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Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census

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Chapter 1: Ethnicity

Introduction

This chapter presents an analysis of ethnicity data in the 2011 Census. The analysis that follows explores the responses to the ethnic group question at Scotland and council area level and draws upon other relevant variables. It is intended as an overview and does not represent a definitive analysis of ethnicity in Scotland. It examines the relationships between these variables but does not seek to determine causation.

Background

The ethnicity question in the 2011 Census aimed to classify people according to their own perceived ethnic group and cultural background. The question asked 'What is your Ethnic Group?' and required each person in Scotland to provide one response only.

The response categories that changed between 2001 and 2011 were as follows:

  • Separate tick boxes were added for 'White: Polish' and 'White: Gypsy/Traveller'.
  • 'African' was included as a separate category, whereas in 2001 'African' was a tick box within the wider 'Black' section.
  • 'Arab' was added as a category within the 'Other' section.

These changes meant that any comparison of ethnicity between 2001 and 2011 used the following section headers: 'White'; 'Mixed or multiple'; 'Asian'; 'African, Caribbean or Black', and 'Other ethnic group'.

Where the term 'minority ethnic' is used, this refers to people from visible minority ethnic groups i.e. all those who ticked a box outside of the 'White' section. We recognise that there are some non-visible minority groups in Scotland and these are included within analysis of the 'White' group. 'Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British' has been shortened to 'Asian' throughout this paper, making it easier to read and allowing for smaller labels in the charts.

Summary of Ethnicity Findings

  • The census revealed that Scotland became a more ethnically diverse country in the decade to 2011. Scotland's minority ethnic population doubled, from 2 to 4 per cent of the total population (from around 102,000 to 211,000 people).
  • White non-British groups also increased, from 3 to 4 per cent of the population (127,000 to 222,000 people).
  • Together, minority ethnic and white non-British groups made up 8 per cent of Scotland's population in 2011.
  • Despite its increased diversity, Scotland was still a less ethnically diverse country than England in 2011: minority ethnic groups comprised 4 per cent of Scotland's population compared with 15 per cent in England.
  • Minority ethnic groups had a much younger age profile than most 'White' ethnic groups.
  • Polish people in Scotland were the most likely to have been born outside of the UK and this group had the lowest English language skills.
  • 'Bangladeshi', 'Pakistani' and 'Indian' people were most likely to be married.
  • The 'Pakistani' ethnic group had the highest proportion of households that contained three or more dependent children.
  • Minority ethnic groups recorded better health than the population as a whole, though these groups tended to be younger.
  • People who recorded their ethnicity as 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' rated their health as worse than people from other ethnic groups.

List of Sub-chapters

Chapter 1.1: Demographics

Chapter 1.2: Religion, Identity and Language

Chapter 1.3: Households

Chapter 1.4: Health

Chapter 1.1: Demographics

Chart 1.1: Scotland's Population by Ethnicity, 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.1: Scotland's Population by Ethnicity, 2001 and 2011

In the 2011 Census most people in Scotland recorded their ethnicity as 'White: Scottish' (84 per cent), or as 'White: Other British' (8 per cent), with a smaller proportion recording their ethnicity as something outwith either of these ethnic groups.

Chart 1.1 shows Scotland to be a more ethnically diverse country than it was in 2001: in the decade to 2011, Scotland's minority ethnic population doubled, from 2 to 4 per cent of the total population (from 102,000 to 211,000 people). White non-British groups also increased, from 3 to 4 per cent of the population (127,000 to 222,000 people); together these groups made up 8 per cent of Scotland's population.

To provide further context, the minority ethnic populations in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2011 were 15, 4 and 2 per cent respectively. White non-British groups comprised 6 and 2 per cent, respectively in England and Wales.

Figure 1.1: Relative size of Ethnic Groups in Scotland, 2011 (excluding 'White: Scottish' and 'White: Other British')

Figure 1.1: Relative size of Ethnic Groups in Scotland, 2011 (excluding White: Scottish and White: Other British

Source: Census 2011, National Records of Scotland

Figure 1.1 presents the relative size of ethnic groups in Scotland (excluding the 'White: Scottish' and 'White: Other British' groups). When combined, these groups made up 8 per cent of Scotland's total population.

