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Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2

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Chapter 1: Ethnicity

Introduction

This chapter presents an analysis of ethnicity in the 2011 Census. It is intended as an overview and does not represent a definitive analysis of ethnicity in Scotland. Comparisons have been made to highlight differences both between and within the different ethnic groups.

There are many important inter-relationships between ethnicity and other variables that could not be examined, either due to limitations of Census data or time constraints. In addition, the report does not try to provide commentary on the causes and background to the differences illustrated. The intention is that the report should stimulate discussion by highlighting interesting differences between people of different ethnicities.

Summary of Ethnicity Findings

The 2011 Census showed that:

  • 'White: Polish' people were the most likely to be economically active;
  • 'Pakistani' people were the most likely to be self-employed, and 'African' people were the least likely;
  • 'African' people were the most likely to be unemployed, followed by 'Caribbean or Black' people;
  • 'Other Asian' (including 'Chinese') young people were most likely to be full-time students;
  • A quarter of people in the 'White: Scottish', 'White: Other British' and 'White: Irish' groups were retired;
  • 'Indian' people were most likely to be working as a 'Manager, Director and Senior Official' or 'Professional'; this group was also the most highly qualified;
  • 'White: Polish' people were the most likely to be employed in the 'Manufacturing' industry;
  • People from minority ethnic groups were generally more likely to be living in 'Flats or temporary structure' accommodation;
  • People from minority ethnic groups who lived in rented accommodation were more likely to be renting from a Private Landlord, rather than from a Social Landlord;
  • 'White: Polish', 'Bangladeshi' and 'African' households had the highest rates of over-crowding.

Background

The ethnicity question asked in the 2011 Census aimed to classify people according to their own perceived ethnic group and cultural background. The question asked 'What is your ethnic group?' and required each person in Scotland to provide one response only. The response categories that changed between 2001 and 2011 were as follows:

  • Separate tick boxes were added for 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' and 'White: Polish'.
  • 'African' was included as a separate section, whereas in 2001 'African' was a tick box within the wider 'Black' section.
  • 'Arab' was added as a category within the 'Other' section.

These changes meant that any comparison of ethnicity between 2001 and 2011 used the following section headers: 'White'; 'Mixed or Multiple'; 'Asian', 'African, Caribbean or Black', and 'Other ethnic group'.

Where the term 'minority ethnic' is used, this refers to people from visible minority ethnic groups i.e. all those who ticked a box outside of the 'White' section. We recognise that there are some non-visible minority groups in Scotland and these are included within the analysis of the 'White' group.

'Asian, Asian Scottish, or Asian British' has been shortened to 'Asian' throughout this paper, and the categories within have also been shortened e.g. 'Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British' to 'Indian', making it easier to read and allowing for smaller labels in the charts.[4]

For some charts in Chapter 1, it has been necessary for statistical disclosure control reasons to group 'Bangladeshi', 'Chinese' and 'Asian, Asian Scottish, or Asian British: Other' into a combined 'Other Asian' category. Similarly, 'Arab' and 'Other ethnic group: Other' are grouped into a combined 'Other ethnic group' category in some charts.

The 2011 Census showed that the 'White: Scottish' group made up 84 per cent of Scotland's 5.3 million population, while the 'White: Other British' group made up 8 per cent.

Other non-British 'White' groups made up a further 4 per cent: 'White: Polish' (61,000 people), 'White: Irish' (54,000 people), 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' (4,000 people) and 'Other White' (102,000 people).

Minority ethnic groups made up the remaining 4 per cent of the population: 'Pakistani' (49,000 people) was the largest of these, followed by 'Chinese' (34,000 people). There were roughly equal numbers of people who recorded their ethnicity as 'Indian' and 'African' (33,000 and 30,000 people, respectively). Other ethnic groups were much smaller, with the 'Bangladeshi' (4,000 people), 'Caribbean' (3,000 people) and 'Black' (2,000 people) groups being of similar size.[5]

List of Sub-chapters

Chapter 1.1: Labour Market

Chapter 1.2: Education

Chapter 1.3: Housing

Chapter 1.4: Transport

Chapter 1.1: Labour Market

Key Findings

  • 'White: Polish' people were the most likely to be economically active;
  • 'Pakistani' people were the most likely to be self-employed, and 'African' people were the least likely;
  • 'African' people were the most likely to be unemployed, followed by 'Caribbean or Black' people;
  • Other Asian (including 'Chinese') young people were most likely to be full-time students;
  • A quarter of people in the 'White: Scottish', 'White: Other British' and 'White: Irish' groups were retired.

