We are testing a new beta website for gov.scot go to new site

Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from 2014 Scottish Household Survey

Listen

13 Culture and Sport

13.1 Introduction and Context

The Scottish Government is committed to promoting and supporting sport and cultural activities because it recognises and values the benefits that sport and culture bring, not only to individuals, but to our communities. The Government's work is focused on widening access and participation and ensuring that the necessary infrastructure is in place to deliver sporting and cultural opportunities whilst promoting a drive to achieve sporting and cultural excellence. This work contributes to the Government's strategic objectives[81], through understanding and monitoring levels of cultural engagement and sporting participation both at the national and sub-national levels and to inform decisions on government and local government policy making. For example, Scottish Household Survey (SHS) data informs the National Indicator: Increase cultural engagement[82].

The SHS is the primary source of information on cultural attendance and sporting participation in Scotland and it is the only comparable source of data on attendance and participation at local authority level. Questions on cultural attendance and sporting participation were introduced in the SHS for the first time in 2007. From 2012 onwards, it is possible to obtain data at local authority level every year.

The suite of culture and sport questions within the SHS covers attendance at cultural events and places, and participating in cultural and sport and exercise activities. This chapter explores the prevalence and frequency of attending cultural events and places of culture and participating in cultural activities in the last 12 months and of participation in sport and exercise in the last 4 weeks. There is also analysis on engagement with the 2014 Commonwealth Games, questions on which were included in the Scottish Household Survey for the first time in 2013.

Main Findings

Culture

Around nine in ten (91 per cent) adults engaged in culture in 2013 and 2014, either by attending or visiting a cultural event or place or participating in a cultural activity.

Cultural attendance

In 2013 and 2014, four in five adults (80 per cent) attended a cultural event or place of culture in the last 12 months. When excluding cinema, the attendance figure is 73 per cent in 2014.

Attendance at all cultural events or places either increased or stayed the same between 2013 and 2014. The largest increase seen was a 3 percentage point increase in attendance at a historic place (from 28 per cent in 2013 to 31 per cent in 2014).

More women attended a cultural event than men (82 per cent and 79 per cent respectively). When excluding cinema, women still attend cultural events more than men (75 per cent and 71 per cent respectively). However, the difference is much less than that for cultural participation.

Overall levels of cultural attendance fell with increasing age of respondent - partly due to the popularity of cinema attendance amongst younger age groups (82 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared to 16 per cent of adults aged 75 and over attended cinema in the last 12 months).

Cultural participation

Overall participation in 2014 was 79 per cent (it was around the same in 2013 at 78 per cent). When excluding reading, participation was 50 per cent.

By far the most popular form of cultural participation was reading for pleasure at 68 per cent. Overall participation in cultural activities was higher amongst women (84 per cent) than men (73 per cent). This was not true for all activities.

Overall cultural participation was broadly constant for all age groups (ranging between 73 per cent to 82 per cent). When excluding reading however, participation decreased with age (from 61 per cent of adults aged 16 to 24 to 34 per cent of adults aged 75 or over).

Sport and Exercise

Over three-quarters of adults (78 per cent) participated in sport and exercise (including recreational walking) in the last four weeks. This was the same as in 2013. Walking for 30 minutes (for recreational purposes) was by far the most common activity with around two-thirds (64 per cent) of adults having done this.

When walking was excluded, around half of adults (51 per cent) had undertaken at least one of the remaining sport and exercise activities in the last four weeks.

Frequency of participation in sport and exercise among participants has increased since 2007. Regular participation (on more than 15 days in the past 4 weeks prior to interview) has increased from over a third (36 per cent) in 2007, to almost half (48 per cent) in 2014 and there has been a corresponding decrease in less frequent participation (of less than 15 days).

Overall sport and exercise participation was higher for men than women (81 per cent and 75 per cent respectively). This difference was larger when walking was excluded (57 per cent and 46 per cent respectively).

Some sport and exercise is more popular with younger adults. Playing football decreases with age for example, with 22 per cent of those aged 16 to 24 having participated in the previous four weeks, compared with 3 per cent of 45 to 59 year olds. Running/jogging and weight-training also showed this same pattern of decreasing participation with age.

Some sports, such as swimming and cycling, showed a pattern of decreasing participation at a later age and were most popular amongst adults aged 35 to 44 (27 per cent and 16 per cent, respectively).

Local Authority cultural and sports services

Respondents (which include non-users) are generally more satisfied with both museum and galleries and theatre and concert hall services with relatively stable levels of satisfaction with sports and leisure services since 2007. Library services have seen a decrease in satisfaction of 6 percentage points (from 55 per cent in 2007 to 49 per cent in 2014) .

In 2014, around nine in ten of respondents who have used these services in the past year were very or fairly satisfied with each of the four services (with a range between 87 per cent and 92 per cent). An increase in levels of satisfaction by users was observed for each of the service types.

Commonwealth Games 2014

In 2014, watching the Games on TV was the most popular method of following the Games (70 per cent). The next most popular way was by reading printed or online newspapers (49 per cent). Over three quarters of people intended to follow, or followed the Games in any way (76 per cent).

Four in ten adults (40 per cent) in 2014 believed that hosting the Games in Scotland would provide lasting benefits (either to them and their family or their local area).