The 'Other White' (102,000 people), 'White: Polish' (61,000 people) and 'White: Irish' (54,000 people) were the largest of these groups.

'Pakistani' (49,000 people) was the next largest ethnic group, and the largest of the Asian ethnicities, followed by 'Chinese' (34,000 people). There were roughly equal numbers of people who recorded their ethnicity as 'Indian' as there were recording their ethnic group as 'African' (33,000 and 30,000 people, respectively).

The remaining ethnic groups were much smaller: the 'Bangladeshi' (4,000 people), 'Gypsy/Traveller' (4,000 people), 'Caribbean' (3,000 people) and 'Black' (2,000 people) groups were of similar size.

Chart 1.2: Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland, 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.2: Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland, 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.2 shows that between 2001 and 2011, Scotland's 'Asian' population doubled (an increase of 69,000 people), and the 'African, Caribbean or Black' population increased more than fourfold (by 28,000 people). 'Mixed or multiple' and 'Other ethnic group' non-white groups also showed an increase.

Figure 1.2: Minority Ethnic Groups by Council Area, Change between 2001 and 2011, Scotland

Figure 1.2: Minority Ethnic Groups by Council Area, Change between 2001 and 2011, Scotland

Source: Census 2011, National Records of Scotland

In 2001 and 2011 the highest proportions of people from minority ethnic groups were living in Scotland's largest cities (Aberdeen City, City of Edinburgh, Glasgow City). Rural areas tended to have a lower proportion of their population who were from a minority ethnic group.

Regional change in Scotland's ethnic composition between 2001 and 2011 is shown in Figure 1.2.

In 2001 only the four largest cities (Glasgow City, City of Edinburgh, Aberdeen City and Dundee City) and council areas in the central belt reported minority ethnic populations greater than 1 per cent of their total population. By 2011 all council areas in Scotland, except for Eilean Siar and Orkney Isles, had more than 1 per cent of their population from a minority ethnic group. For the four cities mentioned above this proportion was more than 5 per cent.

Chart 1.3: Change in proportion of population in Minority Ethnic Groups by Council Area, Scotland, 2001 to 2011

Chart 1.3: Change in proportion of population in Minority Ethnic Groups by Council Area, Scotland, 2001 to 2011

Between 2001 and 2011, the four largest cities in Scotland recorded an increase in the proportion of their population who were from a minority ethnic group (see Chart 1.3). Glasgow City recorded the largest increase (6 percentage points), followed by Aberdeen City (5 percentage points).

Across these cities the 'Asian' population showed the largest increase, followed by the 'African, Caribbean or Black' group. Glasgow City and Aberdeen City saw the largest increases in their 'African, Caribbean or Black' population.

Chart 1.4: Minority Ethnic Group population by Council Area, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.4: Minority Ethnic Group population by Council Area, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.4 shows that in 2011 Glasgow City had 69,000 residents from a minority ethnic group and this represented around a third of all minority ethnic people in Scotland. City of Edinburgh, Aberdeen City and Dundee City all had significant numbers of residents from ethnic minorities.

Urban and Rural Scotland

Respondents were classified as living in an area that was either urban or rural, according to the Scottish Government's 8-fold classification[3].

Chart 1.5: Ethnic Group by Urban Rural classification, Scotland 2011 (All HRPs)

Chart 1.5: Ethnic Group by Urban Rural classification, Scotland 2011 (All HRPs)

Chart 1.5 shows that households where the Household Reference Person (HRP)[4] was from a minority ethnic group were more likely to be in urban areas in Scotland.

The vast majority of 'African' households were in large urban areas (85 per cent) compared to only 40 per cent of all households.

'White: Scottish', 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' and 'White: Other British' had relatively high proportions of households in rural areas.

