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Scottish Health Survey 2012 - Volume 1 Main Report

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4. Smoking

Linsay Gray and Alastair H Leyland

Summary
  • In 2012, one in four adults (aged 16 and above) was a current cigarette smoker. No difference was found between men and women (25% and 24% respectively), although smoking did vary by age, with the highest rate among adults aged 25 to 44 (29%).
  • Smoking prevalence among those aged 16 to 64 declined between 1995 and 2012 (from 35% to 27%). The decline has been steeper for women (from 36% to 26%) than for men (from 34% to 28%).
  • There has also been a decline in smoking among all adults aged 16 and above since 2003 (from 28% to 25% in 2012).
  • Smokers smoked an average of 13.5 cigarettes per day in 2012 (14.7 for men and 12.4 for women). The average number smoked rose with age from 8.9 among those aged 16-24 to 16.0 among those aged 55-64, after which it fell to 11.7 among those aged 75 and over.
  • The average number of cigarettes smoked per day has declined over time. In 1995 male smokers (aged 16 to 64) smoked an average of 18.1 per day; by 2012 this was 14.7. The equivalent figures for women were 15.4 and 12.3 respectively.
  • The decline in the average number of cigarettes smoked was also evident for all adults aged 16 and above. In 2003 adults smokers smoked an average of 15.3 cigarettes per day; by 2012, this was 13.5.
  • In 2012 one in six (17%) non-smoking adults (aged 16 and over) were exposed to second-hand smoke in their own or someone else's home and 16% reported exposure in a public place. Of the public places asked about, reported exposure was greatest outside buildings (e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals) reported by 11% of non-smoking adults.
  • There was a decrease in exposure to second-hand smoke in the home among adults aged 16 to 74, from 33% in 1998 to 18% in 2012. Most of this decline occurred between 1998 and 2008, with figures relatively stable since then. The questionnaire was updated in 2012 so trends in second-hand smoke exposure in public places cannot be reported.
  • One in five (19%) children under 16 were living in households where someone smokes within the home. This varied with age, with the youngest (those under 2) having the lowest prevalence (8%), compared with around a fifth of those aged between 2 and 15. A lower proportion, 12%, reported being exposed to smoke in the home, indicating that some efforts had been taken to minimise children's direct exposure to smoke.
  • In 2012, 13% of adults lived in households where there was no restriction placed on smoking indoors; 15% lived in households where smoking was permitted indoors but only in certain areas or rooms; most (59%) lived in a household where smoking indoors was not permitted; and 13% lived in a household where smoking was not permitted either indoors or outdoors.
  • The equivalent figures for children under 16 were: 4% lived in households where there were no restrictions on smoking indoors; 15% in households where smoking was allowed indoors but only in certain areas or rooms; 68% in households where smoking indoors was not permitted; and 13% in households where smoking was not allowed indoors or outdoors.
  • Almost three in four (73%) smokers reported that they would like to quit. Smokers aged 35 to 54 were the most likely to say they wanted to quit (82 to 84%). 38% of smokers had attempted to quit once or twice in their lifetime and 41% had tried to do this on three or more occasions. The number of quit attempts increased broadly in line with age (from 22% at age 18-24 to half of those aged 55-64).
  • In 2012, four in ten smokers and recent ex-smokers had used NRT during the three months prior to interview. Women were more likely to have used NRT than men (42% and 38% respectively).
  • Of the NRT products used, nicotine skin patches were the most commonly reported (27%). This was followed by nicotine gum (11%) and nasal sprays/nicotine inhalers (10%). Use of lozenges/microtabs and prescription-based treatments was less common (ranging between 2% and 6%).

4.1 Introduction

Cigarette smoking is the world's leading cause of preventable poor health and premature death[72]. In Scotland, tobacco use is associated with over 13,000 deaths (around a quarter of all deaths) and around 56,000 hospital admissions every year[73]. Although smoking prevalence in Scotland has decreased gradually over time, from over 30% in 1999 to 23.3% in 2011[74], reducing smoking further remains a priority for improving health in Scotland.

The Scottish Government's refreshed National Performance Framework, published in December 2011, has two indicators relevant to smoking[75]. There is a specific indicator on reducing the proportion of adults who are current smokers, as well as a more general indicator on reducing premature mortality (deaths from all causes in those aged under 75)[76] for which smoking is a significant contributory factor.

Recent steps to tackle tobacco use in Scotland include the introduction of a ban on smoking in public places in 2006, the raising of the legal age for buying tobacco from 16 to 18 in 2007, banning the sale of tobacco from automatic vending machines in 2013 and phased banning of tobacco displays in shops from 2013. In addition, one of NHS Scotland's HEAT targets[77] concerns the provision of smoking cessation services and the achievement of 80,000 successful 'quits', with a particular focus on the 40% most-deprived areas. This target is due for delivery in March 2014[78].