13.2 Culture

Within this report, attendance at "a cultural event or place of culture" is defined as those adults who attend at least one type of cultural place in the previous year. There are a number of different types of cultural events and places of culture. Examples of these include cinemas, libraries and live music events. Likewise, participation in any cultural activity means that adults take part in at least one activity in the previous year. Examples of cultural activities include reading for pleasure, dancing and crafts. Annex 2: Glossary provides a complete list of activities, places or events for cultural attendance or participation.

Cultural engagement is defined as those adults who have either participated in a cultural activity or who have attended at least one type of cultural place in the previous 12 months.

The following sections in this report provides high level information on cultural engagement, attendance and participation. It also provides some key messages on adults' levels of satisfaction with local authority cultural services. A more detailed report on the new culture questions contained in the 2013 Scottish Household Survey is available in the report, People, Culture and Heritage in Scotland - Topic Report on results from the 2013 Scottish Household Survey, published in January 2015[83].

13.3 Cultural Engagement

This section contains data on levels of cultural engagement. This measures the percentage of adults who have either participated in a cultural activity or who have attended or visited a cultural event or place in the last 12 months. This information is used to inform progress on the Scottish Government's National Indicator 41: Increase cultural engagement.

Figure 13.1 shows that in 2014, the percentage of adults who engaged in culture was around nine in ten (91 per cent). It should be noted that, in 2012, the wording of the cultural attendance and participation questions changed. As a result, figures from 2012 onwards are not directly comparable to those for the years 2007 to 2011. The culture questions themselves can be found in the Scottish Household Survey questionnaires[84].

Figure 13.1: Cultural engagement by adults in the last 12 months by year

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data (minimum base: 9,800)

Figure 13.1: Cultural engagement by adults in the last 12 months by year

* Note that the figures for from 2012 onwards are not directly comparable with previous years due to changes in the wording of the cultural attendance and participation questions.

13.4 Attendance at Cultural Events and Places

Figure 13.2 shows levels of attendance by adults at specific cultural events and visiting places of culture (not as a result of paid work, school or academic activities) in the last 12 months for 2013 and 2014.

The chart shows that:

  • In 2013 and 2014, four in five adults (80 per cent) attended a cultural event or place of culture in the last 12 months. When excluding cinema, the attendance figure is 73 per cent in 2014 compared to 72 per cent in 2013.
  • Attendance at all events or places listed either increased or stayed the same between 2013 and 2014. The exception to this is for attendance at the library (including visiting via mobile or online), which decreased slightly from 30 per cent in 2013, to 29 per cent in 2014. The largest increase seen was a 3 percentage point increase in attendance at a historic place[85] (from 28 per cent in 2013 per cent to 31 per cent in 2014).
  • Over half of respondents (56 per cent) viewed a film at a cinema in the last 12 months, making this the most common type of cultural attendance.
  • The next most common type of cultural attendance was at live music events (34 per cent), then the theatre (33 per cent). This was then followed by museums and visits to a historical place (32 and 31 per cent respectively), libraries (29 per cent), and visits to a gallery (21 per cent).
  • A fifth of adults (20 per cent) did not attend a cultural event or place of culture in the last 12 months in 2014, which was the same figure in 2013.

Figure 13.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months

Percentage of adults (minimum base: 9,800)

Figure 13.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months

13.4.1 Attendance by Gender and Age

Table 13.1 shows levels of attendance at any cultural event or place of culture in the last 12 months by gender and age of respondent for 2014, including and excluding cinema.

More women attended a cultural event than men (82 per cent and 79 per cent respectively). When excluding cinema, women still attend cultural events more than men (75 per cent and 71 per cent respectively). However, the difference is much less than that for cultural participation. Analysis on cultural participation by gender is presented later in this chapter (Table 13.5).

The level of overall cultural attendance was highest among younger age groups and decreased for those aged 45 or older. Whilst levels of cultural attendance are 88 per cent or greater for adults aged 16 to 44, the figure falls to 81 per cent for those aged 45 to 59 and to just over half (53 per cent) of all adults aged 75 or over. When excluding cinema, cultural attendance rose to a peak in the 35 to 44 year-old age group before declining again as age increased.

In 2014, attendance in the last 12 months at specific cultural events and visiting places of culture varied by gender and age. Specifically:

  • More women (39 per cent) compared to men (26 per cent) attended the theatre[86] . Library visits were also attended by more women (33 per cent) compared to men (26 per cent).
  • However, there were many cultural events where attendance by men and women was similar. For instance, 17 per cent of both men and women stated that they attended a street arts performance[87] and 15 per cent had visited a culturally specific festival[88].
  • More younger than older people attended the cinema and live music events. For cinema, attendance was around four-fifths (82 per cent) of 16 to 24 year olds, compared with 35 per cent of 60 to 74 years olds and 16 per cent of those aged 75 or greater. Almost half (46 per cent) of 16 to 24 year olds attended a live music event, compared with 22 per cent of 60 to 74 year olds and 9 per cent of those aged 75 or over.
  • Comparatively, the age groups in the middle attended theatre more than the youngest and oldest age groups (39 per cent of those aged 35 to 44 and 36 per cent of those aged 45 to 74, compared with 25 per cent of those aged 16 to 24 and 21 per cent of those aged 75 or greater).