Chart 1.6: Ethnic Group by Age, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.6: Ethnic Group by Age, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.6 shows the proportion of those aged under 40 years and 40 years or over for each ethnic group. Just over half (52 per cent) of people in Scotland were aged 40 years or over.

The 'White: Other British' group had the oldest age profile, with 59 per cent of people aged 40 years or over. The 'White: Scottish' group had an age profile that was similar to that of Scotland as a whole, with just over half of people aged 40 years or over.

Most other groups showed much younger age profiles. The 'White: Polish' group had the highest proportion of people aged under 40 years (85 per cent).

In all minority ethnic group populations, most people were aged under 40 years. The 'African' group showed a younger profile than all of the 'Asian' groups, which had similarly young age profiles.

Chart 1.7: Ethnic Group by Gender, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.7: Ethnic Group by Gender, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.7 shows the proportion of males and females within each ethnic group. Slightly over half (52 per cent) of people in Scotland were female.

'Arab', an ethnic group showing one of the youngest profiles in Chart 1.6, was split almost 60:40 males to females. A majority of the 'Bangladeshi', 'Indian', 'African', 'Pakistani' and 'Caribbean or Black' ethnic groups were male.

The 'Other Asian', 'White: Other White', 'Chinese' and 'White: Scottish', groups had a slightly higher proportion of females compared with the population as a whole.

The population pyramids illustrated in the following pages show the population profile of a range of ethnic groups in Scotland split by age and gender. The ethnicity question, showing all the categories, is shown in Annex A. The population pyramids are grouped by the categories 'White', 'Asian', 'African, Caribbean or Black', and 'Mixed, Arab and Other', and provide further detail on the age and gender profiles of each ethnic group.

Figure 1.3: Population Pyramid: All People, Scotland 2011

Figure 1.3: Population Pyramid: All People, Scotland 2011

Figure 1.3[5] shows that in the population bands aged 65 years and over there were noticeably higher proportions of females than males.

There was a high proportion of older people relative to children and young people in Scotland; the 2011 Census was the first ever where the number of people aged 65 and over was higher than the number aged under 15.

In the decade to 2011, there was a 6 per cent decrease in the number of people aged under 15, a 6 per cent increase in people aged 15 to 64, and an 11 per cent increase in the population aged 65 and over.

Figures 1.3a - 1.3f: Scotland's 'White' population

Figures 1.3a - 1.3f: Scotlands White population

The 'White: Scottish', 'White: Other British' and 'White: Irish' groups showed relatively older age profiles, with a high proportion of their population aged 65 years and over (18, 18 and 20 per cent, respectively), compared to the population as a whole (17 per cent), and also to the other white ethnic groups. Very few people (10 per cent) who recorded their ethnicity as 'White: Irish' were aged under 20 years.

Figures 1.3a - 1.3f: Scotlands White population

The 'White: Gypsy/Traveller', 'White: Polish', and 'Other White' groups showed relatively younger age profiles; Only 7, 1 and 6 per cent of the population, respectively, were aged 65 years and over. This was the case for both males and females, though there tended to be a slightly higher proportion of females than males in the population aged 65 years and over.

Figures 1.3g - 1.3k: Scotland's 'Asian' population

Figures 1.3g - 1.3k: Scotlands Asian population

'Asian' ethnic groups had younger age profiles than most 'White' groups. A high proportion of the 'Indian', 'Bangladeshi' and 'Other Asian' groups were of working age.

The 'Pakistani' population was younger compared to Scotland as a whole. The 'Pakistani' and 'Indian' profiles were very different shapes, with the 'Indian' group having a very pronounced bulge around age 20-40. In both groups there was a relatively small proportion of the population aged 65 and over.

The 'Bangladeshi' group showed a similar profile to 'Indian' but with a slightly less pronounced bulge around age 20-40. There was a higher proportion of females aged under 10 years, than of males (29 per cent compared to 21 per cent, respectively).