Most recently, the Scottish Government launched an ambitious five year Tobacco Control Strategy in March 2013[79], outlining the intention to create a 'tobacco-free generation' (defined as 'a smoking prevalence among the adult population of 5% or lower') by the year 2034. The strategy sets out a range of measures across the themes of:

  • Health inequalities - reducing smoking prevalence in the most deprived areas
  • Prevention - creating an environment where young people choose not to smoke
  • Protection - protecting people from second-hand smoke
  • Cessation - helping people to stop smoking

There are 46 actions outlined in the Strategy, including:

  • Local authorities and NHS Boards working with partners in the voluntary sector and local communities to develop local tobacco control plans.
  • Identification of the most appropriate legislative option for introducing the standardised packaging of tobacco products.
  • A pilot of the peer-led ASSIST programme on smoking prevention among young people.
  • All NHS Boards implementing and enforcing smoke-free grounds by March 2015.
  • A review of smoking cessation services in Scotland which will include the development of specific recommendations on delivering services that are person-centred and that support the needs of people living in deprived areas and other groups where tobacco use plays a key role in unequal health outcomes.
  • Development of a successor to the current HEAT target for smoking cessation, which ends in 2014, with a specific focus on inequalities.
  • A national awareness campaign about second-hand smoke in enclosed spaces.
  • The introduction of advice on creating a smoke-free home as a feature of all ante- and post-natal services and adoption, foster, kinship and residential care services.
  • The development of a target for achieving a substantial reduction in children's exposure to second-hand smoke by 2020, using baseline data provided by the 2012 Scottish Health Survey.

Good quality data on smoking behaviour and exposure to second-hand smoke are important to monitoring trends relevant to the Strategy. The SHeS data presented in this chapter complement the data provided by the Scottish Household Survey which is used to measure the current NPF indicator on reducing smoking amongst adults. The chapter presents figures for prevalence of smoking among adults aged 16 and over; for behaviours related to stopping smoking; and for non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke. Trends from 1995 onwards and prevalence estimates are presented by sex.

4.2 Methods And Definitions

4.2.1 Questions on smoking

Questions on smoking have been included on SHeS since 1995. The small changes introduced to the questionnaire in 2008 are outlined in the 2008 annual report[80].

The current questions in the survey focus on:

  • current smoking status
  • frequency and pattern of current smoking
  • the number of cigarettes smoked by current smokers
  • ex-smokers' previous smoking history
  • exposure to second-hand smoke
  • past smoking behaviour
  • desire to give up smoking
  • medical advice on giving up smoking.

The question about non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke was updated in 2012 to ask about exposure outside buildings (e.g. shops, pubs and hospitals), and in cars, while the questions about public transport and pubs were dropped in light of the very low prevalence of exposure reported in these places (following the ban on smoking in these locations). In 2012 a new question was also added on rules relating to smoking within the home (see Section 4.4.4).

Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home is presented using two measures. The first reports whether there is someone who regularly smokes inside the accommodation where they live. The second is based on parents' and older children's (aged 13-15) reports of whether children are exposed to smoke at home.

4.2.2 Methods of data collection

Information about cigarette smoking is collected from adults aged 16 and 17 by means of a self-completion questionnaire which offers them the privacy to answer without disclosing their smoking behaviour in front of other household members. For adults aged 20 and over information is collected as part of the main interview. Those aged 18 and 19, at the interviewer's discretion, can answer the questions either in the self-completion booklet or as part of the main interview. The self-completion and main interview questions are mostly similar. However the main self-completion questionnaire for young adults excludes questions on: past smoking behaviour, desire to give up smoking and medical advice to stop smoking.

4.2.3 Definitions

The tables reported in this chapter use the following classifications of smoking status:

  • Current smoking status: current smoker, ex-regular smoker, never regular smoker/never smoked at all.
  • Mean number of cigarettes smoked by current smokers: this is measured as number per smoker per day.

4.3 Smoking Prevalence

4.3.1 Trends in smoking prevalence since 1995

Estimates for current smoking status - current cigarette smoker, ex-regular cigarette smoker and never regular cigarette smoker/never smoked at all - along with the number of cigarettes smoked per day from 1995 to 2012 are shown in Table 4.1.

Since 1995, smoking prevalence among adults aged 16 to 64 has decreased. Around a third (35%) of adults under the age of 65 were current smokers in 1995, and by 2012 this had fallen to 27%. The proportion of men smoking cigarettes declined from 34% to 28% during this period; the decline for women was steeper (from 36% to 26%). Levels have remained relatively steady for both men and women since 2008, ranging from 27% to 29% for men and 26% to 28% for women during this period.

The decline in smoking prevalence was coupled with an increase in the proportion of adults (aged 16 to 64) who had never smoked or had never been regular smokers. Levels rose from 49% in 1995 to 57% in 2011 and 55% in 2012. There has been little change, over time, in prevalence of ex-regular smokers. The proportion reporting to be an ex-regular smoker in 2012 - one in six (17%) - was the same as in 1995.

The trend in smoking prevalence for all adults (aged 16 years and over) since 2003 was consistent with that discussed above for those under 65. In 2003, 28% of adults smoked and by 2012 this had dropped to 25%. For both men and women, the smoking rate declined by four percentage points over this period (from 29% to 25% and 28% to 24% respectively). Between 2011 and 2012 there was no significant change in smoking prevalence among all adults (23% and 25% respectively).