Table 13.1: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by gender and age

Percentages, 2014 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Cinema 55 57 82 74 68 52 35 16 56
Live music event - e.g. traditional music, rock concert, jazz event (not opera or classical music performance) 34 33 46 41 39 37 22 9 34
Theatre - e.g. pantomime/musical/play 26 39 25 30 39 36 36 21 33
Library (including mobile and online) 26 33 28 33 36 26 29 24 29
Museum 31 32 27 35 40 33 30 16 32
Historic place - e.g. castle, stately home and grounds, battle or archaeological site 32 31 26 35 41 33 29 15 31
Gallery 20 21 16 22 24 23 22 10 21
Exhibition - including art, photography and crafts 16 17 12 17 19 19 18 9 17
Street arts (e.g. musical performances or art in parks, streets or shopping centre) 17 17 15 20 23 20 12 4 17
Culturally specific festival (e.g. mela/Feis/local Gala days) 15 15 11 19 21 17 12 5 15
Dance show/event - e.g. ballet 8 14 9 11 15 12 10 7 11
Classical music performance or opera 6 8 5 6 6 7 10 8 7
Book festival or reading group 3 6 2 6 6 5 5 2 5
Archive or records office (e.g. Scotland's Family History Peoples Centre) 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 1 2
None 21 18 9 12 11 19 28 47 20
Any cultural attendance (excluding cinema) 71 75 75 77 82 76 69 50 73
Any cultural attendance (including cinema) 79 82 91 88 89 81 72 53 80
Base 4,440 5,360 790 1,360 1,430 2,530 2,390 1,310 9,800

Columns may not add to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed.

13.4.2 Attendance by Highest Level of Qualification

Figure 13.3 shows that in 2014, attendance at cultural places and visiting places of culture was highest for those with degrees or professional qualifications (95 per cent). Attendance was lowest for those with no qualifications (52 per cent). The same pattern holds when excluding cinema, with 92 per cent attendance for those with degrees or professional qualifications compared to 45 per cent for those with no qualifications.

Figure 13.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

2014 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 480)

Figure 13.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

Table 13.2 gives a breakdown of attendance at each individual cultural event or place. Attendance was consistently highest for adults with a degree or professional qualification and lowest for those with no qualifications. The most marked differences can be seen for attendance at the cinema (71 per cent and 23 per cent, respectively) and at a historic place (55 per cent and 9 per cent, respectively).

Table 13.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest qualification level

Percentages, 2014 data

Adults Degree, Professional qualification HNC/HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O' Grade, Standard grade or equivalent Other qualification No qualifications All
Cinema 71 67 66 56 26 23 56
Live music event - e.g. traditional music, rock concert, jazz event (not opera or classical music performance) 49 38 41 30 9 12 34
Theatre - e.g. pantomime/musical/play 49 36 34 25 24 16 33
Library (including mobile and online) 40 32 30 25 21 18 29
Museum 51 37 33 22 16 12 32
Historic place - e.g. castle, stately home and grounds, battle or archaeological site 55 37 33 20 13 9 31
Gallery 39 21 20 12 8 6 21
Exhibition - including art, photography and crafts 33 20 14 8 7 4 17
Street arts (e.g. musical performances or art in parks, streets or shopping centre) 28 20 18 12 7 4 17
Culturally specific festival (e.g. mela/Feis local Gala days) 26 16 16 10 7 4 15
Dance show/event - e.g. ballet 15 14 13 9 7 4 11
Classical music performance or opera 16 7 5 3 3 2 7
Book festival or reading group 11 4 3 2 3 1 5
Archive or records office (e.g. Scotland's Family History Peoples Centre) 4 2 2 1 1 0 2
None 5 10 13 20 42 48 20
Any cultural attendance (excluding cinema) 92 82 80 67 52 45 73
Any cultural attendance (including cinema) 95 90 87 80 58 52 80
Base 2,660 1,020 1,460 1,940 480 2,190 9,800

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

13.4.3 Attendance by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD)

Figure 13.4 shows that levels of cultural attendance increase as deprivation as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD 2012) decreases.

There is a 21 percentage point difference in cultural attendance between the 20 per cent most and 20 per cent least deprived areas (70 per cent compared with 91 per cent). This gap was slightly smaller at 18 percentage points in 2013. When excluding cinema, this percentage point difference is higher at 26 points (60 per cent in the most deprived areas and 86 per cent in the least deprived areas). This gap was slightly smaller at 24 percentage points in 2013.

Figure 13.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

2014 data, adults (minimum base: 1,660)

Figure 13.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Table 13.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by area deprivation

Percentages, 2013 and 2014 data

Adults 2013 2014 Base (2014)
Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema) Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema)
20% Most deprived 72 61 70 60 1,920
2 76 67 76 68 2,000
3 79 71 81 74 2,110
4 85 78 84 78 2,110
20% Least deprived 90 85 91 86 1,660
Scotland 80 72 80 73 9,800

13.4.4 Attendance by Long-Term Physical/Mental Health Condition

Figure 13.5 shows that cultural attendance was lower for those with a physical or mental health condition (lasting, or expected to last 12 months or more). Attendance was lowest where this condition caused long term major reduced daily capacity at 52 per cent compared to a higher 86 per cent attendance for those with no condition (a 34 percentage point difference). For those where the condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 74 per cent.

When cinema was excluded, the gap between attendances for both categories with a long term health condition compared to with none was slightly less. Attendance for those with conditions with major reduced daily capacity was 48 per cent, and for those with none was 77 per cent, (a 29 percentage point difference). For those with minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 69 per cent.

Figure 13.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition

2014 data, adults (minimum base: 1,210)

Figure 13.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition

This question was asked in the survey from October (Q4) 2012.