A large proportion of the 'Chinese' group were aged between 20 and 24 years and this was by far its widest age band. This group had a smaller proportion of children and working age adults compared to other minority ethnic groups

The 'Other Asian' group had noticeably fewer females than males aged under 20 years; 22 per cent of females were aged under 20 years, compared to 29 per cent of males.

Figures 1.3l - 1.3p: Scotland's 'African, Caribbean or Black' population

Figures 1.3l - 1.3p: Scotlands African, Caribbean or Black population

The 'African' ethnic group had a young profile with a bulge centred around the 30-34 age band. Around a quarter of this group was aged under 16 years. This group also had a higher proportion of working-age males than females.

There were relatively few 'African' people aged 65 and over in Scotland.

The 'Caribbean' profile was more evenly spread across the age bands. This group had a higher proportion of males in their twenties than females.

The 'Black' ethnic group was predominantly aged under 50 years, and had a higher proportion of children than most other groups.

Figures 1.3q - 1.3s: Scotland's 'Mixed or Multiple', 'Other' and 'Arab' ethnic groups

Figures 1.3q - 1.3s: Scotlands Mixed or multiple, Other and Arab ethnic groups

The 'Mixed or multiple' ethnic group had the youngest age profile when compared to all other ethnic group population age profiles: 44 per cent of the population were aged under 15 years.

The 'Arab' group also had a relatively young age profile: with 28 per cent of its population aged under 15 years. The Arab profile showed that a higher proportion of females were in the younger age bands, particularly in the 0-4 band.

Chapter 1.2: Religion, Identity and Language

In the 2011 Census, everyone in Scotland was asked a voluntary question on religion: 'What religion, religious denomination or body do you belong to?' The same question was asked in Scotland in 2001 and therefore direct comparisons can be made with Scotland a decade ago. However this was a different question to the one asked in England and Wales and in Northern Ireland, therefore the results are not directly comparable across the UK nations.[6]

Chart 1.8: Ethnic Group by Religion, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.8: Ethnic Group by Religion, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.8 shows a breakdown of ethnic group by religion. The 'White: Scottish' group had a similar profile to the population as a whole, mainly split between 'Church of Scotland' (37 per cent), 'No religion' (37 per cent) and 'Roman Catholic' (15 per cent).

The 'White: Other British' group had a higher proportion of 'Other Christian'. The majority of 'White: Irish' and 'White: Polish' people were 'Roman Catholic'.

Most people in the 'Pakistani', 'Bangladeshi' and 'Arab' groups identified their religion as 'Muslim' (91, 81 and 80 per cent, respectively). The 'Indian' group had the highest proportion of people who stated that they were a 'Hindu' (41 per cent).

The 'Chinese' group had the largest proportion of its population who stated that they had 'No religion' (69 per cent) when compared to all other ethnic groups.

National Identity

A question on national identity was asked in the Census for the first time in 2011: 'What do you feel is your national identity?' This question preceded the ethnic group question on the questionnaire. Respondents could identify themselves on the Census questionnaire as having more than one national identity; for example, a person could record that they have both a 'Scottish' and 'British' national identity.

Chart 1.9: Ethnic Group by National Identity, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.9: Ethnic group by National Identity, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.9 shows that a large majority (83 per cent) of the population of Scotland felt they had some 'Scottish' national identity, including 62 per cent who felt 'Scottish' only, 18 per cent who felt 'Scottish' and 'British' and 2 per cent who felt they were 'Scottish' in combination with some other identity. Four per cent of people in Scotland felt they did not have any UK national identity.

Chart 1.10: Some 'Scottish' National Identity by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.10: Some Scottish National Identity by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Ninety five per cent of people who identified their ethnicity as 'White: Scottish' felt that they had some Scottish national identity[7]. A relatively high proportion of the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group also had some Scottish national identity (76 per cent), followed by the 'Mixed or multiple' ethnic group (60 per cent), and the Pakistani ethnic group (50 per cent).

For all other ethnic groups, less than half of people felt they had any 'Scottish' national identity. The ethnic group that had the lowest proportion of its population who felt any Scottish national identity was the 'White: Other British group' (11 per cent); this group were most likely to declare their national identity to be 'British only' (40 per cent).

