The Pollution Prevention and Control (Scotland) Regulations 2012 came into force from 7 January 2013.
In recent decades, there has been a fundamental change in the Scottish industrial landscape. Traditional heavy industries have been gradually replaced by an industrial base comprising more modern industrial processes. Prior to the Environmental Protection Act 1990, emissions from industrial processes were dealt with separately, and by a wide range of different agencies. The 1990 Act introduced the system of Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) which took a holistic environmental approach to regulating major industrial processes. The Act also introduced Local Air Pollution Control (LAPC) for less polluting processes where emissions to air were regulated. The Environment Act 1995 created a single agency, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), to protect and improve Scotland's environment.