13.4.5 Frequency of Attending cultural events or places

Table 13.4 shows the frequency of cultural attendance in the past year. Library attendance is by far the most frequently attended cultural place or event, with one in five people (19 per cent) attending at least once a week, and 40 per cent attending at least once a month. Cinema attendance was the next most popular, with one quarter (24 per cent) of adults attending at least once a month.

Table 13.4: Frequency of attending cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months

Row percentages, 2014 data

Adults At least once a week Less often than once a week / at least once a month Less often than once a month but within the last 12 months Don't know Total Base
Cinema 3 21 76 0 100 4,840
Live music event - e.g. traditional music, rock concert, jazz event (not opera or classical music performance) 1 10 89 0 100 3,040
Theatre - e.g. pantomime/musical/play 0 4 96 0 100 3,100
Library (including mobile and online) 19 40 41 0 100 2,890
Museum 1 9 89 0 100 2,980
Historic place - e.g. castle, stately home and grounds, battle or archaeological site 2 10 88 0 100 2,900
Gallery 1 11 87 0 100 1,970
Exhibition - including art, photography and crafts 1 8 91 0 100 1,680
Street arts (e.g. musical performances or art in parks, streets or shopping centre) 1 5 93 0 100 1,470
Culturally specific festival (e.g. mela/Feis/local Gala days) 0 1 98 0 100 1,470
Dance show/event - e.g. ballet 1 5 93 1 100 1,040
Classical music performance or opera 1 8 90 0 100 760
Book festival or reading group 2 12 86 0 100 450
Archive or records office (e.g. Scotland's Family History Peoples Centre) 6 8 84 1 100 220

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

13.5 Participation in Cultural Activities

Figure 13.6 shows levels of participation by adults at specific cultural activities in the last 12 months for 2013 and 2014.

The chart shows that:

  • Overall participation in 2014 was 79 per cent (up from 78 in 2013). When excluding reading, participation was 50 per cent (up from 49 per cent in 2013).
  • Reading for pleasure was by far the most common cultural activity in 2014, with 68 per cent of adults saying that they had done this in the last year. This was the same in 2013.
  • The next most popular activity was doing creative work on a computer or by social media (24 per cent), followed by crafts (16 per cent) and dance (12 per cent). Participation levels in all other cultural activities was 11 per cent or less.

Figure 13.6: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months

Percentage of adults (minimum base: 9,800)

Figure 13.6: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months

13.5.1 Participation by Gender and Age

Table 13.5 shows that in 2014, more women participated in a cultural activity in the last 12 months than men (84 per cent and 73 per cent respectively). When excluding reading, the difference between women and men was smaller (53 per cent and 47 per cent respectively).

Overall cultural participation was broadly constant for all age groups (ranging from between 73 per cent to 82 per cent). When excluding reading however, participation decreased with age (from 61 per cent of adults aged 16 to 24 to 34 per cent of adults aged 75 or over).

Table 13.5: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by gender and age

Column percentages, 2014 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 61 75 59 67 72 71 69 65 68
Used a computer/social media to produce creative work of any kind 26 23 37 30 30 23 17 5 24
Crafts such as knitting, wood, pottery, etc. 7 24 9 13 15 16 22 18 16
Dance - e.g. ceilidh, salsa, Highland dancing, ballet 9 14 16 14 12 11 9 6 12
Played a musical instrument or written music 15 8 21 15 12 9 7 5 11
Photography/making films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps') 13 9 12 13 12 11 9 3 11
Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 7 11 15 12 11 6 6 4 9
Creative writing - stories, books, plays or poetry 4 4 10 5 4 2 3 1 4
Took part in a play/sang in a choir or other performance (not karaoke) 3 4 6 3 3 4 4 2 4
Other cultural activity 3 2 1 2 3 3 4 3 3
None 27 16 23 22 18 20 23 27 21
Participated in any (excluding reading) 47 53 61 52 53 48 47 34 50
Participated in any (including reading) 73 84 77 78 82 80 77 73 79
Base 4,440 5,360 790 1,360 1,430 2,530 2,390 1,310 9,800

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

In 2014, participation in the last 12 months in specific cultural activities varied by gender and age. Specifically:

  • Women participated more than men in a number of cultural activities including reading for pleasure (75 per cent compared with 61 per cent), crafts (24 per cent compared with 7 per cent) and dancing (14 per cent compared with 9 per cent).
  • Conversely, men participated more than women regarding playing a musical instrument or writing music (15 per cent of men, 8 per cent of women) and photography/making films or videos (13 per cent compared with 9 per cent).
  • Participation in some, but not all, cultural activities decreased with increasing age of respondent. For instance, 37 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds and 30 per cent of 25 to 34 year olds used a computer or social media to produce creative work of any kind. This contrasts with 17 per cent of 60 to 74 year olds and 5 per cent of those aged 75 or older. Participation in dance was most popular for younger age groups (16 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 6 per cent for those aged 75 or above).
  • Reading for pleasure was more popular among 35 to 74 year olds with around seven in ten adults within these age groups participating in this cultural activity compared to 59 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds.

13.5.2 Participation by Highest Level of Qualification

As with cultural attendance, Figure 13.7 and Table 13.6 show that participation in any cultural activity in 2014 was highest amongst adults with a degree or professional qualifications (93 per cent) and lowest for those with no qualifications (60 per cent). When excluding reading, the difference between qualification levels is even greater (66 per cent with a degree or professional qualifications, compared to 27 per cent with none). Participation rates for specific cultural activities are shown in Table 13.6.