Chart 1.11: 'British only' National Identity by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.11: British only National Identity by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Of the minority ethnic groups, people from the 'Bangladeshi' (38 per cent) and 'Pakistani' (34 per cent) groups were the most likely to view their national identity as 'British only'. 'White: Polish' people were the least likely to state that their national identity was 'British only' (2 per cent).

Chart 1.12: 'Other' (non-UK) National Identity by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.12: Other (non-UK) National Identity by Ethnic group, Scotland 2011

The ethnic group that were least likely to report a UK national identity was the 'White: Polish' group; 80 per cent of people who identified their ethnicity within this group had a national identity that was something other than a UK national identity, followed by the 'White: Other White' group at 73 per cent. At the other end of the spectrum, less than 1 per cent (0.1 per cent) of 'White: Scottish' people had a national identity that was outwith a UK national identity.

Chart 1.13: Ethnic Group by whether born inside or outside of the UK, All People, Scotland 2011

chart 1.13: Ethnic Group by whether born inside or outside of the UK, All people, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.13 presents a breakdown of ethnic group by the proportion of people who were born in the UK, and those who were born elsewhere. Seven per cent of Scotland's population was born outside the UK and this varied greatly by ethnic group. Only the 'White: Scottish' and 'White: Other British' groups recorded less than 7 per cent.

The 'White: Polish' group had the lowest proportion of its population born in the UK; most people in this ethnic group had been born outside of the UK (90 per cent), mainly in Poland.

Chart 1.14: Ethnic Group by Country of Birth, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.14: Ethnic Group by Country of Birth, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.14 shows that 83 per cent of people in Scotland on census day were born in Scotland. For most ethnic groups, Scotland was either the most common or the second most common country of birth. However, the proportions varied greatly between different ethnic groups: almost half (48 per cent) of people identifying a 'Pakistani' ethnicity were born in Scotland compared to only 15 per cent of the 'African' group.

The vast majority (96 per cent) of people who identified as 'White: Scottish' were born in Scotland, with most of the remainder born in England. Seventy eight per cent of the 'White: Other British' group were born in England, and 76 per cent of the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group were born in Scotland.

The 'Indian', 'Bangladeshi', 'Chinese' and 'Other Asian' ethnic groups showed similar profiles, with the majority born in the 'Middle East and Asia'; the 'Pakistani' profile differed in that a larger proportion were born in Scotland.

Chart 1.15: Ethnic Group by Age of Arrival, Scotland 2011 (All People born outside the UK)

Chart 1.15: Ethnic Group by Age of Arrival, Scotland 2011

Seven per cent (369,000 people) of Scotland's population in 2011 were born outside of the UK.

Chart 1.15 shows that the majority (69 per cent) of these people were of working age (16 to 64 years old) when they arrived in the UK. A relatively small proportion of people arrived into the UK aged 50 and over.

Just over two thirds (69 per cent) of the 'White: Polish' group arrived in the UK aged between 16 and 34 years of age.

Around 80 per cent of 'White: Scottish' people who were born outside of the UK arrived in the UK when they were aged under 16 years.

In all ethnic groups, less than 1 per cent of people who were born outside of the UK arrived in the country aged 65 years or over.

Chart 1.16: Ethnic Group by English Language skills, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.16: Ethnic Group by English Language skills, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.16 shows English language skills by ethnic group for those aged 3 years and over. Ninety four per cent of Scotland's population aged 3 and over could speak, read and write English.

This proportion was highest for the 'White: Other British', 'White: Irish' and 'White: Scottish' ethnic groups (97, 96 and 94 per cent of people, respectively).

The 'White: Polish' group reported the lowest proportion (71 per cent) of people who were able to 'speak, read and write English', with a further 14 per cent who could speak, but not read or write English. Five per cent of people who identified as 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' and 5 per cent of people who identified a 'White: Polish' ethnicity recorded their English language skills as able to understand 'spoken English only'.