Along with a drop in the proportion of smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked also decreased over the years. For male smokers aged 16 to 64 years, the mean number of cigarettes smoked dropped from 18.1 cigarettes per day in 1995 to 14.7 in 2012. The equivalent figures for women were 15.4 cigarettes in 1995 and 12.3 cigarettes in 2012. The downward trend in mean cigarette consumption was also evident among all adults aged 16 years and over. In 2003, adult smokers smoked an average of 15.3 cigarettes per day. The equivalent figure in 2012 was 13.5 cigarettes with little change seen in more recent years. Table 4.1

4.3.2 Smoking prevalence, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.2 and Figures 4A and 4B show 2012 cigarette smoking status estimates for men and women by age. In 2012, one in every four adults was a current cigarette smoker, 22% were ex-regular smokers and 54% had either never smoked cigarettes at all or had never smoked them regularly.

While there was no significant difference in the smoking status of men and women, the proportion of current smokers did vary by age for both genders. Among men, smoking prevalence was highest for those aged 35-44 (32%), while for women, those aged 25-34 (28%) and 55-64 (28%) were the most likely to smoke cigarettes. For both genders, prevalence was lowest for the oldest age group (those aged 75 and over) with 7% of men and 10% of women in this age group classified as current smokers. Prevalence among the key young adult group (those aged 16 to 24) was 25%, in line with the rate for all adults.

As might be expected, older people were most likely to be ex-regular smokers with prevalence rising from 5% among those aged 16-24 to 35% for those aged 75 years and over. In tandem with this, the youngest age groups were most likely to report having never been a regular cigarette smoker (74% of men and 67% of women aged 16-24).

Smokers in 2012 smoked an average of 13.5 cigarettes per day. Male smokers smoked an average of 2.3 cigarettes more per day than female smokers (means of 14.7 and 12.4 cigarettes per day respectively). Mean daily cigarette consumption followed a non-linear pattern across the age groups: those aged 16-24 smoked 8.9 cigarettes per day, rising steadily to 16.0 for those aged 55-64 before falling back to 11.7 cigarettes for those aged 75 and over. Figure 4A, Figure 4B, Table 4.2

Figure 4A Men's cigarette smoking status, 2012, by age

Figure 4A Men's cigarette smoking status, 2012, by age

Figure 4B Women's cigarette smoking status, 2012, by age

Figure 4B Women's cigarette smoking status, 2012, by age

4.4 Exposure To Second-Hand Smoke

4.4.1 Trends in adult exposure to second-hand smoke since 1998

Trends in the proportion of adult non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke are shown in Table 4.3. Figures are presented for adults aged 16 to 74 from 1998 onwards and for all adults (aged 16 and above) from 2003. As noted in section 4.2, questionnaire changes introduced in 2012 mean that some trends can no longer be reported (though the figures up to 2011 are still reported in Table 4.3).

It is clear that, since 1998, exposure to second-hand smoke (among those aged 16 to 74) has markedly decreased across the range of different environments asked about. In 1998, a third of non-smokers aged 16 to 74 reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in their own or in others' homes but by 2011 this had more than halved to 15%, with a slight, but insignificant, increase in 2012, to 18%. Occupational exposure also fell from 23% for men and 14% for women in 1998 to 6% for men and 3% for women in 2012. Most of the decline in exposure in these areas occurred between 1998 and 2008, with the figures relatively stable since then.

Changes to the questionnaire mean trends in exposure on public transport and in pubs are only available up until 2011. Between 1998 and 2011 public transport exposure fell from 7% for men and 8% for women to less than 0.5%. The trends for exposure in pubs were stark (falling from 44% for men and 30% for women in 1998 to 1% or less for men and women from 2008 onward) with the greatest drop between 2003 and 2008.

The decline in second-hand smoke exposure in any public places among non-smokers aged 16 to 74 between 1998 and 2011 was even more pronounced (from 50% to 8%) than that for exposure to smoke in the home, with the greatest drop observed in 2008 (the first point data were collected after the introduction of the ban on smoking in public places). By 2011, 77% of non-smokers (aged 16 to 74) reported that they were not exposed to second-hand smoke in any of the environments asked about, an increase of 41 percentage points since 1998. This trend does not extend to 2012 due to questionnaire changes. In future years the trend on exposure to smoke in any public place will be based on 2012 onwards.

Overall, since 2003, the trends in exposure to second-hand smoke for all non-smoking adults (aged 16 and over) were very similar to those described above for non-smokers aged 16 to 74 years. Again, the most pronounced decreases in tobacco exposure occurred between 2003 and 2008 (pre and post the introduction of the ban on smoking in public places) with very little change in exposure levels since 2008.

In 2012, 16% of those aged 16 and above were exposed to tobacco in a public place (defined as: own home, other people's homes, in cars/vans, outside buildings, at work, or in other public places). Table 4.3

4.4.2 Adult exposure to second-hand smoke, 2012, by age and sex

The proportions of non-smoking adults (aged 16 and above) exposed to second-hand smoke in various locations (at their own/other's home, at work, or in public places) in 2012 are shown by age and sex in Table 4.4, and Figure 4C. While the majority (70%) were not exposed to smoke in any of the places asked about, significant minorities still reported being exposed to second-hand smoke in some environments.

In 2012, one in five (17%) non-smoking adults were exposed to second-hand smoke either in their own or someone else's home. A similar proportion (16%) reported exposure in a public place. As mentioned above, in 2012, new options (outside buildings and in cars/vans) were added. Of the public places asked about, reported exposure was greatest outside buildings (e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals) with around one in ten (11%) reporting this (11% of men and 12% of women). Just 2% of adults reported exposure to smoke in cars/vans.