The Census and the Annual Population Survey (APS)[6] are the two main sources of data on how different ethnic groups fare in the labour market. The APS data is released quarterly and is more up-to-date, whereas the Census data provides a more detailed breakdown of the ethnicity categories and is available at lower geographies.

Chart 1.1: Ethnic Group by Economic Activity, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.1: Ethnic Group by Economic Activity, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Economic activity[7] relates to whether or not a person aged 16 and over was working or looking for work in the week before the census. Rather than a simple indicator of whether or not someone was currently in employment, it provides a measure of whether or not a person was an active participant in the labour market.

Chart 1.1 shows that 63 per cent of the population were economically active and 36 per cent worked as full-time employees. 'White: Polish' people were the most likely to work full-time as an employee (56 per cent) and were also the most likely to be economically active (86 per cent).

The 'Pakistani' group reported the highest proportion of people who were self-employed (14 per cent), whilst the 'Chinese' and 'Arab' groups had the highest proportions of people who were students (38 and 35 per cent, respectively).

The 'White: Scottish' (24 per cent), 'White: Other British' (23 per cent) and 'White: Irish' (23 per cent) groups had the highest proportions of people who were retired.

The 'Pakistani', 'White: Gypsy/Traveller', 'Bangladeshi' and 'Arab' groups had relatively high proportions of people who were economically inactive because they were looking after home or family (13, 11, 10 and 10 per cent, respectively).

The latest APS estimates show that employment rates (for those aged 16 to 64 years) for minority ethnic groups have increased by just under 6 percentage points over the past 2 years (from 57.1 per cent in Oct 2011-Sep 2012 to 62.8 per cent in Oct 2013-Sep 2014), a higher increase than the 1.7 percentage point seen for the population of Scotland as a whole.

It should be noted that there are a number of differences in the results from the 2011 Census and the APS. These are explained further in Annex A.

Chart 1.2: Ethnic Group by Occupational Group, All People 16-74[8] years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.2: Ethnic Group by Occupational Group, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

A person's occupational group relates to their main job and is derived from either their job title or details of the activities involved in their job.[9]

Chart 1.2 shows that, for people aged 16 to 74 in employment, a high proportion of people from the 'Indian' group were 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' and 'Professionals'. Nearly half (48 per cent) of people from the 'Indian' group were in these high occupation groups, compared to a quarter of the population as a whole, and only 8 per cent of people in the 'White: Polish' group.

People from the 'Pakistani' group were the most likely to be self-employed. They were also the most likely to be 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' (20 per cent).

'White: Polish' people were the most likely to be full-time employees and were also the most likely to be working in 'Elementary occupations' (35 per cent), as 'Process, plant and machine operatives' (16 per cent) and in 'Skilled trades occupations' (17 per cent).

People from the 'Pakistani' group were the most likely to be working in 'Sales and Customer Service occupations' (22 per cent), while the 'African' group had the highest proportion of people working in 'Caring, Leisure & Other Service occupations' (18 per cent).

Chart 1.3: Ethnic Group by Gender, for Managers, Directors & Senior Officials, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.3: Ethnic Group by Gender, for Managers, Directors & Senior Officials, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.3 shows that the majority of those from the highest occupational group - 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' - were male. This was the case across all ethnic groups, apart from the 'White: Polish' group where there was a 50-50 split between males and females.

This difference was most prominent in the 'Other Ethnic group' and the 'Pakistani' group, where the proportion of males in the highest occupational group was 81 and 79 per cent, respectively.

Chart 1.4: Ethnic Group by Industry, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011[10]

Chart 1.4: Ethnic Group by Industry, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.4 shows that the largest industries for people aged 16 to 74 years in employment were 'Public Administration, Education and Health' (30 per cent), 'Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants' (21 per cent), and 'Financial, Real Estate, Professional and Administrative activities' (15 per cent). 'Agriculture, energy and water', 'Manufacturing' and 'Construction' combined amounted to 21 per cent.