Chart 1.17: Ethnic Group by Proficiency in Spoken English, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.17: Ethnic Group by Proficiency in Spoken English, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.17 shows that 89 per cent of Scotland's population spoke English 'very well' and a further 10 per cent spoke English 'well'. People from minority ethnic groups reported lower levels of proficiency in spoken English compared to the population as a whole.

For 'White: Other British', 'White: Irish' and 'White: Scottish' ethnic groups, over 90 per cent reported that they could speak English 'very well'.

The 'Chinese' and 'White: Polish' groups reported the lowest levels of spoken English proficiency. Within the 'White: Polish' ethnic group, only 30 per cent of people reported that they could speak English 'very well' and 28 per cent reported that they could speak English 'not well or not at all'.

Chart 1.18: Ethnic Group by Language used at home, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.18: Ethnic Group by language used at home, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.18 shows that 93 per cent of people in Scotland only spoke English at home and 7 per cent used languages instead of, or in addition to, English.

People from 'White: Other British', 'White: Scottish', 'White: Irish', and 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' ethnic groups were least likely to use a language other than English.

People who identified a minority ethnicity were more likely to use a language other than English at home[8]. Ninety two per cent of people who identified a 'White: Polish' ethnicity used the Polish language at home. A small proportion of people who identified a 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' ethnicity also stated that their home language was Polish (4 per cent of people from the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group).

Chapter 1.3: Households

Chart 1.19: Ethnic Group by Marital Status, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.19: Ethnic Group by Marital Status, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.19[9] shows that almost half (45 per cent) of people in Scotland aged 16 or over were married. Around a third (35 per cent) were single and the remainder stated that they were either divorced, widowed, separated, or in a same-sex civil partnership.

'Bangladeshi', 'Pakistani' and 'Indian' people were most likely to be married. The 'mixed or multiple' ethnic group had the highest proportion of people who were single (62 per cent) compared to other ethnic groups. The 'Chinese', 'Caribbean or Black' and 'White: Other' ethnic groups had at least 50 per cent of people who were single. This is likely to reflect the younger age demographic of these ethnic groups.

The 'White' groups tended to have a higher proportion of people who were widowed, reflecting the older demographic of these groups.

Chart 1.20: Ethnic group by Age, All Married People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.20: Ethnic group by Age, All Married People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.20 shows the age profile of married people by age band and ethnic group. Over half of married people in Scotland were aged 50 or over. Most minority ethnic groups showed younger profiles.

Almost 60 per cent of married 'White: Polish' people were aged between 16 and 34. The 'Bangladeshi' group had the highest proportion of young married people, aged between 16 and 24 (6 per cent).

In the 'White: Scottish', 'White: Other British', and 'White: Irish' ethnic groups, more than half of married people were aged 50 and over (61, 58 and 56 per cent, respectively).

Chart 1.21: Married Couple Families by Ethnic Group of HRP, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.21: Married Couple Families by Ethnic Group of HRP, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.21 shows that 43 per cent of married couples had dependent children[10]. Married couple families from 'White' ethnic groups (excluding 'White: Polish') were generally more likely to have no children, compared to married couple families from minority ethnic groups. Nearly half of 'White: Other British' married couple families had no children (45 per cent), compared to only 13 per cent of married 'Pakistani' couples.

The majority of married couple families from minority ethnic groups had dependent children. This figure was highest in the 'African' group, where 76 per cent of married couple families had dependent children.

'White' ethnic groups also tended to have higher proportions of married couple families in which all children were non-dependent when compared to married couple families from minority ethnic groups. This is likely to reflect, in part, the older age profile of these populations.

Chart 1.22: Co-habiting Couple Families by Ethnic Group of HRP, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.22: Co-habiting Couple Families by Ethnic Group of HRP, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.22 shows that the majority (54 per cent) of co-habiting couple families had no children and this compared to 39 per cent of married couple families.

The majority of some groups such as 'African', 'Pakistani' and 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' had dependent children. Co-habiting couple families who identified as 'White: Other White' were most likely to have no children.