Figure 13.7: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

2014 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 480)

Figure 13.7: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

Table 13.6: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

Percentages, 2014 data

Adults Degree, Professional qualification HNC/HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O' Grade, Standard grade or equivalent Other qualification No qualifications All
Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 86 75 69 58 57 50 68
Used a computer/social media to produce creative work of any kind 36 30 26 22 11 7 24
Crafts such as knitting, wood, pottery, etc. 21 16 14 13 17 13 16
Dance - e.g. ceilidh, salsa, Highland dancing, ballet 18 12 13 9 7 5 12
Played a musical instrument or written music 18 13 13 9 4 3 11
Photography/making films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps') 18 15 11 7 3 2 11
Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 13 11 10 8 3 3 9
Creative writing - stories, books, plays or poetry 6 5 5 3 0 1 4
Took part in a play/sang in a choir or other performance (not karaoke) 7 3 4 3 1 2 4
Other cultural activity 4 2 2 2 3 2 3
None 7 14 17 28 35 40 21
Participated in any (excluding reading) 66 56 55 44 33 27 50
Participated in any (including reading) 93 86 83 72 65 60 79
Base 2,660 1,020 1,460 1,940 480 2,190 9,800

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

13.5.3 Participation by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD)

Figure 13.8 shows that levels of cultural participation increase as deprivation as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD 2012) decreases. Those in the 20 per cent most deprived areas in Scotland had 69 per cent participation, compared to 88 per cent participation among those in the 20 per cent least deprived areas (a 19 percentage point difference). When excluding reading, a similar pattern emerges.

Table 13.7 shows that participation rates from 2013 to 2014 are very similar.

Figure 13.8: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

2014 data, adults (minimum base: 1,660)

Figure 13.8: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Table 13.7: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by area deprivation

Percentages, 2013 and 2014 data

Adults 2013 2014 Base (2014)
Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading) Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading)
20% Most deprived 68 40 69 40 1,920
2 73 44 73 43 2,000
3 79 50 78 50 2,110
4 83 53 85 58 2,110
20% Least deprived 88 56 88 58 1,660
Scotland 78 49 79 50 9,800

13.5.4 Participation by Long-Term Physical/Mental Health Condition

Similar to cultural attendance, Figure 13.9 shows that cultural participation was lower for those with a physical or mental health condition (lasting, or expected to last 12 months or more). Participation was lowest where this condition caused long term major reduced daily capacity at 64 per cent compared to a higher 81 per cent participation for those with no condition (a 17 percentage point difference). For those where the condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 79 per cent.

When reading was excluded, the difference between participation rates was even greater for those with a long term health condition compared to those with none. Participation for those with conditions with major reduced daily capacity was 32 per cent, and for those with none was 53 per cent (a 21 percentage point difference). For those with minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 49 per cent.

Figure 13.9: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition

2014 data, adults (minimum base: 1,210)

Figure 13.9: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition

Note that this question was asked in the survey from October (Q4) 2012.

13.5.5 Frequency of Participating in Cultural Activities

Table 13.8 shows that reading for pleasure was the cultural activity most frequently participated in. Of those that read for pleasure in the last year, 80 per cent stated that they read at least once a week, and 11 per cent read at least once a month. Using a computer or social media for creative work was also frequent amongst participants, with 69 per cent of those who participated having done so at least once a week. Almost two thirds (60 per cent) of those who played a musical instrument or wrote music did so at least once a week.

Table 13.8: Frequency of participating in cultural activities in the last 12 months

Row percentages, 2014 data

Adults At least once a week Less often than once a week / at least once a month Less often than once a month but within the last 12 months Don't know Total Base
Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 80 11 9 0 100 6,650
Used a computer/social media to produce creative work of any kind 69 14 16 1 100 2,220
Crafts such as knitting, wood, pottery, etc. 48 25 26 0 100 1,750
Dance - e.g. ceilidh, salsa, Highland dancing, ballet 22 23 56 - 100 1,120
Played a musical instrument or written music 60 23 17 - 100 1,000
Photography/making films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps') 33 34 32 0 100 1,050
Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 39 33 28 0 100 860
Creative writing - stories, books, plays or poetry 35 30 34 0 100 390
Took part in a play/sang in a choir or other performance (not karaoke) 32 22 45 1 100 360
Other cultural activity 45 22 32 1 100 270

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

Respondents participated in cultural activities more frequently than they attended cultural places or events. Excluding the library from the list (where attendance was most popular), attendance of at least once a week ranged from between 0 per cent to 6 per cent. However, when looking at participation and excluding reading from the list (where participation was most popular), participation at least once a week ranged from 22 per cent to 69 per cent.

13.6 Participation in Sport and Exercise

This section provides high level information on the percentage of adults who participated in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks, as well as participation in specific activities over this time period. It also provides some key messages on adults' levels of satisfaction with local authority sports and leisure facilities.

Sport has a key role to play in combatting problems caused by physical inactivity, which it is estimated results in around 2,500 premature deaths in Scotland each year and costs the NHS around £91 million annually[89]. Sport, therefore, contributes to a number of National Outcomes including "we live longer, healthier lives" and the associated National Indicator, to increase physical activity[90].

The Scottish Government is determined to ensure that we capitalise on the Commonwealth Games to create a lasting social, cultural and economic legacy for the whole of Scotland. In relation to sport particularly, the Scottish Government and sportscotland will continue to develop Scotland's world-class systems for sport and continue to invest in world-class facilities such as the National Performance Centre for Sport which will be completed in 2016. The Scottish Government encourages a greater equality of opportunity in relation to participation in sport and physical activity, and enhancing the role of community in sport.