The 'White: Polish' group had the highest proportion of people who were employed in 'Manufacturing' (20 per cent).

Half of people (50 per cent) from the 'Pakistani' group worked in the 'Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants' industry, which was also the predominant industry for the 'Other Asian'[11] group (43 per cent).

The 'African' and 'White: Irish' groups were the most likely to be employed in 'Public Administration, Education and Health' (37 per cent).

Chart 1.5: Ethnic Group by NS-SeC, All People 16-74 years, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.5: Ethnic Group by NS-SeC, All People 16-74 years, Scotland 2011

The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SeC) provides an indication of socio-economic position based on occupation. It is an Office for National Statistics (ONS) standard classification.[12]

Chart 1.5 shows that the 'White: Other British' group had slightly higher representation than the 'White: Irish' and 'Indian' groups in the three highest NS-SeC groups.

Around a quarter (23 per cent) of people who identified as 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' had never worked; this proportion was considerably higher than the other ethnic groups presented in the chart.

The 'White: Polish' group had the highest proportion of people who were in 'Routine Occupations' (30 per cent); this was over double the proportion reported for the population as a whole.

Relatively high proportions of the 'Other Asian'[13], 'African', 'Other Ethnic group' and 'Mixed or Multiple' groups were full-time students (38, 32, 32 and 29 per cent, respectively).

Chart 1.6: Ethnic Group by Hours Worked, All People 16-74 years in Employment (excluding Full-Time students), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.6: Ethnic Group by Hours Worked, All People 16-74 years in Employment (excluding Full-Time students), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.6 shows that people who were in employment were most likely to work between 38 and 48 hours per week (41 per cent). Around a fifth (22 per cent) of people worked between 31 and 37 hours, with a similar proportion (21 per cent) working part-time, between 16 and 30 hours per week. 12 per cent of people worked longer hours, of 49 or more hours per week.

The 'White: Gypsy/Traveller', 'White: Other British', 'White: Irish' and 'Pakistani' groups had the highest proportions of people working long hours of 49 or more hours per week (17, 16, 16 and 16 per cent, respectively).

People from the 'Bangladeshi' group who were in employment were most likely to work between 16 and 30 hours per week (34 per cent), and over half (56 per cent) of the 'White: Polish' group worked longer hours of between 38 and 48 hours per week.

Chart 1.7: Ethnic Group by Social Grade, All People in Households 16-64 years, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.7: Ethnic Group by Social Grade, All People in Households 16-64 years, Scotland 2011

Social grade is the socio-economic classification[14] used by the Market Research and Marketing Industries, most often in the analysis of spending habits and consumer attitudes. Although it is not possible to allocate social grades precisely from information collected in the 2011 Census, the Market Research Society has developed a method for using census information to provide a good approximation of social grade.

Chart 1.7 shows that the 'Indian' group had the highest proportion of people (36 per cent) in the highest social grade, 'AB'. This compared to under a fifth (19 per cent) of the population.

The majority (51 per cent) of the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group were classified as being in the lowest social grades, 'D and E'. This was the highest proportion across all ethnic groups presented in the chart, followed by the 'White: Polish' group (45 per cent). Around a third of the 'Bangladeshi' and 'Pakistani' group were also in this grade (37 and 35 per cent, respectively).

Almost half (47 per cent) of people in the 'Arab' ethnic group were classified as a 'C1' social grade.

Chart 1.8: Ethnic Group by Gender, All People 16-64 years in AB Social Grade Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.8: Ethnic Group by Gender, All People 16-64 years in AB Social Grade Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.8 presents a breakdown of the highest social grade, AB, by gender. In the population as a whole, there was a 50-50 split between males and females who were in this social grade.

The 'White: Polish' and 'Chinese' groups had a higher proportion of females (55 and 54 per cent respectively) than males in the highest social grade; whereas in the 'Arab', 'African' and 'Indian' groups, there was a higher proportion of males (58, 57 and 55 per cent respectively).