Patterns in exposure to second-hand smoke were generally similar among non-smoking males and females. The workplace was the only location where a consistent difference was apparent, with men twice as likely as women to be exposed to second-hand smoke while at work (6% compared with 3%).

Figure 4C Proportion of non-smokers who are exposed to second-hand smoke at own/other's home, at work, or in public places, 2012, by age and sex

Figure 4C Proportion of non-smokers who are exposed to second-hand smoke at own/other's home, at work, or in public places, 2012, by age and sex

As in previous years, there were also some variations to non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke by age, with exposure generally greater among younger non-smokers. For example, 31% of non-smokers aged 16-24 were exposed to second-hand smoke in some public space, compared with just 4% of those aged 75 and older. Further, 19% in the youngest age group were exposed to second-hand smoke outside buildings such as pubs, shops and hospitals compared with 3% of the oldest non-smokers. Exposure to second-hand smoke in the home (own or someone else's) declined with age, with those aged 16-24 four times more likely than those aged 75 and over to report such exposure (34% compared with 8%).

Although no other strong patterns were apparent, there were some differences by sex within the different age groups; most notably, in the 16-24 age group, the proportion of women exposed to second-hand smoke in their own home was double that for men (20% compared with 10%). Figure 4C, Table 4.4

4.4.3 Child exposure to second-hand smoke, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.5 presents two measures of children's exposure to second-hand smoke. The first is based on whether or not anyone smokes inside the child's home. In 2012, the majority (81%) of children (aged 0 to 15) were living in homes where no-one smoked inside. One in five (19%) were, however, living in homes where people smoked (19% of boys and 18% of girls).

The second measure in the table is directly reported exposure to smoke in the home (parents of children aged 0 to 12 reported on their behalf). While 19% of children live in a home where someone regularly smokes inside, a lower proportion, 12%, were reported to be exposed to smoke at home. This suggests that steps had been taken to minimise some children's direct exposure to smoke, although the evidence indicates that even if smoking does not take place when a child is present, they will still be exposed to environmental pollutants as a result of smoke particles contaminating the air, dust and surfaces of the home[81]. The health consequences of such exposures are, as yet, unclear[82].

On both measures of exposure to second-hand smoke in the home varied, by age group, for both boys and girls. The youngest age group (those aged under 2) had the lowest levels of exposure with 8% living in a home where someone smoked inside, and 3% reported to be exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke. Prevalence of both measures was considerably higher among the remaining age groups. Between 18% and 24% of children aged 2 to 15 lived in a house where someone smoked inside, while reported exposure to smoke at home increased from 8%-9% in children aged 2-6, to 16%-17% for those aged 10 and over. Table 4.5

4.4.4 Household smoking rules, 2012, by age and sex

In 2012, for the first time, SHeS included a question on smoking rules in the home. The participant who answered the household questionnaire was provided with four different rules around smoking in the home and was asked to select the option that best described the rule that applied in their home. Table 4.6 shows household smoking rules for adults (aged 16 and over) by age and sex, and for children aged 0 to 15, for 2012.

Overall, in 2012, 13% of adults lived in a household with no restrictions placed on smoking indoors; for one in six (15%), smoking was permitted indoors but only in certain areas or rooms; while the majority (59%) lived in households in which smoking indoors was not permitted. For the remaining 13% smoking was not allowed indoors or outdoors.

Rules varied somewhat by sex and age, but with no obvious pattern. For instance, men were slightly more likely than women to live in homes with no restrictions on where people could smoke (15% compared with 11%). Those aged 75 and over were most likely to live in homes with no restrictions on smoking (19% compared with 10% to 16% for other age groups). However, this age group were also most likely to live in homes where smoking was not permitted indoors or outdoors (18%). Those aged 25 to 44 were most likely to live in homes where smoking indoors was prohibited (63% to 64%).

In 2012, 4% of children under 16 lived in a household with no restrictions placed on smoking indoors. For 15%, smoking was permitted indoors but only in certain areas or rooms. Most (68%) lived in households where smoking indoors was not permitted. Smoking was not allowed indoors or outdoors for the remaining 13%. Table 4.6

4.5 Smoking Cessation Status, 2012, By Age And Sex

Attempts to stop smoking are shown in Figure 4D by age, and in Table 4.7 by age and sex. In 2012, when asked, the majority (73%) of smokers said they would like to quit. Over a third (38%) reported that they had attempted to quit smoking once or twice, while 41% had tried on three or more occasions. There was little variation in male and female smokers' desires to stop smoking or in the number of attempts they had made to quit. There were, however, some varying patterns in cessation status by age.

The desire to quit was greatest among those in the middle age groups (aged 35 to 54) with more than eight in ten (82% to 84%) of this age group reporting that they would like to stop. Those in the youngest and oldest age groups were least likely to want to quit (64% for those aged 18-24 and 59% for those aged 65-74) although the sample sizes for both these groups were quite small.

As might be expected, quit attempts broadly increased in line with age, with half of those aged 55-64 reporting at least three attempts to quit (compared with 22% of those aged 19-24). Younger smokers (under age 35) were most likely to have made no attempt to quit (30% to 42%), although even among this age group, a third had made at least one attempt to quit (35% to 36%). Figure 4D, Table 4.7

Figure 4D Cigarette smokers' quit attempts, 2012, by age

Figure 4D Cigarette smokers' quit attempts, 2012, by age

4.6 Use Of Nicotine Replacement Therapy, 2012, By Age And Sex

The 2012 estimates of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use among smokers/recent ex-smokers (those who had given up within the previous year) in the three months preceding the interview are shown in Table 4.8 by age and sex. Estimates are given both for use of NRT overall and type of NRT product used.