There was also a smaller proportion of co-habiting couple families who had children that were no longer dependent (5 per cent, compared to 18 per cent of married couple families, at the Scotland level). This is likely to be down to, in part, co-habiting people being younger than married people.

Chart 1.23: Lone-Parent Families by Ethnic Group of HRP, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.23: Lone-Parent Families by Ethnic Group of HRP, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.23 shows that 65 per cent of lone-parent families had dependent children while in the other 35 per cent of families all the children were non-dependent. For all ethnic groups, excluding 'White: Irish', the majority of lone-parent families had dependent children. Amongst the 'Other Caribbean or Black' group, 91 per cent of lone-parent families had dependent children.

A high proportion of lone-parent families in which the HRP identified their ethnicity as 'Other Caribbean or Black', 'African' and 'Black' had dependent children within the household (91, 89 and 89 per cent respectively).

Chart 1.24: Family Composition by Ethnic Group of HRP, All One Family Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.24: Family Composition by Ethnic Group of HRP, All One Family Households, Scotland 2011

In 2011 the number of households in Scotland with at least one usual resident was estimated to be 2,373,000; the highest ever. Chart 1.24 presents family composition by ethnic group of the household reference person for all 'One Family' households, i.e. households comprising one family, with no unrelated persons or two or more generations present. It shows that the most common household type in Scotland was 'Married couple: with dependent children' (23 per cent).

The 'White: Scottish', 'White: Other British' and 'White: Irish' ethnic groups had a relatively high proportion of their population who lived in a family where all people were aged 65 and over, reflecting the older population age profile of these groups.

Chart: 1.25: Ethnicity of HRP by number of dependent children, All households with dependent children, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.25: Ethnicity of HRP by number of dependent children, All households with dependent children, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.25 presents information on the number of children per household for households that contained dependent children.

It shows that the 'Pakistani' ethnic group had the highest proportion of households that contained three or more dependent children (36 per cent) compared to 13 per cent of the population as a whole and only 8 per cent of the 'White: Polish' group. The 'White: Polish group were most likely to have just one dependent child.

Chart 1.26: Ethnicity of HRP by Age of Youngest Dependent Child, All Households with Dependent Children, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.26: Ethnicity of HRP by Age of Youngest Dependent Child, All Households with Dependent Children, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.26 shows that in 38 per cent of households in Scotland with dependent children the youngest child was aged 0-4 years. 'Arab', 'White: Polish' and 'African' households were most likely to contain younger dependent children aged between 0 and 4 years (62, 61 and 61 per cent respectively).

'White: Scottish' households were likely to be older, with the youngest dependent child, in almost a third of households with dependent children, aged 12-18 years old.

Chart 1.27: Ethnic Group by proportion of all Households with no Dependent Children, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.27: Ethnic group by proportion of all Households with no Dependent Children, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.27 shows that 74 per cent of all households in Scotland had no dependent children. 'White: Irish', 'White: Other British' and 'White: Scottish' households were more likely to have no dependent children than households from minority ethnic groups. Given the older age structure within the 'White' population groups mentioned above, it is likely that many households will have had adult children who were no longer classed as dependent when the 2011 Census was undertaken.

Chart 1.28: Ethnicity of People in Households containing two or more Families, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.28: Ethnicity of People in Households containing two or more Families, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.28 shows that 23 per cent of people in Scotland who lived in households containing two or more families lived in a household where not all members were of the same ethnic group[11].

People of 'Pakistani' ethnicity were most likely to be living in multiple family households in which all members belonged to the same ethnic group (84 per cent of people in multiple family households).

As one would expect, people who identified a 'mixed or multiple' ethnicity recorded the highest proportion of people who were living in two or more family households in which household members did not belong to the same ethnic group (96 per cent).

People who identified a 'White: Scottish' or 'White: Polish' ethnicity were also more likely to be living in households where all members, even if from different families, were from the same ethnic group.

Chapter 1.4: Health

The 2011 Census in Scotland asked all people: 'Are your day-to-day activities limited because of a health problem or disability which has lasted, or is expected to last, at least 12 months'.

