victim of violent crime was 6.0% for 16-24 year olds compared with 0.4% of those aged 60 or over.

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15 (Last updated: March 2017)

 

Convictions

  • Over the past 10 years the gap between the number of convictions per 1,000 population for younger people compared to older people has become smaller. This has been driven by a fall in the number of convictions per 1,000 population for younger people, whilst the rate for older people (aged 31 or above) has remained relatively stable.

  • In 2005-06 the age with the highest conviction rate was those aged 18 at 102 convictions per 1,000 population. Since 2005-06 the age with the highest conviction rate has shifted upwards. The highest conviction rate was for those aged 26-30 in 2014-15 and stood at 51 convictions per 1,000 population. Conviction rates by age follow similar trends for both men and women.

Source: Criminal Proceedings in Scotland 2014/15 (Last updated: February 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Crime and Justice page

More equality characteristics for Crime and Justice: Crime and Justice page

Culture
 

Attendance

  • Levels of cultural attendance were generally higher among the younger age groups, although there were differences in the cultural activities attended by younger and older age groups.
  • For those aged 16-44, visits to the cinema and live music were generally higher than for other age groups. Those aged 45+ attended more classical music concerts than younger age groups.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Culture and Heritage (Last updated: September 2017)

 

Participation

  • Across all age groups, reading for pleasure was the most popular cultural activity. The proportion of those reading for pleasure increased with age. When reading is excluded, the overall participation rate fell as age group increases. 
  • The 2016 results show that around 66% of adults aged 16-24 participated in a cultural activity, excluding reading. This compares to 38% of adults aged 75 and over.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Culture and Heritage (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Culture page

More equality characteristics for Culture: Culture page

Demographics
  • In 2016, 51% of Scotland‘s population were women and 49% were men. This proportion has not changed much since 1947.

Population Pyramid Mid 2015

Source: Mid Year Population Estimates Scotland Mid-2016 (Last updated: April 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age Demographics page

More equality characteristics for Demographics: Demographics page

Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning
 

Further/Higher Education

  • Young people (aged 16-21) made up 41% of all entrants to Higher Education in Scotland in 2015-16. The proportion of people entering Higher Education in Scotland in age bands 16-20 and 21-24 increased between 2006-07 and 2015-16 while the proportion of students in age bands 25-59 and 60+ decreased.

  • In 2015-16, 49% of students (Full-Time Equivalent) in Further Education in colleges were 16-19. 20% were 20-24, 29.4% were over 25, and 3% were under 16.

Source: Higher Education Students and Qualifiers at Scottish Institutions 2015/16 (Last updated: March 2017), Learning for All: Measures of Success (Last updated: August 2016)

 

Modern Apprenticeships

  • 76% of Modern Apprenticeship starts in 2016-17 were aged between 16 and 24. As of 31 March 2016, 60% of those in training following a Modern Apprenticeship were aged 16-19, and 23% were aged 20-24.

Source: Modern Apprenticeship Statistics 2016/17 (Last updated: June 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning page

More equality characteristics for Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning: Employability, Skills and Lifelong Learning page

Health, Social Care and Sport
 

Social Care

  • In 2015 the vast majority of both Social Care* at home clients (75%) and long stay care home residents (89%) were aged 65 years old and over.
  • * Social Care services refer to: Home Care, Telecare / Community alarm, Housing Support, Direct Payments and Meals services.

Source: Social Care Services, Scotland 2015 (Last updated: November 2015), Care Home Census (Last updated: October 2016)

 

Levels of good health

  • In 2015, the proportion of adults reporting to be in 'very good' or 'good' health declined with age from 88% of those aged 16-24 to 55% of those aged 75 and over.  Levels of 'very good' health for children ranged between 65% and 73% for those aged 0-11 but declined from 63% for those aged 12-13 to 52% for those aged 14-15. 
  • Levels of wellbeing were significantly lower for women aged 16-24 than for other age groups of men and women, in 2015Levels of wellbeing were significantly lower for women aged 16-24 than for other age groups of men and women

