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Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census

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Chapter 2: Gypsy/Travellers

Introduction

This chapter describes the information collected on Gypsy/Travellers in the 2011 Census and compares the results and characteristics of this group to the Scottish population.

Background

The Scottish Government recognises that Gypsy/Travellers are a particularly discriminated against and marginalised group, and it is committed to ensuring equality of opportunity for all of Scotland's Gypsy/Travellers.

In 2011 a 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' response category was added to the Census form for the first time in Scotland. The following analysis covers those who identified their ethnic group as 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' and were resident either on sites or in settled housing on Census day.

Two recent Equal Opportunities Committee enquiries 'Gypsy/Travellers and Care' and 'Where Gypsy/Travellers Live' have highlighted the circumstances of Gypsy/Travellers and made recommendations on how their lives could be improved. The Scottish Government is working with stakeholders to develop an overarching strategy and action plan for Gypsy/Travellers. The following analysis will enhance the evidence base to help measure progress of this group.

Summary of Findings

In 2011 Gypsy/Travellers in Scotland:

  • were much younger than the population as a whole;
  • were more likely to have been born outside of Scotland and have a non-UK National Identity;
  • were more likely to have lower skills in English language and more likely to speak other languages at home;
  • were less likely to be 'Church of Scotland' and more likely to be 'Other Christian';
  • were more likely to be divorced or separated, live in lone parent households and have 3 or more dependent children;
  • were more likely to have worse health than the population, despite a younger age profile.

List of Sub-chapters

Chapter 2.1: Demographics

Chapter 2.2: Identity, Language and Religion

Chapter 2.3: Households

Chapter 2.4: Health

Chapter 2.1: Demographics

4,212 people in Scotland identified their ethnicity as 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' and this represented 0.1 per cent of the population. Statistics from the ONS revealed that a similar

Figure 2.1: Population Pyramids

Figure 2.1: Population Pyramids

The population pyramids shown in Figure 2.1 illustrate that the age profile of Gypsy/Travellers was much younger compared to the population as a whole. Only 28 per cent of Gypsy/Travellers were aged 45 or over compared to 44 per cent of the population as a whole, and only 4 per cent were aged 70 or over compared to 12 per cent of the population as a whole. Forty nine per cent of Gypsy/Travellers were male and 51 per cent were female.

Chart 2.1: Gypsy/Travellers by council area, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.1: Gypsy/Travellers by council area, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.1 shows that the council areas with the most Gypsy/Travellers resident on census day were Perth & Kinross, Glasgow City and the City of Edinburgh. The lowest numbers were resident in the island councils and Inverclyde[16].

Urban and Rural Scotland

Respondents were classified as living in an area that was either urban or rural, according to the Scottish Government's 8-fold classification[17].

Chart 2.2: Gypsy/Travellers by Urban Rural Classification, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.2: Gypsy/Travellers by Urban Rural Classification, Scotland 2011

The urban rural profile of Gypsy/Travellers was fairly similar to the population as a whole, with slightly fewer living in urban areas and slightly more in rural. Thirty five per cent of Gypsy/Travellers lived in large urban areas compared to 40 per cent of the whole population. Twenty one per cent of Gypsy/Travellers lived in rural areas compared to 17 per cent of the whole population.

Chapter 2.2: Identity, Language and Religion

Chart 2.3: Gypsy/Travellers by National Identity, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.3: Gypsy/Travellers by National Identity, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.3 and Table 2.1 show that two thirds (66 per cent) of Gypsy/Travellers in Scotland identified their national identity as 'Scottish only'. The next most common category (11 per cent) was 'Other identity' i.e. those that exclude UK national identities.

Table 2.1: National Identity of Gypsy/Travellers compared to all people in Scotland 2011

White: Gypsy/Traveller All people Difference
Scottish identity only 66% 62% +4%
Scottish and British identities only 7% 18% -11%
Scottish and any other identities 3% 2% +1%
British identity only 7% 8% -1%
English identity only 4% 2% +1%
Any other combination of UK identities (UK only) 2% 2% 0%
Other identity and at least one UK identity 0% 0% 0%
Other identity only 11% 4% +7%

Table 2.1 also shows the differences between Gypsy/Travellers and the Scottish population. A slightly higher proportion of Gypsy/Travellers identified as 'Scottish only'. Gypsy/Travellers were more likely to identify as 'Other identity only' and less likely to identify as 'Scottish and British'.

Chart 2.4: Gypsy/Travellers by Country of Birth, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.4: Gypsy/Travellers by Country of Birth, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.4 shows that Scotland was the most common country of birth for Gypsy/Travellers in 2011 (76 per cent), followed by England (11 per cent).

However, a lower proportion of Gypsy/Travellers were born in Scotland than the population as a whole (76 per cent compared to 83 per cent). Six per cent of Gypsy/Travellers were born in EU Accession countries; this compared to only one per cent of the population as a whole.

Chart 2.5: Gypsy/Travellers by age of arrival in UK, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.5: Gypsy/Travellers by age of arrival in UK, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.5 shows that Gypsy/Travellers were more likely to have been born outside of the UK than the general population (12 per cent compared to 7 per cent).

The largest difference was amongst the 16-24 age group where 5 per cent of Gypsy/Travellers were aged 16-24 when they arrived in the UK compared to only 2 per cent of the general population.