One in five (20 per cent) people reported a long-term health problem or disability; this was the same as in 2001 despite an ageing population.

It should be noted that the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) reports that 32 per cent of adults and 19 per cent of children (aged under 16) in Scotland reported a limiting long-term condition or disability in 2012. However, the question wording used in the SHeS differs from the above, and the question is asked as part of a face-to-face interview[12].

Chart 1.29: Long-term Limiting Health Problem or Disability by Ethnic Group, Scotland 2001 and 2011

Chart 1.30: Ethnic Group by Long-term Health Problem or Disability, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.29 shows that minority ethnic groups were more likely to report lower levels of limiting long-term health problems. The proportion of people who reported a limiting (either 'a little' or 'a lot') long-term health problem or disability in most groups decreased between 2001 and 2011. It should be noted that minority ethnic groups had a younger age profile than the population as a whole.

Chart 1.30: Ethnic Group by Long-term Health Problem or Disability, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.30: Ethnic group by Long-term Health Problem or Disability, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.30 shows the proportion of people who declared that their day-to-day activities were 'limited a lot', 'limited a little' or 'not limited' by a long-term health problem or disability, by ethnic group.

All minority ethnic groups recorded a lower proportion of people with a health problem or disability than the national figure of 20 per cent. Only those who identified as 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' recorded a proportion higher than 20 per cent.

People who identified a 'White: Polish' ethnicity reported the lowest levels of long-term limiting health problem or disability (5 per cent of people).

It should be noted when interpreting this analysis that minority ethnic groups have a younger age profile than most 'White' groups.

Chart 1.31: Ethnic Group by Long-term Conditions, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.31: Ethnic Group by Long-term Conditions, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.31 shows that 30 per cent of people in Scotland had at least one long-term health condition. The 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group reported the highest proportion (37 per cent) and the 'White: Polish' group the lowest proportion (9 per cent).

Minority ethnic groups were less likely to report that they had any long-term conditions compared to people from most 'White' groups (with the exception of 'White: Polish' and 'White: Other').

Chart 1.32: Ethnic Group by number of Long-term Conditions, All People reporting Long-term Condition(s), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.32: Ethnic group by number of Long-term Conditions, All People reporting Long-term Condition(s), Scotland 2011

Chart 1.32 shows that the majority (71 per cent) of people who reported a long-term health condition only reported one category of condition. Around a fifth of people recorded two categories of long-term health condition and the remaining 9 per cent recorded three or more categories.

All minority ethnic groups were less likely to report more than one category of condition than the population as a whole. The 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' ethnic group had the highest proportion of people who reported that they had four or more categories of long-term health conditions (5 per cent). People with a long-term condition who identified an 'African' ethnicity had the highest proportion who reported only one long-term health condition category (85 per cent).

Chart 1.33: Ethnic Group by General Health, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.33: Ethnic Group by General Health, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.33 shows that the majority (52 per cent) of people in Scotland thought that their general health was 'very good' in 2011. A further third (30 per cent) thought that their health was 'good' and 12 per cent thought it was 'fair'. Only 6 per cent of the population thought that their health was either 'bad' or 'very bad'.

As expected, the minority ethnic groups with younger age profiles reported better general health. People who identified an 'African' ethnicity reported the best health and those from the 'White: Gypsy/Traveller' group reported the worst health, with around a third of this group reporting 'fair', 'bad' or 'very bad' health[13].

Chart 1.34: Ethnic Group by Provision of Unpaid Weekly Care, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.34: Ethnic Group by Provision of Unpaid Weekly Care, All People, Scotland 2011

Chart 1.34 shows that 9 per cent[14] of people in Scotland provided unpaid care[15] and this varied across ethnic groups. People from older ethnic groups such as 'White: Scottish' and 'White: Other British' were the most likely to provide unpaid care.

People from ethnic groups with younger age profiles (such as the 'Arab' and 'White: Polish' groups) were least likely to provide weekly unpaid care.