Overall, four in ten smokers and recent ex-smokers had used NRT during the three months prior to interview, with women significantly more likely than men to have done so (42% and 38% respectively). There was only limited variation in NRT use by age. NRT use was highest among the 45-54 age group (47%) and lowest (32%) among the oldest age group (those aged 75 years and over). Note, however, there is some uncertainty around the estimate for the 75 and over age group because of the low numbers in this age group.

Nicotine skin patches were the most commonly reported type of NRT used (27%). Twenty-four percent of male and 30% of female smokers/recent ex-smokers said they had used a skin patch in the last three months. Nicotine gum and nasal spray/nicotine inhalers were also fairly common (11% and 10% respectively). Use of lozenges/microtabs (4%) and the prescription-based treatments Champix/Varenicline and Zyban/Bupropion (6% and 2%) was lower.

Variation in use of specific types of NRT did not generally follow any particular age-related pattern. The exceptions were nasal spray/nicotine inhalers which tended to be more popular among the younger age groups, and prescription-based treatments which tended to be more common among those aged 45 to 64. Table 4.8

Table list

Table 4.1 Cigarette smoking status, 1995 to 2012

Table 4.2 Cigarette smoking status, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.3 Non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke, 1998 to 2012

Table 4.4 Non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.5 Children's exposure to second-hand smoke, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.6 Smoking rules in household, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.7 Quit attempts by smokers, and whether would like to quit smoking, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.8 NRT use, 2012, by age and sex

Table 4.1 Cigarette smoking status, 1995 to 2012

Aged 16 and over 1995 to 2012
Cigarette smoking status 1995 1998 2003 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
% % % % % % % %
Men
Current cigarette smokera
16-64 34 36 32 29 28 29 27 28
16+ n/a n/a 29 27 25 26 24 25
Ex-regular cigarette smoker
16-64 18 18 19 19 19 18 18 17
16+ n/a n/a 24 24 24 24 23 23
Never regular cigarette smoker/never smoked at all
16-64 49 46 49 51 53 53 55 55
16+ n/a n/a 47 49 51 50 52 52
Mean per current smoker per day
16-64 18.1 17.6 15.9 15.6 15.2 14.6 14.2 14.7
16+ n/a n/a 15.9 15.7 15.4 14.8 14.3 14.7
Standard error of the mean
16-64 0.31 0.29 0.35 0.49 0.44 0.46 0.38 0.52
16+ n/a n/a 0.33 0.46 0.41 0.43 0.35 0.48
Women
Current cigarette smokera
16-64 36 33 31 28 27 28 26 26
16+ n/a n/a 28 25 25 25 22 24
Ex-regular cigarette smoker
16-64 16 16 17 19 17 19 17 18
16+ n/a n/a 20 22 20 21 20 21
Never regular cigarette smoker / never smoked at all
16-64 49 51 52 53 56 54 58 56
16+ n/a n/a 53 53 55 54 57 55
Mean per current smoker per day
16-64 15.4 15.2 14.8 13.6 13.5 13.3 13.2 12.3
16+ n/a n/a 14.7 13.7 13.4 13.1 13.3 12.4
Standard error of the mean
16-64 0.21 0.24 0.29 0.33 0.30 0.29 0.33 0.43
16+ n/a n/a 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.27 0.30 0.40
All adults
Current cigarette smokera
16-64 35 35 31 29 28 28 26 27
16+ n/a n/a 28 26 25 25 23 25
Ex-regular cigarette smoker
16-64 17 17 18 19 18 18 17 17
16+ n/a n/a 22 23 22 23 22 22
Never regular cigarette smoker / never smoked at all
16-64 49 48 51 52 54 54 57 55
16+ n/a n/a 50 51 53 52 55 54
Mean per current smoker per day
16-64 16.7 16.4 15.3 14.6 14.3 13.9 13.7 13.5
16+ n/a n/a 15.3 14.7 14.4 13.9 13.8 13.5
Standard error of the mean
16-64 0.19 0.19 0.26 0.31 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.36
16+ n/a n/a 0.24 0.28 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.34
Cigarette smoking status 1995 1998 2003 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Bases (weighted):
Men 16-64 3901 3937 3156 2520 2916 2795 2926 1868
Men 16+ n/a n/a 3819 3066 3560 3422 3581 2292
Women 16-64 3994 3966 3307 2618 3047 2925 3045 1939
Women 16+ n/a n/a 4267 3348 3905 3750 3906 2489
All adults 16-64 7895 7903 6463 5138 5962 5720 5971 3807
All adults 16+ n/a n/a 8086 6413 7465 7173 7487 4780
Bases (unweighted):
Men 16-64 3523 3356 2749 2072 2387 2273 2409 1510
Men 16+ n/a n/a 3582 2829 3265 3092 3263 2119
Women 16-64 4406 4194 3442 2679 3198 3067 3162 1963
Women 16+ n/a n/a 4514 3600 4227 4109 4243 2677
All adults 16-64 7929 7550 6191 4751 5585 5340 5571 3473
All adults 16+ n/a n/a 8096 6429 7492 7201 7506 4796
a Current cigarette smoker excludes those who reported only smoking cigars or pipes