Chapter 1.2: Education

Key Findings:

  • 'Other Asian' (including 'Chinese') young people were most likely to be full-time students;
  • 'Indian' people were the most highly qualified.

Chart 1.9: Proportion of all people (16-24 years) who were Full-Time Students, by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.9: Proportion of all people (16-24 years) who were Full-Time Students, by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.9 shows that almost half (46 per cent) of the population aged 16 to 24 years were full-time students. Most groups recorded a higher proportion of full-time students than the 'White: Scottish' group (41 per cent) - only the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' (38 per cent) and 'White: Polish' (37 per cent) groups recorded a lower proportion.

The 'Other Asian'[15] group reported the highest proportion of young people who were full-time students (85 per cent), followed by the Indian group (74 per cent).

Chart 1.10: Change in proportion of all People (18 years+) who were Full-Time Students, by Ethnic Group, Change between 2001 and 2011, Scotland 2001 and 2011[16]

Chart 1.10: Change in proportion of all People (18 years+) who were Full-Time Students, by Ethnic Group, Change between 2001 and 2011, Scotland 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.10 shows the change between 2001 and 2011 in the proportion of the adult population who were full-time students, by ethnic group. The largest increase was seen in the 'Chinese' group, where the proportion of full-time students went up by 17 percentage points over the decade.

The 'Other Asian'[17], the 'Other Ethnic Group'[18] and the 'Indian' groups also saw relatively large increases in the proportion of people who were full-time students.

Chart 1.11: Ethnic Group by Highest Level of Qualification, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011[19] [20]

Chart 1.11: Ethnic Group by Highest Level of Qualification, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.11 shows that people from minority ethnic groups tended to have higher qualification levels than the 'White: Scottish' group.

For people aged 16 and above, 'Indian' people were the most likely to be highly qualified; 62 per cent had a 'Level 4 and above' qualification (degree level and above). In the population as a whole, only a quarter (26 per cent) of people held a 'Level 4 and above' qualification.

Half of people in the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group had no qualifications (50 per cent). This was the highest proportion of the ethnic groups presented in the chart and around double the rate in the population as a whole.

The latest 'Summary Statistics For Attainment, Leaver Destinations And Healthy Living, no. 4: 2014 Edition - Attainment and Leaver Destinations' showed that most minority ethnic groups had a higher proportion of school leavers who had attained higher levels of qualification compared to the 'White: Scottish' group.[21]

Chart 1.12: Ethnic Group by Gender, All People (16 years+) with No Qualifications, Scotland 2011[22]

Chart 1.12: Ethnic Group by Gender, All people (16 years+) with No Qualifications, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.12 shows that a higher proportion of females than males had no qualifications (a 53 to 47 per cent split).

However in the 'White: Other White', 'Mixed or Multiple', 'White: Polish', 'Caribbean or Black' and 'Other ethnic' groups, the majority of those who had no qualifications were male.

A high proportion of those with no qualifications in the 'Other Ethnic Group' and 'Caribbean or Black' groups were males (59 and 58 per cent respectively).

Chapter 1.3: Housing

Key Findings:

  • People from minority ethnic groups were generally more likely to be living in 'Flats or temporary structure' accommodation;
  • People from minority ethnic groups who lived in rented accommodation were more likely to be renting from a Private Landlord, rather than from a Social Landlord;
  • 'White: Polish', 'Bangladeshi' and 'African' households had the highest rates of over-crowding.

Chart 1.13: Ethnic Group by Type of Accommodation, All People in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.13: Ethnic Group by Type of Accommodation, All People in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.13 shows that the proportion of people living in different accommodation types was quite evenly distributed in the population as a whole, with roughly a quarter of people in each of the four categories.

People from minority ethnic groups were generally more likely to live in 'Flats or temporary structure[23]' accommodation compared to the population, where 29 per cent of people lived in this type of accommodation.

Almost three quarters of 'African' and 'White: Polish' people lived in a 'Flat or Temporary Structure' (72 and 69 per cent, respectively).

The 'White: Other British' and 'Pakistani' groups had the highest proportions of people who lived in 'Detached' accommodation (40 and 31 per cent respectively).