13.6.1 Participation in Specific Sports in the Last Four Weeks

Figure 13.10 shows that over three quarters of adults (78 per cent) had participated in any sport in the last four weeks. By far, the most prevalent activity was walking for at least 30 minutes (for recreational purposes), with two-thirds (64 per cent) of adults doing this. Comparatively, participation in other activities listed ranged from 3 per cent to 18 per cent.

When walking was excluded, just over half of adults (51 per cent) had undertaken at least one of the remaining sports in the previous four weeks. Annex 2: Glossary provides the complete list of activities which respondents were asked to choose from.

Figure 13.10: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Percentage of adults (minimum base: 9,800)

Figure 13.10: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

13.6.2 Participation in Sports and Exercise - Trends Over Time

Figure 13.11 and Table 13.9 show that participation in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks remained relatively constant from 2007 to 2010 (between 72 per cent and 73 per cent). Since 2010, participation in sport and exercise increased to 78 per cent in 2013 and remained at that level in 2014, which is largely attributable to more adults taking up recreational walking. Between 2007 and 2010, participation in walking was relatively similar (between 54 per cent and 56 per cent), but it increased to a high of 65 per cent in 2013, and was 64 per cent in 2014. Overall participation when walking is excluded remains relatively stable across the 2007 to 2014 time period (ranging between 51 and 54 per cent).

Figure 13.11: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data (minimum base: 9,800)

Figure 13.11: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Table 13.9 shows that, apart from walking, participation in most sports and types of exercise has been stable between 2007 and 2014.

Table 13.9: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Any sporting participation (inc. walking) 73 73 72 72 75 74 78 78
Any sporting participation (exc walking) 53 52 51 51 54 51 52 51
Walking (at least 30 minutes) 56 55 54 54 57 59 65 64
Swimming 19 19 17 17 18 17 17 18
Keep Fit/Aerobics 12 12 12 13 14 14 13 13
Multigym /Weight Training 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12
Running/jogging 10 9 10 10 11 11 12 12
Cycling (at least 30 minutes) 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11
Dancing 14 12 11 10 10 8 7 7
Football 9 8 9 9 8 7 8 7
Golf 9 8 8 7 8 6 7 6
Snooker/Billiards/Pool 9 9 8 7 7 5 6 5
Bowls 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3
Other 9 10 6 8 10 10 10 9
None of these 27 27 28 28 25 26 22 22
Base 10,300 9,230 9,130 9,620 9,680 9,890 9,920 9,800

Columns add up to more than 100 per cent as multiple responses allowed.

13.6.3 Frequency of Participation in Sport and Exercise - Trends Over Time

Figure 13.12 shows that frequency of participation in sport and exercise among participants has increased since 2007. Regular participation (on more than 15 days in the past 4 weeks prior to interview) had increased from over a third (36 per cent) in 2007, to almost half (48 per cent) in 2014. There has been a corresponding decrease in less frequent participation (of less than 15 days).

Figure 13.12: Frequency of participation by adults who took part in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data (minimum base: 6,240)

Figure 13.12: Frequency of participation by adults who took part in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks

13.6.4 Participation in Sport and Exercise by Gender and Age

Table 13.10 presents results on sport and exercise participation in the past four weeks by age and gender for 2014. The main points are described in section 13.6.4.1 and 13.6.4.2.

13.6.4.1 By Gender

Overall sport and exercise participation was higher for men than women (81 per cent and 75 per cent respectively). This difference was larger when walking was excluded (57 per cent and 46 per cent respectively).

Walking for at least 30 minutes was the most popular form of participation for both men and women (65 per cent of men and 64 per cent of women).

Men participated more than women in most sports and exercise listed. However, women participated more than men in keep fit/aerobics (17 per cent compared to 9 per cent), dancing (10 per cent compared to 4 per cent), and swimming (19 per cent compared to 16 per cent).

13.6.4.2 By Age

Some sport and exercise is more popular with younger adults. Playing football decreases with age for example, with 22 per cent of those aged 16 to 24 having participated in the previous four weeks, compared with 3 per cent of 45 to 59 year olds. Running/jogging and weight-training also showed this same pattern of decreasing participation with age.

However, participation in some sports, such as swimming and cycling, initially increased with age and then declined at a later age and were most popular amongst adults aged 35 to 44 (27 per cent and 16 per cent, respectively).

Walking was shown to be prevalent at a similar level within most age groups, with a decline only observed from 60 to 74 and a marked decline age 75 and over. A lesser decline with age of participation in all sports and exercise was noted if walking was included compared to when it was excluded.

Table 13.10: Participation in sport and exercise in the past four weeks by gender and age

Percentages, 2014 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Walking (at least 30 minutes) 65 64 68 70 71 69 60 34 64
Swimming 16 19 22 23 27 16 10 3 18
Keep Fit /Aerobics 9 17 17 20 17 12 9 5 13
Multigym/Weight Training 16 9 24 21 17 8 5 1 12
Running / jogging 14 10 25 19 18 8 2 0 12
Cycling (at least 30 minutes) 16 7 13 15 16 13 5 2 11
Dancing 4 10 11 9 7 6 5 4 7
Football 14 1 22 12 8 3 1 - 7
Golf 11 2 5 4 7 7 7 4 6
Snooker/Billiards/Pool 9 1 12 8 6 3 2 1 5
Bowls 4 2 3 1 2 1 4 6 3
Other 10 8 13 11 11 8 6 2 9
None of these 19 25 11 12 15 20 31 57 22
Any sporting participation (inc. walking) 81 75 89 88 85 80 69 43 78
Any sporting participation (exc walking) 57 46 70 66 61 50 34 21 51
Base 4,440 5,360 790 1,360 1,430 2,530 2,390 1,310 9,800

Columns add up to more than 100 per cent as multiple responses allowed.