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 

Multiple long-term conditions

  • Prevalence of multiple long-term conditions was much higher among older adults, 2012-2015

Prevalence of multiple long-term conditions was much higher among older adults, 2012-2015

Source: Scottish Health Survey 2015 (Last updated: September 2016)

 

Drug Misuse

  • The number and rate of younger people admitted to hospital for drug misuse has remained relatively stable over time, while admissions among older drug users have increased. 
  • Amongst those aged 35 and over, a twelve-fold rise from 11 to 132 patients per 100,000 population between 1996/97 and 2016/17 (general acute)).

Source: Drug Related Deaths in Scotland 2016/17 (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Health, Social Care and Sport page

More equality characteristics for Health, Social Care and Sport: Health, Social Care and Sport page

Housing and Regeneration
 

Owner-Occupation

  • Households where the highest income householder (HIH) is aged 60 years or more, have had continuously higher rates of owner-occupation since 2009. Whilst the rates of owner-occupation for HIH’ s aged 60 and over have remained relatively constant of late, the rates for the other age groups have been in decline, most notably for those aged 16-34. However in 2016 the rate amongst this group increased by to 33 per cent.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Housing (Last updated: September 2017)

 

Sheltered Accommodation

  • Figures for sheltered accommodation have fallen from about 17,100 units in 2006 to around 14,200 in 2016.

Source: Housing Statistics for Scotland - Housing for Older People, those with Disabilities and those with Supported Tenancies (Last updated: September 2017)

 

Neighbourhoods

  • In 2016, 87 per cent of people aged 75 and above said they felt a very or fairly strong sense of belonging to their community, compared to 71 per cent of those aged between 16 and 24

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Neighbourhoods and Communities (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Housing and Regeneration page

More equality characteristics for Housing and Regeneration: Housing and Regeneration page

Income and Poverty  
  • After housing costs, 26% of children, 20% of working age adults and 13% of pensioners in Scotland were living in relative poverty.

After housing costs, 26% of children, 20% of working age adults and 13% of pensioners in Scotland were living in relative poverty.

Source: Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland 2015/16 (Last updated: March 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Income and Poverty page

More equality characteristics for Income and Poverty: Income and Poverty page

Labour Market
  • In 2016 the employment rate for those aged 16-64 stood at 72.9%.  The employment rate was highest for 35-49 year olds (81.9%) and lowest for the 16-24 year old age group (55.7%).

Employment rates by age and gender 2016

Source: Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2016 (Last updated: May 2017)

 

For the latest labour market statistics see the monthly briefing papers

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Labour Market page

More equality characteristics for Labour Market: Labour Market page

Local Government
  • Older adults were more likely than younger adults to agree with positive statements about the performance of their local council. For example, 56% of those aged over 75 agreed that their council provided high quality services, compared to 40% of those aged 16 to 24.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Local Services (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Local Government page

More equality characteristics for Local Government: Local Government page

Rural and Environment

Percentage age distribution of population by geographic area, 2016

Age distribution of population in large urban and remote rural areas, 2016

  • There is a higher proportion of older people living in rural areas compared to the rest of Scotland. In 2016 the proportion of people aged 65 or over was 20% in accessible rural areas was and 24% in remote rural areas compared to 18% in the rest of Scotland.

Source: Population Estimates by Urban Rural Classification (Last updated: August 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Rural and Environment page

More equality characteristics for Rural and Environment: Rural and Environment page

School Education
  • In September 2016, the average age of teachers in publicly funded schools was 41, however 16% of teachers were aged 55 or over.

Age profile of school based teachers, 2004 to 2016

Source: Summary Statistics for Schools in Scotland, No.7: 2016 Edition (Last updated: December 2016)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and School Education page 

More equality characteristics for School Education: School Education page 

Third Sector
  • After the age of 74, the level of volunteering declines. In 2016, 19% of men and 17% of women aged 75 and over volunteered in the last 12 months, compared to 27% of adults overall.