Chart 1.14: Ethnic Group by Tenure, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.14: Ethnic Group by Tenure, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.14 shows that the 'White: Other British', 'Pakistani' and 'White: Scottish' ethnic groups had the highest levels of home ownership (70, 68 and 68 per cent respectively). It should be noted that the 'White: Scottish' and 'White: Other British' groups tended to have an older population compared to minority ethnic groups.

The 'White: Polish' group were most likely to be living in 'Private rented or rent-free accommodation'[24] - the majority (55 per cent) of people in this group were recorded in this category.

Most minority ethnic groups had higher representation than white British groups in private rented accommodation.

The 'African' and 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' groups had the highest proportions of people who lived in social rented accommodation (41 and 40 per cent respectively) - this was double the rate in the population as a whole.

Chart 1.15[25]: Ethnic Group by Home Ownership, Change between 2001 and 2011, All People (16 years+) in Households[26], Scotland 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.15: Ethnic Group by Home Ownership, Change between 2011 and 2011, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.15 shows that for the adult (aged 16 and over) population as a whole, rates of homeownership remained relatively unchanged between 2001 and 2011.

For all groups, other than 'White: Scottish', 'White: Irish' and 'Mixed or Multiple' group, the proportion of people who were homeowners decreased between 2001 and 2011.

It should be noted that the 'White: Other White' category changed between 2001 and 2011 to include 'White: Polish' and 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' groups, both of which have amongst the lowest levels of home ownership.

Chart 1.16: Ethnic Group by Landlord Type, All People (16 years+) in Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.16: Ethnic Group by Landlord Type, All People (16 years+) in Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.16 shows that almost two thirds (64 per cent) of all people who were living in rented accommodation were in social rented accommodation; that is, rented from a Housing Association/Registered Social Landlord, or from the Council (Local Authority).[27]

However, people from most minority ethnic groups living in rented accommodation were more likely to rent through a 'Private Landlord or Letting Agency'.

Eighty three per cent of people in rented accommodation from the 'Indian' group were renting privately; whereas 'African' people in rented accommodation were the most likely to be in 'Housing Association/Registered Social Landlord' rented accommodation (44 per cent).

Chart 1.17: Ethnic Group by Gender, All People (16 years+) in Social Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.17: Ethnic Group by Gender, All People (16 years+) in Social Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.17 shows there were a higher proportion of females than males living in social rented accommodation (a 55:45 split).

This varied across ethnic groups: 59 per cent of 'White: Gypsy/Travellers' in social rented accommodation were female, whereas 61 per cent of people from 'Other ethnic groups', in social rented accommodation were male.

Chart 1.18: Ethnic Group of HRP by Occupancy Rating, All HRPs[28], Scotland 2011

Chart 1.18: Ethnic Group of HRP by Occupancy Rating, All HRPs, Scotland 2011

Occupancy rating[29] provides a measure of whether a household's accommodation is overcrowded or under-occupied and gives an indication of how many households may be living in overcrowded conditions.

'White: Scottish' and 'White: Other British' households were the least likely to be overcrowded. The 'White: Polish' group had the highest rate of overcrowded households (30 per cent), followed by 'Bangladeshi' and 'African' households (both 28 per cent). Conversely, three quarters (75 per cent) of 'White: Other British' households were under-occupied, while the 'White: Scottish' and 'White: Irish' groups also had a relatively high proportion of under-occupied households (67 and 66 per cent respectively).

Chart 1.19: Ethnic Group by Type of Central Heating, All HRPs[30], Scotland 2011

Chart 1.19: Ethnic Group by Type of Central Heating, All HRPs, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.19 shows that the most common type of central heating for households in Scotland was gas central heating (74 per cent). Around an eighth (13 per cent) of households had electric central heating and a tenth had other types of central heating. Two per cent of households had no central heating.

People who recorded a 'Chinese', 'Other Asian'[31], 'African', 'White: Gypsy/Traveller', 'Mixed or Multiple', 'Caribbean or Black, or 'White: Other White' ethnic group were the most likely to be in a household with no central heating (5 per cent, or one in 20 households). 'White: Scottish' households were the least likely to have no central heating (2 per cent).