13.6.5 By Age Groups Over Time (Including Walking)

Figure 13.13 shows how sport and exercise participation in the previous four weeks (including walking) has changed over time within different age groups. Overall, there has been an increase in participation since 2007 among all age groups, particularly for those aged 75 or more (from 36 per cent in 2007 to 43 per cent in 2014).

Figure 13.13: Participation in sport and exercise (including walking) in the last four weeks by age

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 13.13: Participation in sport and exercise (including walking) in the last four weeks by age

13.6.6 By Age Groups Over Time (Excluding Walking)

Figure 13.14 shows how sport and exercise participation in the previous four weeks (excluding walking) has changed over time within different age groups. It shows that, unlike when walking is included, there has been little change in sports and exercise participation over the years within any of the age groups.

Figure 13.14: Participation in any sport (excluding walking) in the last four weeks by age

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 13.14: Participation in any sport (excluding walking) in the last four weeks by age

13.6.7 By Age Groups Over Time (Walking)

Figure 13.15 shows how participation in recreational walking (for at least 30 minutes) in the previous four weeks has changed over time within different age groups.

There has been an increase in walking from 2007 across all age groups. This has been most notable among 16 to 24 year olds, where there was a 12 percentage point increase (from 56 per cent in 2007 to 68 per cent in 2014). This compares with an 8 percentage point increase in walking among those aged 25 and over (from a combined average of 53 per cent in 2007 to 61 per cent in 2014).

Figure 13.15: Participation in walking in the last four weeks by age

Percentages, 2007 to 2014 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 13.15: Participation in walking in the last four weeks by age

13.6.8 Participation by Highest Level of Qualification

Figure 13.16 shows how participation in sport and exercise (including walking) varies with level of qualification. Participation in 2014 was highest amongst adults with a degree or professional qualifications (88 per cent) and lowest for those with no qualifications (54 per cent). When excluding walking, the difference between qualification levels is even greater (65 per cent with a degree or professional qualifications, compared to 23 per cent with none).

Figure 13.16: Participation in sport and exercise in the past four weeks by highest level of qualification

2014 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 480)

Figure 13.16: Participation in sport and exercise in the past four weeks by highest level of qualification

13.6.9 Participation in Sport and Exercise by Area Deprivation

Figure 13.17 shows how participation in sport and exercise (including walking) varies by area deprivation. Participation in the previous four weeks was lowest, 71 per cent among those in the 20 per cent most deprived areas of Scotland, compared with 84 per cent in the 20 per cent least deprived areas, as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD; a 13 percentage point difference). When walking was excluded, the difference between the most and least deprived was slightly greater (42 per cent in the 20 per cent most deprived areas, compared with 61 per cent in the 20 per cent least deprived areas, a 19 percentage point difference).

Figure 13.17: Participation in Sport and Exercise in the last four weeks by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

2014 data, adults (minimum base: 1,660)

Figure 13.17: Participation in Sport and Exercise in the last four weeks by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Table 13.11 shows there was little change between 2013 and 2014 in the variation of participation in sport and exercise by area deprivation.

Table 13.11: Participation in Sport and Exercise in the last four weeks by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Percentages, 2013 and 2014 data

Adults 2013 2014 Base (2014)
Any sporting participation (including walking) Any sporting participation (excluding walking) Walking (at least 30 minutes) Any sporting participation (including walking) Any sporting participation (excluding walking) Walking (at least 30 minutes)
20% Most deprived 71 42 58 71 42 58 1,920
2 73 47 58 73 46 58 2,000
3 78 51 66 79 52 66 2,110
4 82 56 70 82 56 69 2,110
20% Least deprived 86 63 73 84 61 71 1,660
Scotland 78 52 65 78 51 64 9,800

13.6.10 Participation in sport and exercise by long-term physical/mental health condition

Figure 13.18 shows participation in sport or exercise by long-term physical or mental health condition (lasting, or expected to last 12 months or more). Participation was lowest for those with such a condition, especially where this condition caused long term major reduced daily capacity (35 per cent), compared to 87 per cent participation for those with no condition. For those where the condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 66 per cent.

There is a marked difference in participation between those with and without longer term physical and mental health conditions whether walking is included or not.

Figure 13.18: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks, by long term physical/mental health condition

Percentages, 2014 data (minimum base: 1,210)

Figure 13.18: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks, by long term physical/mental health condition

This question was asked in the survey from October 2012 (Q4).

13.7 Satisfaction with Local Authority Cultural and Sports Services

Since 2007, questions have been asked in the Local Services suite of questions in the SHS on the frequency of use and satisfaction with local authority cultural and sport and leisure services.

Table 13.12 presents the results for satisfaction with four different types of local authority services in 2014. It shows that respondents (which include non-users) are generally more satisfied with both museum and galleries and theatre and concert hall services with relatively stable levels of satisfaction with sports and leisure services since 2007. There has been a decrease in satisfaction of 6 percentage points with library services.