Table 4.2 Cigarette smoking status, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over 2012
Cigarette smoking status Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
Current cigarette smokera 25 30 32 27 27 18 7 25
Ex-regular cigarette smoker 2 13 18 22 28 47 48 23
Never regular cigarette smoker/never smoked at all 74 57 51 51 45 35 45 52
Mean per current smoker per day [8.9] 12.9 15.9 16.3 18.4 15.9 * 14.7
Standard error of the mean [1.49] 1.16 0.94 0.78 1.04 1.17 * 0.48
Women
Current cigarette smokera 25 28 27 24 28 19 10 24
Ex-regular cigarette smoker 8 14 20 20 26 35 27 21
Never regular cigarette smoker/never smoked at all 67 58 54 56 46 46 63 55
Mean per current smoker per day 8.9 10.4 12.6 14.7 13.8 13.1 [12.1] 12.4
Standard error of the mean 0.86 0.86 0.87 0.83 0.85 1.20 [1.25] 0.40
All adults
Current cigarette smokera 25 29 29 26 27 18 9 25
Ex-regular cigarette smoker 5 14 19 21 27 41 35 22
Never regular cigarette smoker/never smoked at all 70 58 52 54 46 41 56 54
Mean per current smoker per day 8.9 11.7 14.3 15.5 16.0 14.4 [11.7] 13.5
Standard error of the mean 0.98 0.72 0.63 0.58 0.74 0.87 1.05 0.34
Bases (weighted):
Men 322 383 380 420 362 251 173 2292
Male smokers 78 113 116 110 93 42 13 564
Women 311 376 414 454 383 287 263 2489
Female smokers 74 104 110 109 106 52 26 582
All adults 633 760 795 874 745 539 435 4780
All smokers 151 217 227 219 199 94 39 1146
Bases (unweighted):
Men 163 228 346 409 364 385 224 2119
Male smokers 43 67 103 111 86 59 15 484
Women 219 329 474 498 443 388 326 2677
Female smokers 52 93 123 117 112 61 30 588
All adults 382 557 820 907 807 773 550 4796
All smokers 95 160 226 228 198 120 45 1072
a Current cigarette smoker excludes those who reported only smoking cigars or pipes

Table 4.3 Non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke, 1998 to 2012

Non-smokers aged 16 and over 1998 to 2012
Exposure to second-hand smokea 1998 2003 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
% % % % % % %
Men
In own home
16-74 18 15 10 9 9 8 7
16+ n/a 14 10 9 8 8 7
In other people's home
16-74 21 16 12 10 11 10 11
16+ n/a 15 11 9 10 9 10
At work
16-74 23 16 6 6 6 5 6
16+ n/a 15 5 5 5 5 6
On public transport
16-74 7 6 1 1 0 0 n/a
16+ n/a 6 1 0 0 0 n/a
In pubs
16-74 44 42 1 1 1 1 n/a
16+ n/a 39 1 1 1 1 n/a
Outside buildings, e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals
16-74 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 12
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 11
In cars / vans
16-74 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2
In other public places
16-74 25 26 6 5 7 8 8
16+ n/a 25 6 5 6 7 7
In own or other's home
16-74 31 24 19 18 17 16 17
16+ n/a 24 18 17 16 15 16
In any public place (98-11)b
16-74 55 52 7 7 7 8 n/a
16+ n/a 49 7 6 7 8 n/a
Not exposed to smoke in these places (98-11)c
16-74 33 37 73 74 75 75 n/a
16+ n/a 39 75 76 76 77 n/a
In any public place (12 onwards)d
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 16
Not exposed to smoke in these places (12 onwards)e
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 69
Women
In own home
16-74 18 13 10 8 8 6 9
16+ n/a 13 9 8 8 6 8
In other people's home
16-74 25 21 13 13 14 10 13
16+ n/a 19 12 12 12 9 11
At work
16-74 14 9 2 3 2 3 3
16+ n/a 8 2 3 2 2 3
On public transport
16-74 8 6 0 1 0 0 n/a
16+ n/a 5 0 1 0 0 n/a
In pubs
16-74 30 32 0 1 0 1 n/a
16+ n/a 28 0 1 0 0 n/a
Outside buildings, e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals
16-74 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 13
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 12
In cars / vans
16-74 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2
In other public places
16-74 28 28 6 6 7 7 8
16+ n/a 26 5 5 6 7 8
In own or other's home
16-74 35 29 21 19 19 14 19
16+ n/a 27 19 18 18 14 17
In any public place (98-11)b
16-74 46 46 6 7 8 8 n/a
16+ n/a 42 6 6 7 7 n/a
Not exposed to smoke in these places (98-11)c
16-74 39 43 75 75 75 78 n/a
16+ n/a 47 77 77 77 79 n/a
In any public place (12 onwards)d
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 16
Not exposed to smoke in these places (12 onwards)e
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 70
All adults
In own or other's home
16-74 33 27 20 19 18 15 18
16+ n/a 25 18 17 17 14 17
In any public place (98-11)b
16-74 50 48 7 7 7 8 n/a
16+ n/a 45 6 6 7 8 n/a
Not exposed to smoke in these places (98-11)c
16-74 36 40 74 75 75 77 n/a
16+ n/a 43 76 76 77 78 n/a
In any public place (12 onwards)d
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 16
Not exposed to smoke in these places (12 onwards)e
16+ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 70
Bases (weighted):
Men 16-74 2897 2476 1950 2429 2302 2464 1550
Men 16+ n/a 2695 2137 2655 2524 2707 1709
Women 16-74 3077 2677 2197 2574 2474 2648 1662
Women 16+ n/a 3088 2508 2941 2826 3029 1899
All adults 16-74 5973 5153 4147 5003 4776 5111 3211
All adults 16+ n/a 5783 4645 5596 5350 5736 3608
Bases (unweighted):
Men 16-74 2552 2299 1771 2146 1991 2166 1403
Men 16+ n/a 2576 2031 2466 2281 2482 1612
Women 16-74 3321 2850 2353 2764 2667 2844 1784
Women 16+ n/a 3284 2724 3199 3089 3292 2080
All adults 16-74 5872 5149 4130 4910 4658 5010 3187
All adults 16+ n/a 5860 4755 5665 5370 5774 3692
a Percentages add to more than 100% as the categories are not mutually exclusive
b Any public place defined as: on public transport, in pubs, or other public places from 1998 to 2011
c These places defined as: in own home, other people's homes, on public transport, in pubs, at work, or in other public places from 1998 to 2011
d Any public place defined as: outside buildings, or in any other public places in 2012
e These places defined as: in own home, other people's homes, in cars/vans, outside buildings, at work, or in other public places in 2012

