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equality-and-poverty-analysis@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

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Equality, Poverty & Welfare Analysis Team

Communities Analytical Services

Scottish Government

1F North

Victoria Quay

Edinburgh EH6 6QQ

Summary: Business, Enterprise and Tourism

Summary: Business, Enterprise and Tourism

Age
  • In 2014, more than 1 in 3 of small to medium-sized enterprise employers in Scotland fell in the 45 to 54 age category (34%). The two next largest categories were the 55 to 64 (22%) and 35 to 44 (19%) age categories.  The proportion in the under 35 and 65 and over age groups were smaller at 11% each.
  • Between 2012 and 2014 the proportion of small to medium-sized enterprise employers in the 55 to 64 age group decreased markedly, and there were also small decreases in the under 35 and 35 to 44 cohorts.  Increases were seen however in the 45 to 54 and 65 and over cohorts.

                     SBS 2012-14 Age

 Sources: Small Business Survey 2012 and 2014

 

  • In 2014, although those aged 65 and over made up a small share of all those self-employed (10%), those aged 65 and over had the highest self-employment rate. In 2014, 37% of those aged 65 and over in employment were self-employed compared to an overall self-employment rate of 12% for Scotland as a whole.

Source: Annual Population Survey (January to December)

 

Useful Links

Age and Business and Enterprise Page

Age Page

Disability
  • In 2014, 9% of small to medium-sized enterprise employers in Scotland included at least one owner or director with a disability.  This figure has decreased by 2 percentage points since 2012.

Sources: Small Business Survey 2012 and 2014

 

  • Self-employment rates tend to be higher for disabled people. In 2014, the self-employment rate for disabled people was 14% compared to 11% for non-disabled people.

Source: Annual Population Survey (January to December)

 

Useful Links

Disability and Business and Enterprise Page

Disability Page

Ethnicity
  • In 2014,  5% of small to medium-sized enterprise employers in Scotland were run by a member or mostly by members of a minority ethnic group.  This is an increase of 1 percentage point since 2012.

Sources: Small Business Survey 2012 and 2014

 

  • Self-employment rates tend to be higher for minority ethnic groups. In 2014, the self-employment rate for ethnic minorities was 17% compared to 12% for those of white ethnic origin.

Source: Annual Population Survey (January to December)

 

  • In 2011, the proportion of all people in employment who were self-employed was highest for the following ethnic groups: Pakistani (27%), followed by White: Gypsy/Traveller (23%). By comparison, self-employment rates among for those of White: Scottish ethnicity stood at 11%, and self-employment rates were lowest in the African ethnic group at 7%.

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland (NRS)

 

Useful Links

Ethnicity and Business and Enterprise Page

Ethnicity Page

Gender
  • In 2012 and 2014, the majority of small to medium-sized enterprise employers were owned by men, or led by a management team with a majority of men.  20% and 21% of Scottish small to medium-sized enterprise employers were majority-led by women in 2012 and 2014 respectively.  In 2014, 47% of small to medium-sized enterprise employers had at least 50% female leadership, a 1% decrease since 2012.

 

SME leadership in Scotland by gender, 2014 and 2012

 

SBS 2014

SBS 2012

Majority-led by women

21%

20%

Equally-led

26%

28%

At least 50 per cent female leadership (majority-led by women & equally led)

47%

48%

Base minimum: All SMEs 2012, 835

Sources: UK Small Business Survey 2012 and 2014, Small Business Survey Scotland 2014

 

  • Out of the 301,500 self-employed people in Scotland in 2014, 101,600 were women (34%) while 199,900 were men (66%).  Female self-employment has increased over recent years, from 76,000 in 2007 to 101,600 in 2014, representing a rise of 34%. Although male self-employment also experienced a rise over the same time period, it was significantly smaller at 6%.

APS equalities 2014 - Gender

  • In Scotland, the female self-employment rate (self-employed as a proportion of those in employment) was 8% in 2014 – lower than the male self-employment rate at 15%, but an increase of 2 percentage points since 2007. Male self-employment on the other hand increased by 1 percentage point over the same period.
  • There are more self-employed men than self-employed women in all broad industrial sectors, with the exception of ‘Public Administration, Education and Health’ (in 2014, women made up 67% of the self-employed workforce in the sector) and ‘Other services[1]’ (in 2014, women made up 58% of the self-employed workforce in the sector).  45% of all self-employed women work in these two sectors alone – compared to 13% of self-employed men.
  • In 2014, the female self-employment rate was lower in Scotland (at 8%), than in the UK as a whole (at 10%).  The UK figure is particularly influenced by comparatively high rates in London and the south of England.  The gap between female and male self-employment rates is narrower in Scotland (15% v 8% - gap of 7%) compared to that for the UK as a whole (19% v 10% - gap of 9%).

 

Source: Annual Population Survey (January to December)

 

Useful Links 

Gender and Business and Enterprise Page

Gender Page

[1] Industry sectors are defined using Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2007 codes. ‘Other services’ includes the following SIC 2007 sections: ‘R - Arts, entertainment & recreation’ and ‘S - Other service activities’ which includes, for example, activities of religious organisations, repair of computers and hairdressing and other beauty treatment. More information on SIC 2007 codes is available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/classifications/current-standard-classifications/standard-industrial-classification/index.html

Religion
  • In 2011, the proportion of all people (16 years+) in employment who were self-employed was highest for the following religion groups: Jewish (28%), Sikhs (27%) and Muslim (26%). By comparison, self-employment rates were substantially lower for the following religion groups: No religion (12%), Hindu (11%) and Roman Catholic which had the lowest self-employment rate at 10%.

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland (NRS)

 

Useful Links

Religion and Business and Enterprise Page

Religion Page

Sexual Orientation

The Scottish Government does not currently have information on the position of gay, lesbian and bisexual people in relation to business, enterprise and tourism.

Transgender

The Scottish Government does not currently have information on the position of transgender people in relation to business, enterprise and tourism.

Publications and Outputs

Publications and Outputs

Information in this section will be updated with relevant publications and outputs into the needs and experiences of people with characteristics protected by equality legislation for the policy area Business and Enterprise.

Small Business Survey Scotland 2014 Report

Small Business Survey Scotland 2012 Report

Statistics from the Annual Population Survey for year to December 2014

Businesses in Scotland 2014

Data

Data

Annual Population Survey microdata is available (through a ‘special licence’ scheme) from the UK Data Archive.

External Links

External Links

Please note that you will leave the Scottish Government web site by clicking on any of the following links, and that the Scottish Government and its staff are not responsible for content external to this web site.

Department for Business Innovation and Skills (BIS)

BIS Small Business Survey Reports

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Hunter Centre for Entrepreneurship, University of Strathclyde

The FTSE female index, Cranfield University

Stonewall Scotland's Top 100 Employers 2013 Workplace Equality Index - an audit of workplace culture for gay, lesbian and bisexual staff in Scottish public and private sector organisations.

Statistics in more details

Contacts

Business, Enterprise and Tourism

industrystatistics@scotland.gsi.gov.uk