Chart 2.6: Gypsy/Travellers by English Language Skills, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.6: Gypsy/Travellers by English Language Skills, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.6 shows that English language skills for Gypsy/Travellers aged 3 and over were generally lower than for the population as a whole. Only 83 per cent of Gypsy/Travellers could speak, read and write English compared to 94 per cent of the whole population. A further 16 per cent of Gypsy/Travellers had some skills in English, however. Less than 1 per cent of Gypsy/Travellers had no skills in English.

Chart 2.7: Gypsy/Travellers by English Language Proficiency, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.7: Gypsy/Travellers by English language Proficiency, Scotland 2011

Gypsy/Travellers were less proficient in spoken English than the population as a whole with only 93 per cent able to speak English 'well' or 'very well' compared to 99 per cent of the whole population aged 3 and over. Seven per cent of Gypsy/Travellers spoke English 'not well' or 'not at all' compared to only 1 per cent of the whole population.

Chart 2.8: Gypsy/Travellers by Language Used at Home, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.8: Gypsy/Travellers by Language Used at Home, Scotland 2011

Gypsy/Travellers aged 3 and over were more likely to use languages other than English at home. Eighteen per cent used languages other than English compared to 7 per cent of the population. Four per cent of Gypsy/Travellers used Polish at home compared to 1 per cent of the population. One in ten used 'other' languages, where numbers were too small to report on separately.

Chart 2.9: Gypsy/Travellers by Religion, Scotland, 2011

Chart 2.9: Gypsy/Travellers by Religion, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.9 shows that around half of Gypsy/Travellers stated their religion to be a Christian denomination ('Church of Scotland', 'Roman Catholic' and 'Other Christian') and over a third (37 per cent) stated that they had no religion. Five per cent reported an 'Other' religion (which included 'Buddhist', 'Muslim', 'Jewish', 'Sikh' and 'Hindu' amongst others).

Table 2.2: Religion of Gypsy/Travellers compared to all people in Scotland 2011

White: Gypsy/Traveller All People Difference
No religion 37% 37% 0%
Church of Scotland 19% 32% -13%
Roman Catholic 16% 16% 0%
Other Christian 14% 6% +8%
Religion not stated 9% 7% +2%
Other religion 5% 3% +3%

Table 2.2 shows the differences between the religion of Gypsy/Travellers and the Scottish population as a whole. Gypsy/Travellers were much less likely to identify as 'Church of Scotland' and much more likely to identify as 'Other Christian'.

Chapter 2.3: Households

Chart 2.10: Gypsy/Travellers by Household Composition, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.10: Gypsy/Traveller by Household cOmposition, Scotland 2011

The proportion of Gypsy/Traveller households containing one person was similar to that of the general population.

Gypsy/Travellers, however, were twice as likely to live in a lone parent household compared to the general population, and much less likely to be in a married couple household.

A small proportion of Gypsy/Traveller households were 'one family households with all people aged 65 and over', which could be expected given the younger profile of the population pyramid shown in Figure 2.1.

Chart 2.11: Gypsy/Travellers by Marital Status, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.11: Gypsy/Travellers by Marital Status, Scotland 2011

Almost half of Gypsy/Travellers (aged 16 and over) were single in 2011 compared to around a third of the general population. Gypsy/Travellers were less likely to be married and more likely to be divorced or separated compared to the population as a whole.

Chart 2.12: Gypsy/Traveller households by number of dependent children, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.12: Gypsy/Traveller households by number of dependent children, Scotland 2011

Gypsy/Traveller households were more likely to contain dependent children[18] (36 per cent) than the population as a whole (26 per cent), and they were three times more likely to contain 'three or more' dependent children.

Chapter 2.4: Health

Chart 2.13: Gypsy/Travellers by Long-term Health Problem or Disability, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.13: Gypsy/Travellers by Long-term Health Problem or Disability, Scotland 2011

Gypsy/Travellers were more likely than the general population to have a limiting long-term health problem or disability (28 per cent compared to 20 per cent) despite the fact they had a much younger age profile. Within this, they were also more likely to be limited 'a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability (16 per cent compared to 10 per cent).

Chart 2.14: Gypsy/Travellers by long-term health conditions, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.14: Gypsy/Travellers by long-term health conditions, Scotland 2011

Gypsy/Travellers were more likely to report long-term health conditions than the general population. Thirty seven per cent reported at least one condition compared to 30 per cent of the population as a whole. They were twice as likely to report three or more categories of condition (6 per cent compared to 3 per cent).

Chart 2.15: Gypsy/Travellers by General Health, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.15: Gypsy/Travellers by General Health, Scotland 2011

Only 69 per cent of Gypsy/Travellers reported 'good' or 'very good' health compared to 82 per cent of the general population. This is despite Gypsy/Travellers having a much younger age profile.

Gypsy/Travellers were three times more likely to report 'bad' or 'very bad' health compared to the general population (15 per cent and 6 per cent respectively). They were around five times more likely to report very bad health.

Chart 2.16: Gypsy/Travellers by provision of unpaid weekly care, Scotland 2011

Chart 2.16: Gypsy/Travellers by provision of unpaid weekly care, Scotland 2011

The proportion of Gypsy/Travellers providing no unpaid weekly care[19] was slightly lower than the general population, as was the proportion providing 1-19 hours unpaid care per week.

However, Gypsy/Travellers were more than twice as likely to provide a high level of unpaid care (50 or more hours per week) than the general population.