Table 4.4 Non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke, 2012, by age and sex

Non-smokers aged 16 and over 2012
Exposure to second-hand smokea Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
In own home 10 7 7 4 10 5 8 7
In other people's home 25 15 11 9 5 5 - 10
At work 6 10 7 8 4 1 - 6
Outside buildings (e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals) 16 11 12 10 13 10 5 11
In cars/vans etc 4 1 4 2 1 0 - 2
In other public places 21 4 6 5 5 7 2 7
In own or other's home 32 20 17 12 13 8 8 16
In any public placeb 30 13 15 13 16 13 7 16
Not exposed to smoke in these placesc 45 65 67 76 71 79 85 69
Women
In own home 20 6 3 7 11 7 6 8
In other people's home 22 19 10 12 9 5 3 11
At work 5 4 3 3 2 1 - 3
Outside buildings (e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals) 21 16 10 13 12 8 2 12
In cars/vans etc 9 1 1 1 2 0 - 2
In other public places 23 8 3 6 8 4 1 8
In own or other's home 36 22 12 16 18 11 8 17
In any public placeb 33 20 11 17 17 10 3 16
Not exposed to smoke in these placesc 44 64 77 70 68 79 89 70
All adults
In own home 15 7 5 6 11 6 7 8
In other people's home 23 17 10 11 7 5 2 11
At work 5 7 5 5 3 1 - 4
Outside buildings (e.g. pubs, shops, hospitals) 19 13 11 11 12 9 3 11
In cars/vans etc 6 1 3 2 1 0 - 2
In other public places 22 6 5 6 7 5 2 7
In own or other's home 34 21 14 14 16 10 8 17
In any public placeb 31 16 13 15 17 12 4 16
Not exposed to smoke in these placesc 44 65 72 72 70 79 87 70
Bases (weighted):
Men 242 268 260 307 265 207 160 1709
Women 234 272 303 344 276 233 237 1899
All adults 476 540 564 650 541 440 397 3608
Bases (unweighted):
Men 119 160 238 294 272 320 209 1612
Women 164 236 350 380 329 325 296 2080
All adults 283 396 588 674 601 645 505 3692
a Percentages add to more than 100% as the categories are not mutually exclusive
b Any public place defined as outside buildings, or other public places
c In own home, other people's homes, in cars/vans, outside buildings, at work, or in other public places

Tables 4.5 Children's exposure to second-hand smoke, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 0 - 15 2012
Exposure to second-hand smoke in own home Age Total
0-1 2-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 13-15
% % % % % % %
Boys
Whether anyone smokes in accommodation 9 23 18 23 21 17 19
Reported exposure to second-hand smoke in own home 3 9 8 17 17 13 12
Girls
Whether anyone smokes in accommodation 7 16 17 13 26 27 18
Reported exposure to second-hand smoke in own home 3 8 11 7 17 20 12
All children
Whether anyone smokes in accommodation 8 19 18 18 24 21 19
Reported exposure to second-hand smoke in own home 3 8 9 12 17 16 12
Bases (weighted):
Boys 111 125 171 164 165 178 914
Girls 113 123 162 148 178 149 873
All children 224 248 333 312 342 327 1787
Bases (unweighted):
Boys 115 119 169 159 151 166 879
Girls 123 132 171 159 169 154 908
All children 238 251 340 318 320 320 1787