People who recorded an 'African' ethnicity were the most likely to live in households with electric (including storage heaters) central heating (30 per cent).

Chapter 1.4: Transport

Chart 1.20: Ethnic Group by Car or Van Availability, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.20: Ethnic Group by Car or Van Availability, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.20 shows that around a quarter of people (23 per cent) lived in households with no access to a car or van, two fifths (40 per cent) had access to one car or van and the remaining third (36 per cent) had access to two or more cars or vans.

People who recorded a 'Pakistani' ethnicity had high levels of car or van access; a fifth (20 per cent) had access to three or more cars or vans[32]. The 'African' group had the lowest level of car or van access, with the majority (53 per cent) of people having no access to a car or van.

Eighty three per cent of the 'White: Other British' and the 'Pakistani' ethnic groups lived in households with access to at least one car or van.

Chart 1.21: Ethnic Group by Car or Van Availability, All People (16 years+) living in Rural Areas, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.21: Ethnic Group by Car or Van Availability, All People (16 years+) living in Rural Areas, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.21 shows that the majority of people (90 per cent) who were living in rural areas had access to a car or van; over half of people had access to at least 2 cars or vans (54 per cent).

'White: Gypsy/Travellers' living in rural areas were the least likely to have access to a car or van (20 per cent), whereas a third of people who identified a 'Pakistani' ethnicity, and lived in rural areas, had access to 3 or more cars or vans.

Chart 1.22: Ethnic Group by Method of Travel to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment (excluding Full-Time students), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.22: Ethnic Group by Method of Travel to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment (excluding Full-Time students), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.22 shows that the majority of people in employment drove to work (56 per cent). All of the other modes of transport were much less common with only a tenth of people using the bus and a similar proportion walking. A further tenth worked mainly at or from home.

Only the 'White: Scottish' group had a higher than average proportion of people who drove to work (58 per cent). People who recorded an 'African' ethnicity were the least likely to drive to work (31 per cent); this group were most likely to take the bus (31 per cent).

The 'Bangladeshi' group were the group most likely to work mainly at or from home (27 per cent).

Chart 1.23: Ethnic Group by Distance Travelled to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment (excluding Full-Time Students), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.23: Ethnic Group by Distance Travelled to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment (excluding Full-Time Students), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.23 shows that the majority (60 per cent) of people travelled less than 10km to their place of work, including those who worked at home. Around a fifth (22 per cent) of people travelled between 10km and 29km and 7 per cent travelled 30km or more.

People who recorded an 'Indian' ethnicity were most likely to travel shorter distances, of less than 10km, to work (71 per cent).

Around a quarter of 'White: Gypsy/Travellers' recorded their distance travelled to work within the 'Other' category - this includes those who had no fixed place of work, or who worked offshore or outside the UK.

Chart 1.24: Ethnic Group by Method of Travel to Study, All People (4 years+) Studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.24: Ethnic Group by Method of Travel to Study, All People (4 years+) Studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.24 shows that the most common method of travel to place of study[33] was on foot (39 per cent). A fifth (21 per cent) of people travelled to their place of study by car (mainly as passengers) and a further fifth (21 per cent) travelled by bus. An eighth (12 per cent) of people studied at home.

The 'Pakistani' group had the highest proportion of people who studied mainly at or from home (28 per cent)[34]. People who recorded a 'White: Other White' ethnicity were the group most likely to walk (45 per cent).

People who recorded an 'African' ethnicity were the most likely to take the bus to their place of study (29 per cent).

Chart 1.25: Ethnic Group by Distance Travelled to Study, All People (4 years+) Studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.25: Ethnic Group by Distance Travelled to Study, All People (4 years+) Studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.25 shows that the majority of people (56 per cent) travelled less than 2km to their place of study[35], including those who studied from home[36]. A further third (31 per cent) travelled between 2km and 9km and the remaining eighth (14 per cent) travelled 10km or more.

People who recorded their ethnic group as 'Mixed or Multiple' were the most likely to travel longer distances of 2km or more to their place of study, and those who recorded a 'Chinese' ethnicity were the most likely to travel less than 2km.