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What Works to Reduce Reoffending: A Summary of the Evidence

DescriptionThis is an updated version of the original review entitled ‘What Works to Reduce Reoffending: A Summary of the Evidence’, published in 2012.
ISBN9781785443336
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateMay 08, 2015

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Justice Analytical Services
Scottish Government

Dr. Maria Sapouna
Catherine Bisset
Anne-Marie Conlong
Ben Matthews

ISBN 978 1 78544 333 6 (Web only publication)
PPDAS 49395

This document is also available in pdf format (1.4MB)

Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Research aims and overview
How do individuals desist from offending?
Features of desisters from crime, and mapping the desistance journey from the user perspective
Critical assessment of the 'What Works' literature, and future research
Implications for policy and for working with offenders in Scotland
Conclusions

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Aims
Scope
Limitations

CHAPTER TWO: HOW DO INDIVIDUALS DESIST FROM OFFENDING?
Individual and social influences
Imprisonment and community disposals
Early release measures
Diversion
Rehabilitation
Community supervision and through-care
Reparation and restoration
Deterrence
Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE: FEATURES OF DESISTERS FROM CRIME, AND MAPPING THE DESISTANCE JOURNEY FROM THE USER PERSPECTIVE
Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR: CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE 'WHAT WORKS' LITERATURE, AND PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
Critical assessment of the 'What Works' literature
Directions for future research

CHAPTER FIVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND FOR WORKING WITH OFFENDERS IN SCOTLAND
Intermediate outcomes - targets for interventions
Non-criminogenic needs
Implications for approaches to working with offenders
Evaluations of Scottish projects

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Comparison with the findings of the 2011 version of the review

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The authors would like to express their thanks to Professor Fergus McNeill for his helpful suggestions made during the peer-review of the updated paper, to Professor Joanna Shapland and Leah Gilman for their subsequent contributions to the revised draft, and to Yvonne Gailey of the Risk Management Authority (RMA) for her peer-review of the sections concerning the application of the RNR principles.

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

This report is available on the Scottish Government Publications Website
(http://www.gov.scot/Publications/Recent).