Table 4.6 Smoking rules in household, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over 2012
Smoking rules in this house/flat Age Total 16+
0-15 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % % %
Males
People can smoke anywhere inside this house/flat 4 16 14 12 14 17 12 21 15
People can only smoke in certain areas or rooms inside this house/flat 16 13 12 14 16 16 12 13 14
People can only smoke in outdoor areas (e.g. gardens/balconies) 67 53 60 60 58 56 63 48 57
People cannot smoke indoors or in outdoor areas of this house/flat 14 18 14 13 12 11 14 18 14
Females
People can smoke anywhere inside this house/flat 3 11 5 7 11 15 14 18 11
People can only smoke in certain areas or rooms inside this house/flat 15 18 15 17 18 21 16 8 17
People can only smoke in outdoor areas (e.g. gardens/balconies) 70 58 67 66 59 55 57 55 60
People cannot smoke indoors or in outdoor areas of this house/flat 12 13 13 10 12 9 12 18 12
All
People can smoke anywhere inside this house/flat 4 14 10 10 12 16 13 19 13
People can only smoke in certain areas or rooms inside this house/flat 15 16 14 16 17 18 14 10 15
People can only smoke in outdoor areas (e.g. gardens/balconies) 68 55 64 63 58 55 60 53 59
People cannot smoke indoors or in outdoor areas of this house/flat 13 16 13 12 12 10 13 18 13
Bases (weighted):
Males 913 338 383 380 419 362 250 172 2305
Females 872 326 376 414 455 382 287 261 2502
All persons 1786 664 760 795 874 744 538 434 4807
Bases (unweighted):
Males 878 169 228 346 408 363 383 224 2121
Females 907 228 329 473 498 442 388 324 2682
All persons 1785 397 557 819 906 805 771 548 4803

Table 4.7 Quit attempts by smokers, and whether would like to quit smoking, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 18 and overa 2012
Number of quit attempts and whether would like to quit Age Total
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
Number of attempts
None [43] 33 19 12 10 19 * 22
One or two [32] 29 37 44 34 31 * 35
Three or more [25] 38 44 44 55 50 * 43
Would like to quit
Yes [63] 67 84 83 74 63 * 73
No [37] 33 16 17 26 37 * 27
Women
Number of attempts
None [41] 25 15 16 16 22 [26] 21
One or two [41] 42 41 40 36 37 [51] 40
Three or more [18] 32 44 44 48 41 [23] 39
Would like to quit
Yes [64] 77 83 81 69 55 [46] 73
No [36] 23 17 19 31 45 [54] 27
All adults
Number of attempts
None 42 30 17 14 13 20 [26] 21
One or two 36 35 39 42 35 35 [49] 38
Three or more 22 35 44 44 51 45 [25] 41
Would like to quit
Yes 64 71 84 82 72 59 [37] 73
No 36 29 16 18 28 41 [63] 27
Bases (weighted):
Men 66 115 120 113 97 44 13 568
Women 55 103 111 110 107 54 26 566
All adults 121 218 231 223 204 99 39 1135
Bases (unweighted):
Men 36 68 108 115 92 65 15 499
Women 40 92 124 118 114 63 30 581
All adults 76 160 232 233 206 128 45 1080
a These questions were not asked in the self-completion for adults aged 16-17.

Table 4.8 NRT use, 2012, by age and sex

Smokers and recent ex-smokers (<1 year) aged 18 and overa 2012
NRT use Age Total
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
NRT used in last 3 months
Nicotine gum * 7 13 11 20 10 * 11
Nicotine patches on skin * 22 25 27 30 27 * 24
Nasal spray/nicotine inhaler * 4 14 14 8 4 * 10
Lozenge/microtab * - 5 5 3 6 * 3
Champix/Varenicline * 6 5 8 4 10 * 5
Zyban/Bupropion * 0 - 2 5 - * 1
Other * 2 2 - - - * 1
Any NRT used * 30 42 46 43 36 * 38
Not used NRT * 70 58 54 57 64 * 62
Women
NRT used in last 3 months
Nicotine gum [8] 12 11 14 7 9 * 11
Nicotine patches on skin [35] 25 30 37 24 36 * 30
Nasal spray/nicotine inhaler [20] 7 13 13 7 4 * 10
Lozenge/microtab [-] 7 5 7 3 3 * 5
Champix/Varenicline [-] 5 8 11 6 3 * 6
Zyban/Bupropion [-] - 3 4 3 1 * 2
Other [-] 1 - 2 2 9 * 2
Any NRT used [47] 38 37 48 36 54 * 42
Not used NRT [53] 62 63 52 64 46 * 58
All adults
NRT used in last 3 months
Nicotine gum 5 9 12 12 13 10 [10] 11
Nicotine patches on skin 20 24 28 31 27 32 [28] 27
Nasal spray/nicotine inhaler 17 6 14 13 7 4 [4] 10
Lozenge/microtab 0 3 5 6 3 4 [2] 4
Champix/Varenicline - 5 6 9 5 6 [-] 6
Zyban/Bupropion - 0 1 3 4 1 [-] 2
Other - 2 1 1 1 5 [4] 2
Any NRT used 36 34 39 47 39 45 [32] 40
Not used NRT 64 66 61 53 61 55 [68] 60
Bases (weighted):
Men 48 92 104 111 91 39 12 497
Women 39 83 102 98 94 45 19 480
All adults 88 175 206 209 185 84 31 977
Bases (unweighted):
Men 26 53 98 109 86 56 13 441
Women 32 81 114 107 102 54 22 512
All adults 58 134 212 216 188 110 35 953
a These questions were not asked in the self-completion for adults aged 16-17.