Table 13.12: Satisfaction with local authority culture and sport and leisure services

Column percentages, 2007 to 2014 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Sports and leisure facilities
Very/fairly satisfied 50 50 48 49 51 51 53 52
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 11 9 9 9 9 7 9 12
Very/fairly dissatisfied 9 8 8 8 8 5 6 5
No opinion 30 32 35 35 33 36 33 31
Libraries
Very/fairly satisfied 55 55 53 52 52 50 51 49
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 10 8 7 8 8 8 10 12
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
No opinion 32 34 37 38 37 39 38 36
Museums and galleries
Very/fairly satisfied 41 42 41 38 44 42 44 46
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 14 12 10 11 10 10 11 14
Very/fairly dissatisfied 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
No opinion 41 42 45 48 44 46 42 38
Theatres or concert halls
Very/fairly satisfied 44 44 43 42 45 44 46 47
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 14 11 10 10 10 9 10 13
Very/fairly dissatisfied 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2
No opinion 38 40 43 45 42 45 42 38
Base 10,220 9,240 9,710 9,020 9,660 9,890 9,920 9,800

Table 13.13 shows levels of satisfaction with the four different types of local authority services, as above, but only amongst adults who have used these services in the past year. In 2014, around nine in ten respondents were very or fairly satisfied with each of the four services (between 87 per cent and 92 per cent). An increase in levels of satisfaction by users was observed across the board for each of the service types, with sports and leisure facilities seeing a six percentage point increase in proportion of users being satisfied since 2007.

Table 13.13: Satisfaction with local authority culture and sport and leisure services. (Service users within the past 12 months only)

Column percentages, 2007 to 2014 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Sports and leisure facilities
Very/fairly satisfied 82 83 82 82 85 88 88 87
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5
Very/fairly dissatisfied 10 9 10 9 8 7 6 7
No opinion 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
Base 3,650 3,210 3,270 3,140 3,230 3,400 3,450 3,390
Libraries
Very/fairly satisfied 90 92 92 91 92 93 92 92
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 2
No opinion 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Base 4,090 3,510 3,590 3,400 3,510 3,450 3,370 3,270
Museums and galleries
Very/fairly satisfied 87 89 88 87 90 92 91 92
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 8 7 6 7 5 3 4 5
Very/fairly dissatisfied 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1
No opinion 3 2 4 4 4 3 3 2
Base 2,870 2,630 2,720 2,460 2,830 2,800 2,980 3,020
Theatres or concert halls
Very/fairly satisfied 86 87 88 88 89 90 91 91
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 8 6 6 6 5 5 4 5
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2
No opinion 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Base 3,560 3,210 3,270 2,960 3,280 3,020 3,260 3,290

13.8 Engagement with the Commonwealth Games 2014

The XX Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games has the potential to create lasting social, cultural and economic benefits for both Scotland as a whole and for Glasgow. These benefits are collectively described as the 'legacy' of the Games. The Scottish Government's Assessing Legacy 2014[91] tracks the progress of these legacy ambitions, covering a ten-year period to 2019. Analysis presented in this chapter will contribute to the evidence base used to evaluate the legacy of the Games, and will inform a series of national evaluation reports[92] over the evaluation period up until 2019.

A change in the script of the questionnaire for the Games section was necessary to reflect the questions being asked before, during, and after the Games for the 2014 SHS Annual Report. It is important to note that this scripting change means caution should be exercised in comparing results between these periods. The inherent break in the series is analogous to comparing intended behaviour to actual behaviour, which can be quite different.

Table 13.14 shows ways that adults intended to follow or actually followed the Games. Although not directly comparable to 2013 due to the scripting change mentioned above, the 2014 results show that watching the Games on TV was the most popular method of following the Games (70 per cent). The next most popular way was by reading printed or online newspapers (49 per cent). In 2014, over three quarters of people intended to follow, or followed the Games in any way (76 per cent).

Table 13.14: Ways adults intended to follow or actually followed the Games

Percentages, 2013 and 2014 data

Adults 2013 2014
Watch on TV at home 72 70
Listen on radio at home 16 14
Watch/listen on internet at home 20 15
Reading in newspapers online/offline 54 49
Watching live events on public big screens 17 12
Follow in any way 78 76
Base 9,920 9,800

Columns add up to more than 100 per cent as multiple responses allowed.

Table 13.15 shows whether respondents think there will be lasting benefits either to themselves and their families or to their local area. These results are not affected by the scripting change mentioned above for previous questions related to the Games. Results show that overall, four in ten adults (40 per cent) believed that hosting the Games in Scotland will provide lasting benefits . The percentages have changed very little in comparison to the findings from 2013. More adults stated this in large urban areas (45 per cent) than in remote small towns and remote rural areas (both around 27 per cent).

Table 13.15: Will there be any lasting benefits of the games?

Percentages, 2014 data

Adults Large urban areas Other urban areas Accessible small towns Remote small towns Accessible rural Remote rural Scotland
To you and your family or your local area? 45 39 39 27 36 27 40
To you and your family? 31 30 28 19 28 18 29
To your local area? 34 27 26 20 19 16 28
Base 2,950 3,240 940 600 1,070 1,020 9,800

Columns add up to more than 100 per cent as multiple responses allowed.

Analysis by local authority level shows that residents of Glasgow City are more likely to respond that the Games will have lasting benefits. Over half of adults (53 per cent) believed that hosting the Games in Scotland would provide lasting benefits (either to them and their family or their local area). This is significantly higher than the national figure of 40 per cent. Full local authority level results are due to be published after this main SHS report.