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2016: Volunteering (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Third Sector page

More equality characteristics for Third Sector: Third Sector page

Transport and Travel
  • Over three quarters of those under 60 had travelled the previous day when interviewed for the Scottish Household Survey. 51% of those aged 80 and over had travelled the previous day. This compares with 65% for those aged 70-79 and 76% for those aged 60-69.

Source: Transport and Travel in Scotland 2016 (Last updated: September 2017)

 

More facts on this topic: Age and Transport and Travel page

More equality characteristics for Transport and Travel: Transport and Travel page

Publications and Output

Publications and Output

Scottish Household Survey 2016 (September 2017) This report presents reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households, both nationally and at a sub-national level. This includes analysis of age, deprevation, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion and sexual orientation

 

Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2015 (November 2016) - Official statistics publication on equality groups across a range of measures from harmonised questions across the major SG population surveys. This publication provides statistics centred around protected equality characteristics and sub-national geographies: age, disability, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, country of birth, deprivation and Health Board/Police Scotland Division.

Characteristics of migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census (Revised October 2016) Compares characteristics (including Age) of migrants from European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA countries with the Scotland-born population and migrants from the rest of the UK.

Equality Statement: Scottish Draft Budget 2016-17  - The Equality Budget Statement (EBS) ensures that we understand, as far as possible, the impacts of the spending decisions that we make. This document contains a section on age, with a focus on youngest and oldest adults. 

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2 (2015) Brings together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a highly detailed picture of equality in Scotland. The policy areas covered are Labour Market, Education, Housing and Transport. The BSL section contains data by age.

Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (2014)  - Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census, including Ethnicity, Gypsy/Travellers, Religion, Disability and BSL and contains data by age.

Scottish Government Equality Outcomes: Age Evidence Review (2013) - A comprehensive review of available evidence in relation to age equality.

The Position of Scotland’s Equality Groups. Revisiting Resilience in 2011 - Discussion and analysis to inform an understanding of how well positioned people in Scotland with equalities characteristics are to access the benefits of economic recovery.

A Review of Literature on Effective Interventions that Prevent and Respond to Harm Against Adults (2007) - This report presents a review of literature on interventions relating to different types of harm against adults (physical; psychological; financial; sexual; discriminatory; and neglect).

Characteristics of Adults in Scotland with Long-Term Health Conditions - Research Findings (2007) - This paper summarises an analysis of existing Scottish Household Survey and Scottish Health Survey data to provide a profile of the characteristics, circumstances and support needs of people with long term health conditions.

All Our Futures: Planning for a Scotland with an Ageing Population: 3 The Evidence Base (2007) - Draws on a variety of quantitative and qualitative research and statistical data to bring together some of the key evidence on older people.

 

Data

Data

The Scottish Government website provides further information on accessing Scottish Household Survey data.

Annual Population Survey, Scottish Crime and Justice Survey and Scottish Household Survey microdata is available (through a ‘special licence’ scheme) from the UK Data Archive.

Scottish Health Survey - via UK Data Service.

Scotland's Census Data Explorer - download data, charts and tables from the 2011 Census.

statistics.gov.scot  provides access to the official statistics datasets, which can be broken down by age:

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept-scheme/age

A range of age categories can be selected, for example:

Working Age

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/age/working-age

16 and Over

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/age/16-and-over

Children

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/age/children

Pensioners

http://statistics.gov.scot/def/concept/age/pensioners

External Links

External Links

Please note that you will leave the Scottish Government web site by clicking on any of the following links, and that the Scottish Government and its staff are not responsible for content external to this web site. The research below has been carried out independently of the Scottish Government and the findings do not necessarily represent the views of the Scottish Government or Scottish Ministers

External Research Organisations

Equality and Human Rights Commission: Age Equality The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) encourages equality and diversity, and is responsible for enforcing the Equality Act. EHRC produce research and analysis on equality characteristics including age

Government Equalities Office The Government Equalities Office (GEO) is part of the UK Government and publishes research and analysis relating to equality legislation in the UK